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1512 yil may-mayda Kul-Malik jangi

1512 yil may-mayda Kul-Malik jangi

1512 yil may-mayda Kul-Malik jangi

Qul-i Malik jangi (1512 yil may) Boburning mag'lubiyati bo'lib, uni Samarqandni tark etishga majbur qildi va shu shaharni boshqargan uchinchi va oxirgi davrini tugatdi. Bobur 1511 yilda Samariya shahrini egallab olgan edi, 1510 yilda Marv jangida o'zbek bosqinchisi Shayboniyxonning forslar qo'lidan o'lishidan keyin paydo bo'lgan chalkashlikdan foydalanib, Shayboniy vafotidan keyin uning imperiyasi bo'ylab qo'zg'olon ko'tarildi. Bobur isyonchilarni qo'llab -quvvatlash va ota -bobolarining uyini qaytarib olish uchun aralashgan edi. Pul-Sangxinda o'zbek qo'shinini mag'lubiyatga uchratgandan so'ng, u ularni Boxoradan quvib chiqarib, 1511 yil oktyabrda Samarqandga g'alaba bilan kirdi.

Avvaliga Boburni ozod qiluvchi sifatida kutib olishdi, lekin uning g'alabasini din buzdi. Samarqandni zabt etish uchun u zo'ravon mutaassib shia Eron Shoh Ismoil bilan ittifoq tuzdi. Ittifoq shartlaridan biri (Bobur juda kichik sherik bo'lgan), Boburning Shoh e'tiqodini Samarqandning sunniy aholisiga yuklashi edi. Garchi Bobur yangi bo'ysunuvchilarni ta'qib qilmagan bo'lsa -da, uning shia libosi va urf -odatlarini omma oldida qabul qilishi katta huquqbuzarlikka sabab bo'ldi va shaharda uning qo'llab -quvvatlanishiga putur etkazdi. Bu ikkita asosiy natijaga olib keldi-1512 yilda o'zbeklar qaytganida Bobur yangi bo'ysunuvchilarini qo'shinini to'ldirishga chaqira olmadi va Kul-i Malikda mag'lubiyatga uchraganidan keyin Samarqandni qamal qilishda ularga tayanolmadi. .

Afsuski, jang tafsilotlari noma'lum. Bu Boburning shaxsiy xotiralaridagi bo'shliqlarning birida sodir bo'lgan, shuning uchun uning hisobi yo'q. The Tarix-i Rashidiy muallifning shialarga bo'lgan nafrati bilan, odatda, mukammal manbai bo'lgan Mirzo Muhammad Haydar haqidagi ma'lumotlar buzilgan. Boshqa har bir manbada Bobur soni juda ko'p bo'lsa -da, Haydar unga 40 ming, o'zbeklarga 3 ming beradi va o'zbeklarning g'alabasini ularning sunniy diniy e'tiqodlari bilan bog'laydi.

Kampaniya rejasi aniqroq. 1511 yildagi mag'lubiyatdan so'ng, o'zbek sultonlari o'zlariga bo'lgan ishonchni tikladilar. Bobur fors qo'shinlarini jo'natib yuborgan, lekin Samarqandda qo'llab -quvvatlanmagan. Uning kuchsizligini sezgan o'zbeklar yangi qo'shin to'plab, Boburning yangi mulklariga bostirib kirishadi. Asosiy qo'shin Toshkent tomon oldinga siljidi, Ubayd Xon qo'mondonligi ostida bir soniya Bo'xara tomon harakatlandi.

Bobur qo'shinining soni aniq emas. Oldingi favqulodda holatlarda u 300-500 sodiq jangchilarga tayanishi mumkin edi. Kul-malikda bunday bo'lmaydi va shiddatli jangdan so'ng Bobur mag'lubiyatga uchraydi. Bu jang, ehtimol, teng darajada muvozanatli bo'lgan, chunki Bobur xavfsiz tarzda Bo'xoraga kirishga muvaffaq bo'lgan, keyin u bu joyni ushlab tura olmasligi aniq bo'lganda, Samarqandga qochishga muvaffaq bo'lgan.

Tez orada Samarqandni tutib bo'lmasligi aniq bo'ldi. Bobur uchinchi va oxirgi marta Tamerlaning shahrini tashlab, Hisorga qochishga majbur bo'ldi. Uning qo'llab -quvvatlovchilari Toshkent va Sayramda bo'lishga harakat qilishdi, lekin oxir -oqibat ikkala joy ham o'zbeklarga o'tdi. Bobur fors qo'shini unga etib borishi uchun Hisorni etarlicha ushlab tura oldi, lekin bu qo'shin 1512 yil 12 noyabrda Gaj-davonda mag'lubiyatga uchraganidan keyin Bobur o'z afg'on podsholigiga qaytishga majbur bo'ldi.


Xristianlikni saqlashga yordam bergan 10 tarixiy jang

Xristianlik - tinchlik dini (boshqa Ibrohim dinlari kabi, Islom va Iudaizm kabi). Shunga qaramay, xristianlik Yangi Ahd va rsquos ta'limotlarini butunlay buzgan holda, uzoq va qonli urush tarixiga ega. Masih nomidan qilingan mudofaa harakatlari eng qiziq. Bu ro'yxatdagi janglar xristianlikni yaqin atrofda saqlab qolishga yordam bergan bo'lishi mumkin, lekin bu jangchilar boshqa yonog'ini burishganmi?


Tarkibi

Temuriylar sulolasining kelib chiqishi, mo'g'ullar imperiyasi asoschisi Chingizxon [2] [9] [10] ning asl mo'g'ul qo'shinining qoldiqlari bo'lgan Barlas nomi bilan mashhur mo'g'ul qabilasiga borib taqaladi. Mo'g'ullar O'rta Osiyoni bosib olgandan so'ng, barlaslar hozirgi Qozog'istonning janubida, Chimkentdan Taroz va Olmaotagacha joylashdilar, ular keyinchalik ma'lum bo'lgan. Mo'g'uliston -"Mo'g'ullar yurti" fors tilida-va mahalliy turkiy va turkiyzabon aholi bilan sezilarli darajada aralashgan, shuning uchun Temur hukmronligi davrida barlaslar til va odatlar nuqtai nazaridan to'liq turkiylashgan.

Bundan tashqari, Islomni qabul qilib, O'rta Osiyo turklari va mo'g'ullar islom ta'sirining ilk kunlaridan boshlab O'rta Osiyoda hukmronlik qilgan fors adabiy va yuksak madaniyatini [11] qabul qildilar. Temuriylar elitasining fors-islom saroy madaniyatiga singib ketishida fors adabiyoti muhim rol o'ynadi. [12]


Flodden jangi

1513 yil sentyabrda Angliya va Shotlandiya o'rtasidagi eng katta jang (qo'shinlar soni) bo'lib o'tdi. Jang Northumberlandda, Branxton qishlog'i tashqarisida bo'lib o'tdi, shuning uchun jangning muqobil nomi - Branxton jangi. Jang oldidan, shotlandlar Flodden chekkasida joylashgan edi, shuning uchun jang Flodden jangi deb nomlandi.

