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Bell X -1 tovush to'sig'ini buzadi - tarix

Bell X -1 tovush to'sig'ini buzadi - tarix

(14/10/47) amerikalik sinovchi uchuvchi kapitan Charlz Yaeger 14-oktabr kuni ovoz to'sig'ini sindirdi. U maxsus o'zgartirilgan B-29 samolyotidan tushirilgan Bell X-1 sinov samolyotini uchirdi. Yaeger soatiga 670 mil tezlikka erishdi, 42000 fut balandlikda.

Qo'ng'iroq X-1

Bell X-1 ovoz to'sig'ini buzgan birinchi samolyot edi.

X-1 Smitson ko'rgazmasida

Ikkinchi Jahon Urushining oxiriga kelib, pistonli dvigatel qiruvchi o'z ishining chegarasiga yaqinlashdi. Reaktiv dvigatel ishga tushganda, bu tezroq jangchilarga imkon beradi deb umid qilgandilar, lekin tez orada fizikaning oddiy qonunlari o'tib bo'lmaydigan to'siq bo'lib tuyuldi.

Muammo "siqilish" deb nomlandi. Samolyot osmon bo'ylab harakatlanayotganda, oldidagi havo molekulalarini itarib yuboradi, bu esa uni sekinlashtiradi. Aerodinamik konstruktsiyalar samolyotni havodan samarali o'tishiga imkon berish uchun mo'ljallangan, lekin 1945 yilga kelib qiruvchi samolyotlar shu qadar tez harakat qiladiki, bu ham etarli emas edi: havo molekulalari yo'ldan tez chiqib keta olmasdi. Bu, o'z navbatida, samolyotning burun va etakchi qirralari bo'ylab havo to'planishiga olib keldi, u qanchalik tez harakatlansa, shunchalik qalin va zichroq bo'la boshladi. Bu siqilgan havo qatlami aileron kabi boshqaruv yuzalariga to'sqinlik qildi, shuningdek, samolyotni parchalab yuboradigan zarba to'lqinlarini keltirib chiqardi, ayniqsa, qanotning yuqori qismidagi havo oqimi qanotning pastki qismidagi havodan tezroq bo'lganda. tovushdan yuqori. Va bu kuchlarning hammasi tovush tezligiga to'g'ri keldi. U "tovush to'sig'i" deb nomlandi.

Agar reaktiv qiruvchilar tezlikni oshirishda davom etishsa, bu to'siqdan o'tishning qandaydir yo'lini topish kerak edi. Shamol tunneli sinovlarining hech qanday foydasi yo'qligi bunga qo'shildi: shamol tuneli yuqori simulyatsiya qilingan tezlikda ishlaganida, ichkarida xuddi shu zarba to'lqinlari paydo bo'ladi, bu esa sinov modelini va tunnelni o'chiradi, parchalaydi va noto'g'ri va nomuvofiq ma'lumotlarni beradi. Agar muammo hal qilinsa, uni haqiqiy parvozda hal qilish kerak bo'lardi.

1944 yilda Pentagon muammoni o'rgana boshladi va armiya havo kuchlari, dengiz floti va aeronavtika bo'yicha fuqarolik milliy maslahat qo'mitasi vakillaridan iborat guruh tuzdi. Bell kompaniyasi bilan birgalikda ular tadqiqot o'tkazish uchun X-1 deb nomlangan eksperimental sinov samolyotini yaratdilar. Bu AQSh tomonidan ishlab chiqarilgan birinchi aniq tadqiqot samolyotlaridan biri edi va faqat iloji boricha tezroq uchishga mo'ljallangan edi.