“Yo'g'iz sog'ayotganda, men liltingni eshitdim.
Lassies, tong otguncha va#8217 kun
Ammo hozir ular ilka yashil qarzga nola qilmoqdalar
O'rmon gullari - ”

Dool va buyurtmani kuting yoki yigitlar Chegaraga tae yubordi!
Inglizlar kun bo'yi hiyla ishlatib,
Flooers o ’ o'rmon, birinchi navbatda kurashgan,
G'urur ’ oor land loy ichida qozon ichida yotadi.

Men sog'ayotganimda, yovvoyi sog'ish paytida, eshitdim
Lassies, tong otguncha va#8217 kun
Ammo hozir ular ilka yashil qarzga nola qilmoqdalar
O'rmon gullari - bu “

— "O'rmon gullari" dan ko'chirma va#8221, Jan Elliot, 1756

Flodden jangi 1513 yil may oyida qirol Genrix VIII va Frantsiyaga bostirib kirgani uchun qasos edi. Bu hujum frantsuz qiroli Lui XIIni Angliyani bosib olishdan qaytarish uchun Frantsiya va Shotlandiya o'rtasidagi mudofaa ittifoqi shartlarini chaqirishga undadi. har qanday mamlakat, shartnoma bilan, agar biron bir mamlakat Angliya tomonidan bosib olinsa, boshqa davlat Angliyaga javoban hujum qiladi.

Angliya qiroli Genrix VIII (chapda) va Shotlandiya qiroli Jeyms IV

Frantsiya qiroli Angliyaning qarshi hujumiga yordam berish uchun qurol, tajribali sardorlar va pul yubordi. 1513 yil avgustda, qirol Genrix VIII Shotlandiya qiroli Jeyms IV ning Frantsiyadan chiqib ketish yoki Shotlandiya Angliyaga bostirib kirish haqidagi ultimatumini rad etgandan so'ng, taxminan 60,000 Shotlandiya qo'shinlari Tvid daryosidan Angliyaga o'tdilar.

Genrix VIII frantsuzlar Shotlandlarni Angliyaga bostirib kirishini rag'batlantirish uchun Auld Ittifoqidan foydalanishni kutgan edi va shuning uchun Frantsiyani bosib olish uchun faqat Angliya janubidan Midlendlar qo'shinlarini jalb qilgan edi. Bu Surrey grafligi (Shimolda general-leytenant) Tomas Xovardni inglizlarga chegaraning shimolidan bostirib kirishiga buyruq berdi. Surrey grafi Barnet va Bosvort faxriysi edi. Uning tajribasi bebaho bo'lib qoldi, chunki 70 yoshli bu odam Alnvikga borar ekan, Shimoliy okruglardan katta kontingentlarni assimilyatsiya qilib, shimolga yura boshladi. 1513 yil 4 -sentabrda Alnvikga etib kelganida, u 26 mingga yaqin odamni yig'di.

Surrey grafi Shotlandiya qiroli Jeyms o'z armiyasini 1513 yil 7 sentyabrda Flodden chekkasida joylashtirishni rejalashtirgani haqidagi xabarni eshitdi. Shotlandiya pozitsiyasi haqidagi xabarni eshitgan Surrey qirol Jeymsga yanada tekisroq maydonda jang qilishni so'radi. Ammo Surreys jozibasi quloqqa chalindi va qirol Jeyms rad etdi.

Jangdan bir kun oldin, Surrey o'z qo'shinini shimolga yura boshladi, shuning uchun 1513 yil 9 sentyabrda ertalab inglizlar shimoldan skotslarga yaqinlasha boshladilar. Bu shuni anglatadiki, King Jeyms Coldstream daryosi bo'ylab Tvid bo'ylab chekinish chizig'ini kesib o'tadi, agar u Flodden chekkasida qolsa, u skotslarni Flodden qirg'og'idan Branxton tepaligacha bir mil yurishga majbur qiladi. .

"Flodden jangi" ning natijasi asosan ishlatilgan qurollarni tanlash bilan bog'liq edi. Shotlandlar o'sha paytda kontinental uslubda rivojlangan edilar. Bu ketma -ket to'plangan to'plarning bir qatorini anglatardi. Shotlandiya qo'shinlari balandlikdan foydalanishning katta afzalligi uning qulashi bo'ldi, chunki tepaliklar va er oyoq ostida silliq bo'lib, yutuqlar va hujumlarni sekinlashtirdi. Afsuski, cho'chqa Flodden jangi bo'lmagan harakat janglarida eng samarali hisoblanadi.

Inglizlar ko'proq tanish qurolni tanladilar, qonun loyihasi (o'ngda ko'rsatilgan). Bu nayzaning to'xtash kuchiga va bolta kuchiga ega ekanligini isbotlab, jang maydonini va maydonini yoqtirdi.

O'rta asrlarda hisob -kitoblarning favoritlarini ishlatishning surreys uslubi va Shotlandiyaning Uyg'onish davri uslubiga qarshi frantsuz pikesi bilan ustunlik ko'rsatdi va Flodden pulning ustidan g'alaba qozondi!

Surrey Earl boshchiligidagi ingliz armiyasi Flodden jangida 1500 ga yaqin odamini yo'qotdi, lekin ingliz tarixiga hech qanday ta'sir ko'rsatmadi. 70 yoshli Surrey Earl Norfolk gersogi unvoniga sazovor bo'ldi va 80 va#8217 yillarda yashadi!

Shotlandlar uchun Flodden jangining oqibatlari ancha katta edi. Flodden mojarosida qancha Shotlandiya hayoti qurbon bo'lgani haqidagi ma'lumotlarning aksariyati, lekin taxmin qilinishicha, 10 000 dan 17 000 gacha erkaklar. Bu zodagonlarning katta qismini va fojiali tarzda uning qirolini o'z ichiga oladi. Shotlandiya qiroli Jeyms IV vafotidan keyin taxtga kichik bir zodagon ko'tarildi (afsuski, Shotlandiya tarixida tanish bo'lgan ertak), Shotlandiya xalqi uchun siyosiy beqarorlikning yangi davrini keltirib chiqardi.

Shotlandiyaliklar bugun ham Flodden jangini dahshatli ballada va kuylar bilan eslashadi “ "O'rmon gullari" va#8221. Floddendan 300 yil o'tgach yozilgan so'zlar halok bo'lgan skotsliklar xotirasiga bag'ishlangan.

Flodden Xotira. Tasvir Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 umumiy litsenziyasi ostida litsenziyalangan. Muallif: Stiven Makkay.


Almoravidlar davri (1031-1130)

Bu safar 1034 yilga kelib, Navar Sancho III (& quot; Buyuk Sancho & quot;) Aragon, Sobrarbe, Barselona, ​​shuningdek Asturiya, Le va oakuten va Kastiliyani o'z ichiga oldi va o'zini RexHispaniarum ("Ispaniya qiroli") deb e'lon qildi. U 1035 yilda vafot etdi va Le & oacuten Bermudo III Le & oacutenese tojini qaytarib oldi.Sanxo o'g'illari Navarrda Garsiya IV ning boshqa hududlarini meros qilib oldilar, shu jumladan Eski Kastiliya Ferdinand I ning yangi hududi, yangi Aragon qirolligida Kastiliya Ramiro I.