Muhandislar o'z dizaynlarini o'zlari bilgan narsadan boshlashga qaror qilishdi: oddiy miltiq o'qlari tovush tezligidan tezroq yuradi. Shunday qilib, X-1 korpusining asosiy shakli .50 kalibrli pulemyot o'qining kattalashtirilgan versiyasi edi. Qanotlar maksimal tezlik uchun tortishishni minimal darajaga tushirish uchun iloji boricha qisqa va ingichka qilib yaratilgan. Garchi nemislar o'z reaktiv samolyotlarida qanotlari bilan tajriba o'tkazgan bo'lsalar-da, bu qanday tortishishni kamaytirganini tushunishgan bo'lsa-da, amerikaliklar bularning hech birini bilishmagan, shuning uchun X-1 to'g'ri qanotlari bilan yaratilgan. Cho'zilgan korpus, asosan, samolyotga iloji boricha tezlikni oshirishga imkon beradigan bitta katta yonilg'i bakidan iborat bo'lib, X-1 samolyotini B-29 bombardimonchi samolyoti yordamida parvoz balandligigacha ko'tarishga qaror qilib, uning barcha samolyotlaridan foydalanishga imkon berdi. yoqilg'i faqat tezlik uchun.

1945 yil fevralga kelib, birinchi prototip tayyor edi. Uning dvigateli yo'q edi va aerodinamik sinovlar uchun mo'ljallangan edi, keyin esa kuchsiz uchish parvozlari uchun mo'ljallangan edi. 1946 yil sentyabr oyida raketa dvigatellari bo'lgan ikkinchi prototip tayyor edi. Dastlab, X-1 reaktiv dvigatel bilan harakatlanishi kerak edi, lekin armiya Dengiz kuchlari va NACAning e'tirozlariga qarshi, raketa dvigateli ancha samaraliroq bo'ladi, deb bahslashdi va oxirida dizayn raketa kuchiga o'zgartirildi. Dvigatel Reaction Motors Company tomonidan ishlab chiqarilgan XLR-11 raketa dvigateli edi. U suyuq kislorod va etil spirti bilan ta'minlangan va uning to'rtta nozullari jami 6000 funtli tortishish hosil qilgan.

Birinchi parvozlar, kemani B-29 ostiga osib qo'yish, uni yuqoriga ko'tarish va qo'yib yuborish jarayonini sinash uchun mo'ljallangan, quvvatsiz slaydlar edi. Bu 1946 yil yanvar oyida Floridada boshlangan, nazoratchi uchuvchi Jek Vulams. Hammasi bo'lib, beshta quvvatsiz slayd parvozi amalga oshirildi, bu Vulamsga X-1 parvoz boshqaruvini sinab ko'rishga imkon berdi.

Birinchi prototip raketa dvigatellarini o'rnatish uchun Bellga qaytarilgan bo'lsa, ikkinchi prototip 1946 yil sentyabrda Kaliforniyada sinovdan o'tkazila boshlandi. Chalmers "Slick" Goodlin, sobiq dengiz floti uchuvchisi, hozir Bell uchun fuqarolik sinov uchuvchisi, to'rtta kuchsiz qildi. 1946 yil 9 -dekabrda Mach 0,79 tezlikka erishgan birinchi quvvatli sinovni o'tkazishdan oldin parvozlar. Ehtiyotkorlik bilan, keyingi parvozlar buni 1947 yil iyun oyida Mach 0.8 ga o'tkazdi.

Shartnomaga ko'ra, bu tezlikka xavfsiz etib kelganidan so'ng, Bell sinov dasturining nazoratini Pentagonga topshiradi. Armiya Gudlinni Bellni tark etib, X-1 dasturining bosh sinov uchuvchisi bo'lib qolishini xohladi, lekin Gudlin topshiriq uchun xavf to'lashni hamda ovozli to'siqni muvaffaqiyatli buzgan taqdirda 150 ming dollarlik bonusni (hozirgi dollarda taxminan 1,5 million dollar) olishni xohladi. Pentagon bu talabni qondirdi va o'rniga o'z safidan ko'ngillilarni qidirdi va nihoyat kapitan "Chak" Yeagerni tanladi, 11 g'alabali P-51 ace. Yeager X-1 "Glamorous Glennis" ni xotini sharafiga suvga cho'mdirdi: bu urush paytida Mustang jangchilarida ishlatgan ism.