1063 yil bahoridagi Graus jangida Aragonlik Ramiro I Zaragozan hududida musulmon Grausni qamal qildi. Saragozalik amir al-Muqtadir o'z qo'shinini shimolga shahzoda Sancho (bo'lajak Sancho II) boshchiligidagi kastiliya kontingenti bilan olib boradi. Qarama -qarshi qo'shinlar uzoq davom etgan kurashdan so'ng uchrashdi Ramiro I o'ldirildi (1063 yil 8 may) va aragonlar qochib ketishdi. Rim papasi Aleksandr II Ispaniyaga o'zining monarxi Uilyam Montreuil boshchiligida xalqaro kuch yubordi. Bu kuchga italiyalik ritsarlar, normanlar (Robert Krespin, Quyi Normandiya baroni), akvitaniyaliklar (Uilyam, Poytoylar grafligi va Akvitaniya gersogi) va iberiyaliklar (Urgelning Vik graf Ermengol II episkopi) kirgan. Iyul oyi boshida ekspeditsiya Lerida musulmon qirolligida Barbastroni qamal qildi. 40 kundan keyin himoyachilar taslim bo'lishdi .. 50 mingga yaqin aholi nasroniylar tomonidan qirg'in qilindi yoki qullikka aylandi. Urgel grafi Ermengol II Aragonlik Sancho Ramires nomidan gubernator sifatida qoldirildi. Bir necha yil o'tgach, Kastiliya-Le-Oakutenda fuqarolar urushi boshlandi. 1065 yil aprelda Barbastroni qamal qilish uchun navbat 500 Seviliyalik ritsarlar yordami bilan Saragozalik amir al-Muqtadirga keldi. Urgel gubernatori graf Ermengol II jangda o'ldirildi va bir necha kundan keyin shahar qulab tushdi. Xristian garnizoni qilich bilan o'ldirildi, bu Papa Aleksandr II ning Evropadagi salib yurishining prototipini tugatdi.

Kross konfessional aleyanslar davom etdi. 1081 yilda-Rodrigo D & iacuteaz de Vivar (El Cid) Saragosa podshohi al-Mo'tamin xizmatiga kirdi va u erda o'z vorisi al-Mu'tamin II uchun qoladi. 1082 yil Almenar jangida Saragozadagi Al-Mutamin qo'shinini boshqargan El-Sid Valensiya (Al-Mundxir), Lerida (Al-Hayib), Arag va oacuten (Sancho Ram va iacuterez) shohlarining birlashgan qo'shinini mag'lub etdi. Barselona grafligi (Berenguer Ram va oacuten II).

Bu vaqtda frantsuz Proto franklari Iberiya yarim orolidagi salib yurishiga o'tdilar. (Xuddi shu oilalar keyinchalik Muqaddas er va Albigensiya salib yurishi uchun salibchilarni berishadi - Languedoc xalqiga qarshi urush.) Raymond Burgundiya, Uilyam I o'g'li, Burgundiya grafligi, Iberiyaga birinchi marta 1086 yilda kelgan. Moorlarga qarshi kurashish uchun, u bilan kenja amakivachchasi Burgundiya Genri, Robert I ning nabirasi, Burgundiya gersogi. 1092 yilda Toledo xristianlar qo'lida qolishi uchun Reconquista -ga o'tdi. Fath, yangi erlarga egalik qilish va hukmronlik qilish demakdir. Burgundiyalik Raymond va Burgundiyalik Genri shartnomaga imzo chekishdi, unga ko'ra Genri Toledo yoki Portugaliya qirolligini Kastiliya Alfonso VI vafotidan keyin Raymondni qirol deb tan olishga va'da bergan.

1094 yilda El -Sid Valensiyani Moorlardan tortib oldi va O'rta er dengizi bo'ylab o'z podshohligini o'yib topdi, u nominal ravishda Kastiliya Alfonso VI ga bo'ysunadi. Valensiya namunali davlat bo'lardi, xristianlar ham, musulmonlar ham u erda yashaydilar va armiyasida xizmat qilardilar.

XII asr boshlariga kelib, Moorish kuchlari yana shimolga yurishdi. 1112 yilga kelib ular Aragon hududiga bostirib kirishdi va tez orada Pireney etagiga etib kelishdi. 1115 yilda Sarabozaning yangi Murabitun gubernatori Abu Bakr ibn Ibrohim ibn Tifilvit Barselonani 20 kun qamal qildi. U graf Ramon Berengar III Mayorkadan qaytganida chekinadi. Uning floti Balear orollarini qamal qilish uchun uchib ketdi.

Endi to'lqin yana qaytdi. 1118 yilda Aragon I Alfonso Saragossani musulmonlardan oldi - bundan keyin xristianlar qo'lida qolishi uchun. 1120 yilda Alfonso Kutandada Murabitun qo'shinini qat'iyat bilan mag'lub etdi va keyingi yili aragonlar Kalatayudni egallab olishdi.


Kul-i Malik jangi, 1512 yil may-Tarix

Oxirgi postimda men Shri Krishna Deva Rayaning hokimiyat tepasiga ko'tarilishi va uning raqiblarini mag'lub etish orqali qanday mustahkamlanganligi haqida yozgan edim. Endi men Shri Krishna Deva Raya va Bahmani sultonlari o'rtasidagi ziddiyatlarga va uning hukmronligining eng yuqori suv belgisi bo'lgan Raichur jangiga qarayman.

Vijayanagara imperiyasi tarixining asosiy jihatlaridan biri Bahmani hukmdorlari bilan, birinchi navbatda, Raichur-Tungabhadra Doab mintaqasi bilan muntazam nizolar edi. Bu tez -tez oldinga va orqaga ketayotgan mojaro edi, ba'zida Vijayanagara hukmdorlari g'alaba qozonishgan, boshqa payt Bahmani Sultonlar. Bahmani sultonlari bilan tez -tez to'qnashuvlar nafaqat Doab hududining katta qismini vayron qildi, balki ulgurji qirg'in va ma'badlarni ham vayron qildi. Bahmaniylar imperiyasi hozirda Bijapur, Golkonda, Bidar, Berar va Ahmadnagarga bo'linib ketgan bo'lsada, bahmaniylarning yillik bosqini va talonchilik taktikasi davom etdi. Shri Krishnadeva Rayaning taxtga o'tirishda qilgan birinchi ishi bahmaniylar ishini muntazam ravishda o'lja va bosqinlarni to'xtatish edi. Bahmaniylarning Bijapur qo'shini bostirib kirganida, Bahmani Sultoni Yusuf Odilshohni ta'qib qilib, Diwani va Krishna Deva Raya janglarida hal qilindi. Ortga chekinayotgan Bijapur sultoni Yusuf Odil Shoh Kovilkonda mag'lubiyatga uchradi va o'ldirildi, bu Bijapur kuchlari uchun qattiq zarba bo'ldi. Bijapur yiqilgandan so'ng, Shri Krishna Deva Raya e'tiborini boshqa Bahmani podsholigiga qaratdi. Uning keyingi maqsadi Gulbarga edi, u erda Bahmani Sulton Mahmud Shoh ag'darilib, vaziri Qosim Barid tomonidan qamoqqa tashlandi. Krishnadeva Rayya Baridni mag'lub etdi, Mahmudshohni ozod qildi, taxtni unga tikladi va Bidarni ham qo'lga kiritdi.