Avgust oyining birinchi haftasida Yeager X-1da uchta kuchsiz uchish qildi, keyin 29 avgustda Mach 0,85 ga yetib, o'zining birinchi kuchli parvozini amalga oshirdi. X-1 B-29dan chiqa olmagach, bitta sinov parvozi to'xtatilishi kerak edi. Yeager yoqilg'ini raketa dvigatelidan to'kib tashlashi kerak edi va B-29 uchuvchisi X-1 hamon ulangan holda xavfli qo'nish kerak edi. Yana bir sinov parvozida old oynasi muzlab qoldi va Yeager deyarli ko'r bo'lishga majbur bo'ldi: keyingi parvozlar shisha oynasini shampunning nozik qatlami bilan yopish orqali muzlash muammosidan qochdi.

Ettinchi quvvatli parvozda, shuningdek, Mach 0.94 da, Yeager dumli liftni boshqarish sirtlari muzlab qolganida va samolyotni boshqarish qobiliyatini yo'qotganda jiddiy muammolarga duch keldi. Bu kutilmagan emas edi. Ma'lumki, ovoz tezligiga yaqinlashganda, siqilish muammosi boshqaruv yuzalarini, xususan, samolyotni yuqoriga yoki pastga tushirgan liftlarni samarasiz qildi. Bu allaqachon pervanelli samolyotlarda ko'plab halokatli avariyalarga olib kelgan, ular tez sho'ng'ishga kirgan va keyin chiqa olmagan. Endi, xuddi shu muammo, ovozdan tez uchish imkoniyatini tugatish bilan tahdid qildi.

Yechim inglizlar tomonidan allaqachon topilgan edi. 1942 yilda Qirollik Harbiy -havo kuchlari o'zining reaktiv dvigatellari bo'yicha o'tkazilgan tadqiqotlarga asoslanib, ovozdan tez qiruvchi samolyot yaratish bo'yicha o'z dasturini allaqachon boshlagan edi. Ma'lum bo'lishicha, ularning dvigateli buni amalga oshirish uchun etarlicha kuchga ega emas edi, lekin ular lift muammosini hal qila olishdi, bu esa butun quyruq qanotini harakatlanuvchi qilib qo'ydi, bu esa barqaror havo boshqaruv yuzalaridan o'tib ketishiga imkon berdi. Endi amerikaliklar buni sinab ko'rishga qaror qilishdi va tezda ishlayotib, ular X-1-ni Yeager kokpitdan boshqarishi mumkin bo'lgan harakatlanuvchi dumaloq samolyotni joylashtirish uchun o'zgartirdilar.

Bu muammoni hal qildi. 10 oktyabrga kelib, X-1 maksimal tezligini Mach 0.997 ga oshirdi.

Keyingi parvoz 14 oktyabrga rejalashtirilgan edi va bu ovozli to'siqni buzishga urinish bo'lishi aniq edi. Ammo bundan ikki kun oldin Yeager ot minib halokatga uchradi va ikkita qovurg'asini sindirdi. U parvozdan tushirilishidan qo'rqib, Yeager fuqarolik shifokoriga murojaat qilib, harbiy xizmatchilardan olgan jarohatini yashirdi va kabinaning eshigini yopishi uchun supurgi tayog'ini o'rab oldi.

"Glamorous Glennis" B-29dan tushganda, Yeagerning to'rtta raketasi uni Mach 0.999 ga itarib yubordi va uning samolyoti bufet qila boshladi. Ammo u ovozli to'siqdan o'tib, Mach 1.06 ga etib kelganida, hamma narsa tekislandi va X-1 boshqariladigan bo'lib qoldi. Samolyotning burni uning oldida to'plangan siqilgan havo qatlamini teshib o'tganda, cho'l bo'ylab aks sado bergan "sonik bum" deb nomlangan portlash sodir bo'ldi.

Muvaffaqiyatli birinchi ovozdan tez uchishdan bir necha soat o'tgach, butun dastur harbiylar tomonidan tasniflandi, ayniqsa dumli suzgichlarning harakatlanuvchi sirlari. Muvaffaqiyat haqidagi xabar norasmiy ravishda tezda tarqalib ketgan bo'lsa -da, Harbiy havo kuchlari bir necha oy o'tgach, parvozni ochiq tan olmadi.

Yeagerning muvaffaqiyatidan so'ng, NACA oltita X-1 kema va bir qator o'zgartirilgan variantlardan foydalangan holda bir qator sinov parvozlarini boshladi. Bugun "Glamorous Glennis" Vashingtondagi Smitson havo va kosmik muzeyida namoyish etilmoqda.


Chak Yeager singan qovurg'alari bilan tovush to'sig'ini sindirib tashlaganida

Chak Yeager, insoniyat tarixidagi eng mashhur sinov uchuvchisi, Bell X-1 eksperimental raketa samolyotidagi ovoz to'sig'ini sindirdi. Eng ajablanarlisi shundaki, u buni ikkita qovurg'asi singan holda qilgan. Ammo tanaffuslar tarixiy parvoz paytida sodir bo'lmadi. Ular ertalab sodir bo'lgan.

Yeager shu vaqtgacha X-1da sakkizta kuchli parvozni amalga oshirdi va keyingi qadam samolyotni Mach .98 ga olib chiqish edi. Xavfli manevrlik muammosi tuzatildi va samolyotni oldinga surish mumkinligi sezildi. Keyingi reys dam olish kunidan keyin bo'ladi va u yana ko'tarilishidan bir kun oldin Yeager va uning rafiqasi Glennis (uning ismi X-1, "Glamorous Glennis" taxallusi sifatida ishlatilgan) ketishdi. Pancho nomli taniqli mahalliy muassasada kechki ovqat.

Kechki ovqatdan so'ng, er -xotin Panchoning bir juft otini sayr qilish uchun olib ketishdi. Safar oxirida otlarni otxona uchun poyga qilishdi, lekin darvoza yopiq edi. Yeagerning oti darvozaga tegib, uni tashladi va u erga tushdi. Yiqilish natijasida ikkita qovurg'a singan edi.

Bir nechta qovurg'a singan Yeagerni uchishga to'sqinlik qilgan bo'lardi, shuning uchun u xotinini uni shifoxonaga yotqizib qo'ydi. Ammo yangi muammo paydo bo'ldi. Yeager jismonan samolyot kabinasini yopa olmadi. U uchuvchi va aeronavtika muhandisi Jek Ridliga muammo haqida gapirib berdi, Ridli esa Yigerga eshikni yopishga imkon beradigan supurgi tayog'idan dastani yasadi. Ridli, shuningdek, oldingi parvoz paytida X-1 ning manevrligi bilan bog'liq muammolarni aniqladi va bu erda u biroz noan'anaviy bo'lsa ham, boshqa tuzatish bilan chiqdi. Yeager urinib ko'rdi va er yuzida bo'lganida, supurgi yordamida eshikni yopishga muvaffaq bo'ldi, chunki samolyot Boeing B-29 samolyotining parvoz joyida bo'ladi.

Keyinchalik parvoz amalga oshirilganda, Yeager tarixiy parvoz uchun B-29dan tushishidan oldin kokpitni ushlab tura oldi. Hisoblagich shkaladan tushmasdan oldin u samolyotni Mach .965 ga yetkazdi. Yerda ovozli bum eshitildi va Yeager yigirma soniya davomida ovoz tezligidan o'tib ketdi. Uning oxirgi tezligi soatiga 700 mil yoki 4300 futlik Mach 1.06 edi.


Ovoz to'sig'ini buzgan odam 70 yildan keyin Twitterni buzadi

Sinov uchuvchisi Chak Yeager Bell X-1 oldida ovoz to'sig'ini buzgan. (Surat: Milliy arxiv)

Tez jin va brigada generali Chak Yeager 1947 yilda ovoz to'sig'ini buzgan birinchi odam bo'lib tarixga o'z oyog'ini qo'ydi. Bugun bezatilgan uchuvchi butun dunyo bo'ylab o'z muxlislarining ruhini sindirish bilan band. uning hayoti va shaxsiy e'tiqodlari haqida davom etayotgan tvit bo'roniga o'xshaydi.