Krishnadeva Rayaning boshqa asosiy raqobati Golkonda sultoni, Qutub Shohlar sulolasining asoschisi Quli Qutubshoh va uning zamondoshi bilan bo'lgan. Shri Krishnadeva Raya gajapatilarga qarshi kampaniyasi bilan shug'ullangan paytda, Quli Qutubshoh Warangal, Xammam, Rajahmundri qal'alarini egalladi va Machilipatnamgacha bo'lgan sohilning ko'p qismini bosib oldi. Ammo Shri Krishna Deva Raya va Bosh vazir Timmarasu Quli Qutub Shohni mag'lubiyatga uchratib, ko'p hududlarni qaytarib olishga muvaffaq bo'lishdi. 1512 yilga kelib, Shri Krishna Deva Raya Karnataka shimolidagi ko'p hududlarni nazorat qildi va Bahmani sultonlari, har yili bosqinchilik va talon -taroj qilish, ularning mag'lubiyatlari bilan yakunlandi.

Raychur jangi

Vijayanagara va Bijapur o'rtasidagi doimiy janglar davom etdi, natijada sulton Ismoil Odilshoh mag'lub bo'ldi. Biroq, Shri Krishna Deva Raya, bu doimiy janjalga barham berishni xohladi va diqqatini Tungabhadra-Krishna Doab mintaqasida joylashgan Raichur qal'asiga qaratdi. Raychur qal'asi miloddan avvalgi 1284 yilda Kakatiya hukmdori Rudra tomonidan qurilgan va keyinchalik Bahmaniylar va Vijayanagara hukmdorlari o'rtasida doimiy nizo manbai bo'lib kelgan. 2 asrdan ko'proq vaqt mobaynida Bahmaniylar va Vijayanagara hukmdorlari Raichur qal'asi uchun qonli janglarda qatnashdilar va mulk bir -biridan o'tib ketdi. Krishna Deva Rayaning maqsadi - mag'lubiyatli g'alaba, Bahman sultonlari boshqa hech qachon hujum qilmaydilar, Vijayanagara va doimiy janjallar tugaydi. Uning maqsadi Raichur ustidan nazoratni qo'lga kiritish va Bahmani Sultoni Ismoil Odilshohni butunlay mag'lub etish edi.

Missiyaning ko'lami aql bovar qilmas darajada edi, armiya oldidan 50 ming skaut joylashtirildi va ularning vazifasi ayg'oqchi sifatida harakat qilish va muntazam ma'lumot yuborish edi. Kamon bilan qurollangan 2000 chavandoz, 736,00 atrofida, 32600 ot va 55o fil bilan qurollangan. 30,000 piyoda askarlarni kuchlar qo'mondoni Pemmasani Ramalinga Nayaka boshchiligida, undan keyin 14 qurolli askarlar, otlar va fillar bor edi. Kamonchilar va mushketyorlarning paypoqli tunikalari, qilichli qalqonlari va tishlari pichoqli fillari bor edi. 20 ming kir yuvish mashinasi qo'shin bilan birga xizmatkorlar bilan birga, suv etkazib berish uchun charm sumkali 12 ming erkakni olib ketishdi. Bu hozirgacha yig'ilgan eng katta kuchlardan biri edi va barabanlar, karnaylar erni larzaga keltirdi. Qo'mondon Ramalinga Nayaka, Gandikota ustidan hukmronlik qilgan va Vijayanagara imperiyasiga sodiqlik bilan xizmat qilgan mashhur Pemmasani Nayakas urug'idan. Ramalinga Nayaka ilgari Bijapur shahrining Golkonda shahriga qarshi janglarda ajralib turardi va u Shri Krishnadeva Rayaning sevimli qo'mondoni edi, chunki bu vazifani bajargan.

Raichurga yaqinlashganda, Shri Krishnadeva Raya, qarorgoh qurdi va Ibrohim Odil Shohning kelishi haqidagi xabarni kutdi, bir muncha vaqt o'tgach, u Krishna daryosi bo'yida 140 minglik qo'shin bilan kelishi haqidagi xabarni oldi. Bijapur qo'shini daryoning qarama -qarshi qirg'og'ida, to'g'ridan -to'g'ri Vijayanagara armiyasi qarshisida qarorgoh qurdi va sahna jangga tayyor edi. 1520 yil 19 -maydagi ko'plab ma'lumotlarga ko'ra, jang karnay, baraban va urushning yig'i, barcha ovozlarni bo'g'ib tashlash va katta dinni yaratish bilan boshlandi. Dastlabki qadam Krishna Deva Raya tomonidan amalga oshirildi va shiddatli hujum Bahmani askarlarini xandaqlariga qaytarib yubordi. Biroq, Bijapur kuchlari to'plardan o'q otib, orqaga qaytishdi, bu Vijayanagara kuchlarida katta yo'qotishlarga olib keldi va ularni orqaga chekinishga majbur qildi. Uning kuchlari orqaga qaytayotganini ko'rib, Shri Krishna Deva Raya frontdan etakchilik qilishga qaror qildi va ikkinchi qatorni boshqarib, qo'shinlarni yig'di va qarshi hujum qildi. U barcha bo'linmalariga to'g'ridan -to'g'ri qarshi hujum uyushtirishni buyurdi va bu ta'sir ko'rsatdi, Bahmani kuchlarini tarqatib yubordi va ularni mag'lub etdi.

Krishna Deva Rayaning hujumi shunchalik g'azablangan ediki, Bijapur kuchlari o'z hayotlari uchun yugurishdi, butunlay tarqab ketishdi va u ularni daryoga qadar ta'qib qildi. Shri Krishna Deva Rayaning harbiy kampaniyalarining o'ziga xos xususiyatlaridan biri uning o'z hayotiga katta xavf tug'diradigan frontdan olib borishga moyilligi edi. Bu xuddi shu taktika edi, u bu erda ham Raychurda qabul qildi va Bijapur kuchlari eng yomon yo'ldan ketdi. Krishna daryosidan o'tib, Shri Krishnadeva Raya endi Sulton lageriga hujum qildi, unga sodiq qo'riqchisi Asada Xon yordam berib, qochishga muvaffaq bo'ldi. Bijapur kuchlarining ko'pchiligi, Salabatxon boshchiligidagi kichik kontingent qochib ketgan bo'lsa -da, sulton generali orqada qolib, oxirigacha jasur kurash olib bordi. Bu behuda edi, chunki ko'p sonli kontingent Vijayanagara kuchlari tomonidan yo'q qilindi va Salabxatxonning o'zi asirga olindi. Bijapur qo'shini mag'lubiyatga uchragach, endi Raichur qal'asini egallash oson kechdi va Krishna Deva Raya g'alaba qozongan tarzda qal'a tomon yurdi. Unga, shuningdek, Christovao de Figueiredo boshchiligidagi portugaliyaliklar yordam berishdi, u o'z o'qotarlari bilan himoyachilarni devordan osongina olib tashlashga yordam berdi va tez orada Raychur yiqildi. Bu erda portugallar bilan taktik ittifoq ishlagan.