Juda ham ko'p. Uning "Yeager" kitobini sotib olish haqida ko'plab eslatmalar orasida u baliq ovlashga va mayda hayvonlarni o'ldirishga bo'lgan muhabbatini bildiradi. Ikkinchi Jahon urushi, Vetnam va Sovuq urush faxriysi o'zining "mast" do'stlari haqida, ularning ko'plari uchuvchi, va ular bilan birga boshidan kechirgan ba'zi baxtsiz hodisalar haqida bir nechta xavotirli so'zlarni keltiradi. Yeager, shuningdek, sobiq ish beruvchisi NASAni tanqid qilish uchun vaqt ajratadi.

Mana, 93 yoshli amerikalik qahramon haqida keraksiz tushuncha beradigan, eng g'alati va butunlay chapdan qolgan tvitlar.

1. Yeager, boshqa uchuvchilarning NUJni ko'rishlari behuda ketishi bilan bog'liq deb o'ylaydi.


Manbalar va qo'shimcha o'qish

Xilton, Uilyam F. Yuqori tezlikli aerodinamika. London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1952. 15-19 va Ch. 6.

L.J. Klansi. Aerodinamika. Ney York: Ueyli, Jon va am Sons, Incorporated, 1975. 283, 415.

Meyson, VH Aerodinamika konfiguratsiyasi. Blacksburg, VA: Virginia Tech, 2006. 7 -bob.

Rotundo, Lui C. Noma'lumga: X-1 hikoyasi. Washingon, DC: Smitson instituti matbuoti, 1994 yil.

Vagner, Rey. Shimoliy Amerika sabri. London: Makdonald, 1963.

Yeager, Chak va boshqalar. al. Mach One uchun topshiriq: Ovoz to'sig'ini buzgan birinchi shaxs hisobi. Nyu -York: Pingvin studiyasi, 1997.

Mualliflik huquqi & copy2021 Skeptoid Media, Inc. Barcha huquqlar himoyalangan. Huquqlar va ma'lumotlarni qayta ishlatish

The Skeptoid haftalik fan podkasti Skeptoid Media -dan bepul 501 (c) (3) ta'lim notijorat tashkilotining bepul davlat xizmati.

Bu ko'rsatuv sizga o'xshagan tinglovchilarning moliyaviy ko'magi tufayli mumkin bo'ldi. Agar sizga bu dastur yoqsa, iltimos a'zo bo'ling.


ThrustSSC ovoz to'sig'ini rasman buzgan birinchi mashina va tarixdagi eng tezkor avtomobil

ThrustSSC, Thrust SSC yoki Thrust supersonic avtomobil-bu Richard Noble, Glynne Bowsher, Ron Ayers va Jeremy Bliss tomonidan ishlab chiqarilgan ingliz reaktiv mashinasidir. ThrustSSC 1997 yil 15 -oktabrda o'rnatilgan, tezlik bo'yicha 1,228 km (soatiga 763 milya) tezlikka erishgan va ovoz to'sig'ini rasman sindirib tashlagan birinchi avtomobil bo'lgan World Land Record rekordiga ega.

Koventri transport muzeyida ThrustSSC -ning oldingi ko'rinishi. manba

Mashinani Nevada shtatining Blek -Rok sahrosida qirollik havo kuchlarining qiruvchi uchuvchisi qanot qo'mondoni Endi Grin boshqargan. U F-4 Phantom II reaktiv qiruvchi samolyotining Britaniya versiyasida ishlatilgan Rolls-Royce Spey turbofanli ikkita yonish dvigateli bilan jihozlangan. Mashinaning uzunligi 16,5 m (eni 3,7 m), og'irligi 10,5 tonna (10,7 t), egizak dvigatellari esa 223 kN (50 000 lbf) aniq quvvatga ega bo'lib, quvvati 110 000 ot kuchiga teng. 82 MVt), sekundiga 18 litr yonadi (4,0 Imperial galon/s yoki 4,8 AQSh galon/s). Maksimal tezligiga qarab avtomobil yurishining odatiy shartlariga aylantirilganda, yoqilg'i sarfi taxminan 10000 km ga 5,500 l ni tashkil etdi (0,05 mpg-imp 0,04 mpg-AQSh).