Bu Ismoil Odilshoh uchun mag'lubiyat edi, u keyingi fathlar rejalaridan voz kechdi va buning o'rniga boshqa Bahmani hukmdorlari bilan ittifoq tuzishga e'tibor qaratdi. Vichayanagara imperiyasining eng yuqori cho'qqisi bo'lgan Raichurdagi g'alaba, qaysidir ma'noda la'nat edi. Vijayanagara hukmdorlari mag'rur va o'ziga ishongan bo'lib qolishdi va Shri Krishna Deva Rayaning g'alabadan keyin bahmaniylarni kamsitishi dushmanlikni yanada kuchaytirdi. Bahmaniylar faqat birlashib, Vijayanagarani qo'lga kiritishlarini tushunishdi va ular orasidagi ittifoqni mustahkamlash ustida ishladilar. Shri Krishna Deva Rayaning hukmronligi ostida, bahmaniylar hamma joyda eng katta mag'lubiyatga uchrashdi va bir muncha vaqt shohliklarning hech biri unga qarshi chiqishga jur'at eta olmadi.


Uttar -Pradesh shtatining Baluch shahri

Bu postda men muhim, lekin kam muhokama qilinadigan jamoani ko'rib chiqaman Uttar -Pradesh shtatining Baluch shahri. Baluj musulmonlar jamoasidir va Hindistondagi Baluch diasporasining bir qismi hisoblanadi. Ular Shimoliy Hindistonning bu mintaqasida o'rta asrlarning oxiridan boshlab joylashib kelgan Baluj qabilalaridan kelib chiqqan. Jamiyat Xon familiyasini ishlatadi va ko'pincha Xan Baluj nomi bilan mashhur.

Tarix va kelib chiqishi

Balujlar o'zlarining tarixiy hukmdorlaridan biri bo'lgan Mir Jalolxondan va uning to'rt o'g'li - Rind, Lashari, Xut va Koraydan yaxshi xulq -atvor topadilar. To'rtta asosiy baloch qabilalari o'zlarining kelib chiqishlarini shu o'g'illardan kuzatadilar, jatoylar esa Jalo Xon va Jatoning farzandlari. Bu asosiy bo'limlar endi son -sanoqsiz bo'laklarga bo'lingan. Tarixiy jihatdan Uttar-Pradesh va Xaryanada Baluj atamasi har qanday musulmon tuya odamini bildirgan. Bu so'z tuyalarni parvarish qilish bilan bog'liq bo'lib kelgan, chunki G'arbiy tekisliklarda yashovchi balujlar tuya boqish emas, balki boqish va ko'paytirish bilan shug'ullanishgan.

XVII asr o'rtalarida braxiylar, turklar yordamida, 30 yil davom etgan Rind-Lashari urushidan keyin Balochlarning zaifligidan foydalanib, ularni Kalat vodiysidan quvib chiqarishdi. Bosimga berilib, ular sharqqa qarab Sulaymon tog'lariga ko'chib, pushtunlarni quvib chiqarib, Hind qirg'og'iga joylashdilar. Uch Baluj sarguzashtlari Ismoil Xon, Fattoxon va G'oziy Xon o'z nomlari bilan atalgan uchta Dehrani (qarorgoh) tashkil etishdi. va ular o'zlarini va ularning avlodlari qariyb 300 yil davomida ushlab turgan Quyi Derajat va Muzaffargarxning mustaqil hukmdorlari sifatida o'zlarini ko'rsatdilar. Uch aka -uka Dera G'ozi Xon, Dera Ismoilxon va Daryo Xon aholi punktlariga asos solishdi. U erdan janubiy balochlar asta -sekin Indus, Chenab va Sutlej vodiylariga tarqaldi va 1555 yilda ularning buyuk sardori Mir Chakar boshchiligidagi Balujiylarning katta jasadi imperator Humoyun bilan birga Hindistonga yo'l oldi. Ehtimol, Shimoliy Hindistondagi (Xaryana va Uttar -Pradeshning g'arbiy) ko'plab Baluj aholi punktlari Humayun askarlari tomonidan tashkil etilgan.

Uttar -Pradeshda Balujning ikkita guruhi bor: Shamli va Muzaffarnagarda, ikkinchi guruh - Bulandshahrda. Shimoliy Hindistonning Balujlari endi Balujistonning Baluj qabilalaridan butunlay ajralib ketgan va qabilalar bo'linishi endi muhim emas. Ular Meerut, Muzaffarnagar / Shamli, Bulandshahr va Aligarx tumanlarida uchraydi. Ularning urf -odatlari qo'shni Jat va Rangxar kabi musulmon jamoalariga o'xshaydi. Balujlar musulmonlarning aralash qishloqlarida yashaydilar, ular o'z kvartiralarini egallaydilar va asosan kichik va o'rta dehqonlar bo'lib, oz qismi ersiz qishloq xo'jaligi ishchilari edi. Ularning eng muhim aholi punktlari Muzaffarnagar tumanidagi Bag'ra shahri va uning atrofidagi bir necha qishloqlarda joylashgan. Baluj qishloqlarining ikkinchi klasteri Bulandshahr tumanida mavjud, u erda Jajar va Chanderu shaharlari yaqinida bir necha qishloqlar bor. Bundan tashqari, G'oziyobod tumanidagi Faridnagar shahri ham Balujning muhim koloniyasi hisoblanadi.

Balujlar deyarli sunniy Hanafiy musulmonlari va boshqa Doab musulmon jamoalari singari Deobandi islohotchilik harakati ta'sirida bo'lgan. Ularda rasmiy jamoat birlashmasi yo'q, garchi Balujli qishloqlarning ko'pchiligida an'anaviy uyushmalar mavjud, ular panchayatlar deb nomlanadi. Bu panchayatlar ijtimoiy nazoratni amalga oshiradi va jamiyat ichidagi nizolarni hal qiladi.

1901 yil Hindiston aholini ro'yxatga olish, Baluj aholisi taqsimotini ko'rsatdi

TumanAholi
Bulandshahr2,011
Meerut1,568
Saharanpur277
Muzaffarnagar113
Ha47
Bijnor29
Boshqa tumanlar233
Jami4,278

Balujlarni hisoblagan oxirgi aholini ro'yxatga olish 1901 yil bo'lib, bu ularning umumiy aholisining yarmi Bulandshahrda to'planganligini ko'rsatdi.

Bulandshahrlik Baluj

Bulandshahrda balujlar ikkita mustaqil davlatga - Chanderu va Jajar davlatlariga asos soldi. "Bulandshar gazetasi" ning muallifi Atkinson Baluj haqida shunday fikr bildirgan:

Shuningdek, 2011 kishini tashkil etuvchi balujlarni ham eslatib o'tish kerak, bu viloyatlarning boshqa tumanlaridan ko'pdir. Ular bu tumanda juda ko'p erlarga ega va ularning asosiy aholi punktlari Jajar va Chanderu shaharlarida joylashgan. Ular Mug'al imperatorlarining birinchi davrida kelgan va katta ta'sir va mavqega ega odamlardir.

Bulandshahr tuman gazetasi 1909 yil

20 -asrning boshlarida balujlar sakkizta qishloq va 11 ta ulushga egalik qilishgan, bu ularning oldingi mulklaridan qolgan. Eng taniqli ikkita oila Chanderu va Jajar oilalari edi. Baluj qishloqlarining aksariyati Dankaur viloyatida joylashgan.

Chanderu shtati

Chanderu - Bulandshahrdan 6 km shimoli -g'arbda joylashgan qishloq. Chanderu davlatining asoschilari Allauddin Xilji davrida Dehliga kelib, Dekkan hokimi etib tayinlangan, hozirgi Afg'oniston, Hirot shahrining Naxorxonidan bo'lgan. Naxorxon Karaxa qabilasiga mansub edi. O'limidan keyin uning o'g'li Narvarxon va Neri Xon Hirotga qaytishdi, lekin Narvarxon avlodidan bo'lgan Sardorxon Aurangzeb davrida yana Dehliga keldi va Narnol bilan Yahudiy o'rtasidagi mamlakat hokimi bo'ldi. U Agauta shahri yaqinidagi Ganaura Shayx qishlog'iga joylashdi. Uning o'g'li Namdarxon Bulandshahrni egallab olgan Mahrattalar tomonidan Agauta amili etib tayinlangan. 1800 yilda inglizlar Namdar Xon kelishi bilan u sodiqlikni o'zgartirdi. U Lord Leykdan Nosir-ud-daula Firoz Jang unvoni bilan Chanderu jagirini oldi. Keyin u bir nechta qishloqlarni sotib oldi va ularni oltita o'g'liga topshirdi, ulardan eng kattasi Inayatullohxon edi. Chanderu navoblari Inyatullohxon oilasidan chiqqan. Hamma jagirlar singari, 1947 yilda mustaqillikka erishgandan so'ng, ular o'chirildi.

Jajjhar shtati

Aytishlaricha, Jajjarlar oilasi Mo'g'ul imperatori Humoyun bilan Hindistonga kelgan va xo'jayinidan jagir va G'olib Jang unvonini olgan Sayid Muhammad Xon tomonidan asos solingan. Aytishlaricha, Sayid Muhammad Sindagi Rohri shahridan kelib chiqqan va Samoja qabilasiga mansub bo'lgan. U 95 yoshida vafot etdi va 20 o'g'il qoldirdi, ulardan Navab Ajmeri Xon va Navib Rahimdodxon mashhurlikka erishdilar.

Ulardan biridan hukmron Jajar oilasi kelib chiqqan. Sayad Muhammad Xon avlodidan to'qqizinchisi G'ulom Gaus Xon edi, uni inglizlar jagirni tasdiqlagan. Aytishlaricha, Sayad Muhammadxon Sinddagi Rohri shahridan Xumoyunga hamrohlik qilgan va Akbar davrida o'zini harbiy ofitser sifatida ko'rsatgan va oxirgi imperatordan G'olib Jang unvonini olgan. Uning yigirma ikki o'g'lidan bir nechtasi yangi qishloqlarga asos solgan va ularning avlodlari asosan mahallada tarqalgan. Jajar 1857 yilgi urushdan oldin Britaniya armiyasidagi Baluj kastasining bir necha yuz askarining uyi edi. Natijada, oila erdan ayrildi va Jajar mulki uchta qishloqqa aylandi.

Boshqa Bulandshahr Baluch

Yana ikkita taniqli Baluj oilasi Tajpur qishlog'idan edi. Tajpuri Baloch, shuningdek, Alandin Xalji hukmronligi davrida Seistandan kelganligi aytilgan Chanderu Baluchning ajdodi Naxor Xondan kelib chiqqan. Keyinchalik Naxor Xon Dekkan gubernatori etib tayinlandi va uning o'g'li Sardorxon Ganaura Shayxda aholi punktiga asos soldi va Aurangzeb hukmronligi davrida oila bir qancha mashhurlikka erishdi. Tajpuri Baluch haqiqatan ham Chanderu Balochning filialidir. Tufayil Ahmad Xon Baluj 1947 yilda Hindiston bo'linib ketganidan keyin Hindistondan Pokistonga hijrat qilgan. U Hindistondan boshqa ko'plab musulmon qochqinlarga Pokistonga joylashishida yordam bergan. Hozirgi kunda ko'plab Tajpuri Balochlari Karachi, Haydarobod, Lahor, Islomobod va Pokistonning turli joylarida joylashadilar.

Muzaffarnagar tumanidagi Baluch

Muzaffarnagarda balujlar Avrangzeb hukmronligi davrida Makrandan kelgan deb da'vo qilishadi. Asosiy turar joy Baghra edi, lekin Shamli yaqinida bir necha qishloqlar bor edi. Muzaffarnagardagi eng muhim baluj koloniyalari Amirnagar, G'oziyobod, Garhi Abdulla Xon (Kachhi Garxi), Garhi Puxta (Pakki Garxi), Lohari, Jasoy va Bag'ra koloniyalaridir. Bu qishloqlarning hammasi Mug'al imperatori Aurangzeb tomonidan to'rt birodar Sherxon, Amirxon, Bayramxon, Hoshimxon va ularning singlisi va eri Abdulloh Xonga mukofotlangan. Bag'ra Balujlari inglizlar tomonidan bosib olinishidan oldin 18 -asr davomida mavjud bo'lgan knyazlikning mahalliy hukmdorlari edi.

Boshqa Baluch aholi punktlari

1901 yilgi aholini ro'yxatga olish ko'rsatganidek, Meerut tumanida 1568 aholi istiqomat qilgan, bu shahar UPda ikkinchi eng katta baluj aholisi bo'lgan. Balujlarning katta qismi Bagpat teksilidan topilgan, hozir u alohida tuman. Birgina Bilochpura qishlog'ida hozir taxminan 8000 balochilar istiqomat qiladi. Their ancestors were employed as artillerymen in the army of Mughal Indian emperor Babur during the time of the First Battle of Panipat in 1526. After the battle, most decided to remain in the area, which was named after their homeland. There are two other Baluch villages near Sardhana in Meerut District. There is also a large Baluch presence in the town of Faridnagar.

In Saharanpur District, the village Khanpura, located near the town of Nakur, is home to an important Baluch settlement. These Baluch are also said to have been soldiers in the Mughal army, who remained in India.

The Baluch of Balochgarhi in Lucknow District considers themselves simply as a sub-group of the Pathan, with whom they intermarry. They speak the Awadhi dialect, as well as standard Urdu. The community are mainly small and medium-sized farmers, although historically many were employed by the state police. They have no connection with the Baloch of the Doab.


Battle of Kul-i-Malik, May 1512 - History

Battle of the Atlantic Statistics

Statistics re Allied losses of men and ships in the Battle of the Atlantic vary widely. We include data from various sources below.