ThrustSSC -ning orqa g'ildiraklari. manba

Norfolk va Suffolk aviatsiya muzeyidagi dvigatellardan biri. manba

Rolls-Royce Spey turbofan dvigateli, Koventri transport muzeyi. manba

ThrustSSC o'ng dvigateli, Koventri transport muzeyi. manba

1997 yil oktyabr oyida o'tkazilgan rekorddan oldin, 1996 yilning kuzida va 1997 yilning bahorida, Iordaniyaning Al-Jafr cho'lida (Ma ’an guberniyasida joylashgan) avtomobil sinovlari o'tkazildi, bu uning sinov masofasi sifatida oldindan ma'lum emas edi. G'arbiy Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlarining tuzli cho'llariga qaraganda juda ko'p afzalliklarga ega bo'lgan tez yuradigan er transporti vositalari uchun.

ThrustSSC va#8211 er tezligi rekordchisi. manba

Rekord o'rnatilgandan so'ng, Butunjahon avtomobil sporti kengashi quyidagi xabarni e'lon qildi:

Butunjahon avtomobil sporti kengashi 1997 yil 15 oktyabrda Nevada shtati, Blek -Rok cho'lida Richard Nobl, haydovchi Endi Grin ThrustSSC jamoasi tomonidan qayd etilgan quruqlik tezligi bo'yicha yangi jahon rekordlarini e'lon qildi. Bu tarixda birinchi marta quruqlikdagi avtomobil ovoz tezligidan oshib ketdi. Yangi rekordlar quyidagicha:

Uchish mil: 1227.985 km/soat (763.035 mil/soat)

Uchish kilometr: soatiga 1223.657 km (760.343 milya)

Rekord o'rnatishda ovoz to'sig'i shimol va janub yugurishlarida buzilgan.

1983 yilda Richard Nobl avvalgi Thrust2 avtomobili bilan quruqlik tezligi bo'yicha jahon rekordini o'rnatdi, u soatiga 1018 km (633 milya) tezlikka erishdi. Andy Green ’ ning rekord sanasi aynan yarim asr va Chak Yeager Yer atmosferasidagi ovoz to'sig'ini buzganidan bir kun o'tib, 1947 yil 14 oktyabrda Bell X-1 tadqiqot raketasi bilan.

ThrustSSC -ning orqa ko'rinishi, a panel Koventri transport muzeyida alyuminiy qotishma g'ildiraklaridan birini ko'rsatish uchun olib tashlandi. manba

ThrustSSC ham, Thrust2 ham Angliyaning Koventri shahridagi Koventri transport muzeyida namoyish etiladi. Thrust SSC barrel bilan qoplangan koridorda joylashgan. Tashrif buyuruvchilar ThrustSSC yugurishlari boshqariladigan pit-treylerga o'tirishlari mumkin va Grin nuqtai nazaridan rekord o'rnatgan yugurishning kompyuter tomonidan yaratilgan animatsiyasi tasvirlangan harakat simulyatoriga o'tirishlari mumkin.

Rekordni yangilash uchun bir nechta jamoalar raqobatlashmoqda, shu jumladan Richard Noble ’s Bloodhound SSC loyihasi va Shimoliy Amerika burguti loyihasi.

ThrustSSC Koventri transport muzeyida namoyish etilgan, 2007 yil aprel. Manba

ThrustSSC old-chap, Koventri transport muzeyi. manba

ThrustSSC orqa g'ildiraklari, Koventri transport muzeyi. manba

ThrustSSC pitot trubkasi, Koventri transport muzeyi. manba

2012 yil iyun oyida Intel protsessorli Orange San -Diego mobil telefonining televizion reklamasi Britaniya televideniyesida namoyish etildi va kompyuterda tasvirlangan tezkor avtomobil namoyish etildi. Richard Nobl bu mashina Thrust SSC vakili ekanligini va bu kompaniyalar Bloodhound SSC loyihasining kelajagini shubha ostiga qo'yib, uning intellektual mulkidan ruxsatsiz foydalanganini da'vo qildi. Reklama standartlari idorasi intellektual mulk bilan bog'liq nizolar uning vakolatiga kirmaganini da'vo qilib, Bloodhound jamoasi va#8217s shikoyatini rad etdi.