Hughes, Terry and Costello, John. The Battle of the Atlantic , New York: Dial Press,1977

The Atlantic war was over. It had been costly to the Allies. No fewer than 2,603 merchant ships had been sunk, totalling over 13. 5 million tons, as well as 175 Allied Naval vessels. . . . On the Allied side 30,248 merchant seamen died, as were as thousands of men from the Royal Navy and RAF.

It was the one campaign of the Second World War that lasted from the first day to the last.

Casualties to Personnel of British merchant Ships 1939-1945

*Crew includes D. E. M. S. -- British gunners equivalent of U. S. Naval Armed Guard

Yil Ships lost
by U-boat
Ships lost all enemy causes No. of Crew*
Lost by u-boat
No. of Crew*
Lost all causes
1939 50 95 260 495
1940 225 511 3,375 5,622
1941 288 568 5,632 7,838
1942 452 590 8,413 9,736
1943 203 266 3,826 4,606
1944 67 102 1,163 1,512
1945 30 45 229 323
Jami 1,315 2,177 22,898 30,132

Albion, Robert Greenhalgh and Pope, Jennie Barnes. Sea Lanes in Wartime - The American Experience 1775-1945 , 2nd edition, Archon Books, 1968

Yil Total Allied Sinkings North Atlantic Sinkings
1939 221 212
1940 1,059 999
1941 1,299 846
1942 1,664 1,097
1943 597 309
1944 205 108
1945 105 92
Jami 5,150 3,663

Terraine, John. Business in Great Waters: The U-Boat Wars, 1916-1945, London: Leo Cooper, 1989

Yil Total Allied Sinkings North Atlantic Sinkings
1939 221 19
1940 1,059 349
1941 1,299 496
1942 1,662 1,066
1943 597 285
1944 205 31
1945 97 19
Jami 5,140 2,265

Miller, Nathan. War at Sea - A Naval History of World War II , New York: Scribner, 1995

1939 222 114 1940 1,059 471 1941 1,299 432 1942 1,664 1,160 1943 597 377 1944 205 132 1945 105 56 Jami 5,151 2,742

Hitler's U-Boat War: The Hunters, 1939-1942 , Clay Blair, New York: Random House, 1996

Hitler's U-Boat War: The Hunted. 1942-1945 , Clay Blair, New York: Random House, 1998

British Merchant Navy at War 1939-1945

http://www.british-merchant-navy.co.uk/

Often sailing on out dated and sometimes barely seaworthy ships, these men although civilians were at the forefront of the biggest survival battle Britain has ever seen. Men who if lucky enough to survive a sinking had their pay stopped before their ship settled to it's final resting place. Men who after enduring the reality and fear of the U-boats, mines, air attacks, E-boats, and the might of the German naval fleet, not to mention the the perils of the sea itself, were looked upon with distaste by people at home, simply because they wore no official uniform which would identify them with any of the armed services.

Ustida 30,000 men of the British Merchant Navy were lost between 1939-1945. To the Merchant sailors there was no phony war the people of Britain lived through in the early days of WWII. On September 3rd 1939, a few hours after war had been declared against Germany the first shipping casualty occurred in the sinking of the Donaldson Line passenger ship Athenia with the loss of 112 passengers and crew. For almost six years there was barely a day went by without the loss of merchant ships and their crews.

Keegan, John. The Second World War, New York: Penguin Books, 1989

The 30,000 men of the British Merchant Navy (one-fifth of its pre-war strength) who fell victim to the U-boats between 1939 and 1945, the majority drowned or killed by exposure on the cruel North Atlantic sea, were quite as certainly front-line warriors as the guardsmen and fighter pilots to whom they ferried the necessities of combat. Neither they nor their American, Dutch, Norwegian or Greek fellow mariners wore uniform and few have any memorial. They stood nevertheless between the Wehrmacht and the domination of the world.

Allied Merchant Ship Losses 1939 to 1943 Press Release, Office of War Information, Nov. 28, 1944


Nawabs of Janjira and Sachin were African slaves

First of its kind exhibition in New York explores the mark African slaves left in India’s history.

NEW YORK: Till this day, the descendants of the Nawabs of Janjira, and the people of the town — once a principality near Mumbai — and in the neighboring state of Gujarat, in Sachin, another erstwhile principality, where the tradition of the Nawabs and their regal customs of old still thrive, revere the Sufi saint Bava Gor, who became the patron saint of the agate bead industry and is credited with increasing the trade of quartz stone between East Africa, the Persian Gulf, and India during the 14 th century.

Ikhlas Khan and Sultan Muhammad Adil Shah, mid 17th century. (From the collection of Sir
Howard Hodgkin, London.) Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford. Photo: Courtesy of Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture.

There is an integral connection between the Nawabs of the two states, their descendants and the Sufi saint, for over 600 years: they all have African roots in them.

For the first time ever, to highlight the extraordinary achievement of African slaves in India who made their mark in history, the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, in Manhattan, is presenting an exhibition, “Africans in India: From Slaves to Generals and Rulers,” starting from February 1, through July 6th of this year.

The Schomburg Center is a research wing of The New York Public Library.

Dr. Sylviane A. Diouf, historian and curator of Digital Collections at the Schomburg, and Dr. Kenneth X. Robbins, collector and co-editor of African Elites in India: Habshi Amarat, have co-curated Africans in India — a visually rich testament to the wide reaches of the African Diaspora.

The exhibition retraces the lives and achievements of a few of the many talented and prominent Africans in India. Since the 1400s, people from East Africa, from Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, and adjoining areas, have greatly distinguished themselves in India. They have written a story unparalleled in the rest of the world – that of enslaved Africans attaining the pinnacle of military and political authority. From Bengal in the northeast to Gujarat in the west and to the Deccan in Central India, these men and women known as Sidis and Habshis vigorously asserted themselves in the country of their enslavement.

“It is the only case in history, that slaves from East African went to another continent and reached a high position in society,” said Diouf, in an interview to The American Bazaar.

“The success was theirs but it is also a strong testimony to the open-mindedness of a society in which they were a small religious and ethnic minority, originally of low status,” says Diouf. “As foreigners and Muslims, Africans ruled over indigenous Hindu, Muslim and Jewish populations.”

The exhibition itself comprises of large panels on each one of them are several images, comprising of contemporary photos, of monuments that the Africans built in India, and of Indian paintings of African rulers and officials, from private collections around the world, and from museums in India, England and the US. Diouf started compiling the objects and materials for the exhibition almost a year ago.

Nawab Sidi Ahmad Khan of Janjira (From the Kenneth and Joyce Robbins Collection) The African nawabs (princes) of Janjira also ruled over Jafarabad in Gujarat. Photo: Courtesy of Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture.

Besides appearing in written documents, the Africans have been immortalized in the rich paintings of different eras, states, and styles that form an important component of Indian culture. Because of their high positions, they were captured in vivid and exquisite portraits as principal subjects or in the immediate vicinity of non-African rulers. Africans in India features dramatically stunning photographic reproductions of some of these paintings.

As rulers, city planners, and architects the Sidis have left an impressive historical and architectural legacy that attest to their determination, skills, and intellectual, cultural, military and political savvy. The imposing forts, mosques, mausoleums, and other edifices they built – some more than 500 years ago – still grace the Indian landscape. From humble beginnings, some Africans carved out princely states complete with their own coats of arms, armies, mints, and stamps. They fiercely defended them from powerful enemies well into the 20th century when, with another 600 princely states, they were integrated into the Indian state.

Janjira is especially considered one of the best specimens of naval fort architecture. Well-conceived and well-defended, it was never conquered, though attacked dozens of times. The Sidi dynasty ruled over the island for 330 years. According to one account, the first conqueror of the island, in 1489, was an Ethiopian. Another Ethiopian, Sidi Yaqut Khan, is said to have been appointed officer in charge of the mainland in the late 1400s. The three-mile island of Janjira is entirely surrounded by a formidable fortress of 22 rounded bastions whose walls are 80-feet high

Janjira and Sachin have a close connection in history: after renouncing his rights to the throne of Janjira, Sidi Mohammad Abdul Karim Khan established the Sachin State in Gujarat in 1791. He was given the title of nawab and founded a dynasty that ruled over a mostly Hindu population. Sachin had its own cavalry and state band that included Africans, its coats of arms, currency, and stamped paper. In 1948, when the princely states were incorporated into India and ceased to exist, Sachin had a population of 26,000, with 85 percent Hindus and 13 percent Muslims.

The successive Nawabs of Janjira and Sachin were educated in the best schools reserved for royal and noble families. Some went on to finish their studies at Oxford, Cambridge, and Sandhurst Military Academy in Great Britain. Ibrahim Khan III, the sixth Nawab of Sachin from 1887 to 1930, illustrated himself during World War I. He was promoted to Major, received the British title “His Highness,” and the distinction of being saluted by 11 guns.

The first Africans who reached India in the modern era were not captives but merchants. Commerce between East Africa and India goes back more than 2,000 years. The kingdom of Axum in Ethiopia had established a very active commerce with India and Axumite gold coins minted between 320 and 333 found their way to Mangalore in South India where they were discovered in the 20th century.

Ivory, silver, gold, wine, olive oil, incense, wheat, rice, cotton cloth, silk, iron, copper, skins, salt, and sesame oil were some of the main items traded on both sides of the Indian Ocean and on to China. Axum was also involved in the slave trade.

Trade between East Africa and India was boosted with the spread of Islam. Indian Muslims from Gujarat migrated to African trading towns in Kenya, Zanzibar and the Comoros Islands where they worked with African and Arab merchants. While African traders traveled to and from India, some settled.

In the 1300s, Moroccan traveler Ibn Battuta met Ethiopian merchants in what are now India, Sri Lanka, and Malaysia. The most famous African trader was Bava Gor, who was also called Sidi Mubarak Nob, and made Ratanpur in Gujarat his home.

Tomb of Malik Ambar in Khuldabad photo by Klaus Rotzer

Amongst the most notable African rulers in India of the period were the Sharqi Sultans of Jaunpur (1394-1479 – the first or all the Sharqui sultans may have been Africans) Habshi Sultans of Bengal (1486-1493) Nawabs of Janjira (1618-1948) Sidi Masud of Adoni (17th century) and Nawabs of Sachin (1791-1948).

According to Diouf, one of the reasons why the African slaves managed to etch their mark in India was because they were good soldiers, whom the Indian rulers trusted for their prowess and loyalty.

“The Africans were renowned as good soldiers,” she said, “The rulers probably thought them to be trustworthy and to be used in frontier areas of battle, where they had no link to other clans and other families of the rulers. They were subsequently put in position of authority, and took power for themselves.”

High-ranking Africans were prominent in Bahmani Sultanate (1347-1518) Ahmadnagar (1496-1636) Bijapur (1490-1686) Golconda (1512-1687) Khandesh (1382-1600) Gujarat (1407-1572) Kutch (1500-1948) Bhavnagar (1660-1948) and Hyderabad (1724-1948).

One of the most famous high-ranking officials was Ikhlas Khan, an Ethiopian slave, who from the 1580s onward, was in charge of administration, commander-in chief and minister of finances under Sultan Ibrahim Adil Shah II and his son and successor, Muhammad Adil Shah of Bijapur. He was the real master of Bijapur and appears in numerous paintings.

Another notable personality was Sidi Masud, an African vizier of Bijapur. He served three sultans until 1683. He lived in the city of Adoni and was essentially an independent ruler.

The most celebrated of the Ethiopianpowerful leaderswas Malik Ambar (1548-1626). Born Chapu in Kambata, in Ethiopia, he was enslaved as a young man and taken to Mocha in Yemen. He was later sent to Arabia where he was educated in finance before being brought to Baghdad, Iraq. Converted to Islam, Chapu was renamed Ambar. He was later sold to India where he arrived in the early 1570s. He became a slave of Chengiz Khan (believed to have been an Ethiopian and a former slave), the prime minister of the sultanate of Ahmadnagar.

Freed upon Chengiz Khan’s death in 1575, Ambar left Ahmadnagar to become a commander in Bijapur where he was granted the title Malik. In 1595, he went back to Ahmadnagar, putting himself and his army in the service of another Ethiopian, Abhang Khan. By the turn of the 17th century, Malik Ambar had an army of 10,000 African cavalry and infantrymen. In 1600, he married his daughter to a 20-year old prince, installed him as sultan, and ruled in his place as regent and prime minister.

“It’s an incredible story, and a story that has not received enough attention. Slavery is never good, but this is a great story. A unique one,” said Diouf of the mark the African slaves left on Indian history.


Two years later, he declared in a Constitution:

That horrible crime, on account of which corrupt and obscene cities were destroyed by fire through divine condemnation, causes us most bitter sorrow and shocks our mind, impelling us to repress such a crime with the greatest possible zeal.

Quite opportunely the Fifth Lateran Council [1512-1517] issued this decree: “Let any member of the clergy caught in that vice against nature, given that the wrath of God falls over the sons of perfidy, be removed from the clerical order or forced to do penance in a monastery” (chap. 4, X, V, 31).

So that the contagion of such a grave offense may not advance with greater audacity by taking advantage of impunity, which is the greatest incitement to sin, and so as to more severely punish the clerics who are guilty of this nefarious crime and who are not frightened by the death of their souls, we determine that they should be handed over to the severity of the secular authority, which enforces civil law.

Therefore, wishing to pursue with greater rigor than we have exerted since the beginning of our pontificate, we establish that any priest or member of the clergy, either secular or regular, who commits such an execrable crime, by force of the present law be deprived of every clerical privilege, of every post, dignity and ecclesiastical benefit, and having been degraded by an ecclesiastical judge, let him be immediately delivered to the secular authority to be put to death, as mandated by law as the fitting punishment for laymen who have sunk into this abyss.” (Constitution Horrendum illud scelus, August 30, 1568, in Bullarium Romanum, Rome: Typographia Reverendae Camerae Apostolicae, Mainardi, 1738, chap. 3, p. 33)

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Videoni tomosha qiling: 22 сентября 2021 г. (Yanvar 2022).

Yil Allied and neutral sunk by German and Italian Submarine
1939 Sept-Dec 147
1940 520
1941 457
1942 1,155
1943 452
1944 125
1945 63
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