ThrustSSC orqa chap, Koventri transport muzeyi. manba

ThrustSSC orqa ko'rinishi, Koventri transport muzeyi. manba

Koventri muzeyidagi Thrust SSC. manba

BBC News telekanali muxbiri Rori Sellan-Jonsning so'zlariga ko'ra, Intel va Orange kompaniyalari o'zlarining ishlab chiqarish guruhlari turli uslublarni tadqiq qilishgan. “superfast transport vositalari ” va Orange markali quruqlikdagi o'z avtomashinasini ishlab chiqdi va reklama va telefon Noble yoki Bloodhound SSCga ulanmagan.


Chak Yeager ovozli to'siqni "oxirgi marta" buzdi

EDWARDS AIR FORCE BASE, Kaliforniya. (AP)-Afsonaviy sinovchi uchuvchi Chak Yeager shanba kuni ovozli to'siqni buzdi, chunki u bu ishni birinchi marta qilganidan yarim asr o'tdi.

79 yoshli Yeager, minglab muxlislarni cho'l bazasiga jalb qilgan havo shousini ochar ekan, ovozni bum bilan ajratdi. Yeager 60 yillik karerasini yakunlab, F-15 Eagle samolyotini 30 ming fut balandlikka ko'targan.

Edvards sinov uchuvchisi podpolkovnik Troy Fonteyn orqa o'rindiqda edi, chunki samolyot Mach 1.45 ga yoki tovush tezligining qariyb 1 1/2 barobariga yetdi.

"General Yeager uchib ketganda men angarda turardim", dedi Martinesdan 16 yoshli Jennifer Tompson. "U butun angarni silkitdi. Bu juda zo'r edi."

Bir soatlik parvozni tugatgandan so'ng, iste'fodagi Harbiy havo kuchlari brigadasi samolyotni Harbiy havo kuchlari urf-odatlariga ko'ra ikkita Edvards o't o'chirish mashinasidan oqayotgan suv oqimi ostida taksiga qo'ydi.

Samolyotning burni Yegerning rafiqasi nomi bilan atalgan "Glamorous Glennis" yozuvi bilan bo'yalgan.

Bu ism Yeager 1947 yil 14 oktyabrda Mojave cho'li ustidan parvozda birinchi marta ovoz to'sig'ini buzish uchun ishlatgan to'q sariq, o'q shaklidagi Bell X-1 raketa samolyotini bergan. Parvoz "To'g'ri narsalar" filmida tasvirlangan.

Yeger samolyotlariga NASA sobiq kosmonavti, nafaqadagi general-70 yoshli do'sti va hamkasbi Jo Engle tomonidan boshqariladigan ikkinchi F-15 qo'shildi.

"Bu biz uchun qiziqarli kun, chunki biz yaxshi samolyotlarda uchishimiz va bir vaqtlar o'zimiz yoqtirgan ishni qilishimiz kerak", dedi Yeager parvozdan sal oldin.

Yeager shu yilning boshida, sekinroq samolyotlarda uchishni davom ettirish niyatida bo'lsa ham, ovozdan tez uchish uning oxirgi parvozi bo'lishini e'lon qildi.

"Hozir yaxshi vaqt", dedi Yeager Bierstinega parvozdan oldin. "Men juda yaxshi vaqt o'tkazdim va juda oz odamlar men duch kelgan narsalarga duch kelishadi. Men P-51 samolyotlari va yengil narsalar bilan uchishni davom ettiraman, lekin men hozir chiqib ketish vaqti kelganini his qilyapman."

Yeagerning ovozli to'siqni birinchi marta sindirib tashlagani, oltmish yil davom etgan martaba, shu jumladan Ikkinchi Jahon urushi va Vetnamdagi xizmat.

Yeager har qanday parvoz paytida qo'rqishni "vaqtni behuda sarflash" deb bilishini aytdi.

“Agar biror narsaning natijasi haqida hech narsa qila olmasangiz, uni unuting. "Buning o'rniga, qaerda bo'lsangiz ham tirik qolishga e'tibor qarating."

Yeager oxirgi ovozdan tez parvozini amalga oshiradi

Quyidagi so'zlarni to'ldirish uchun hikoyadagi faktlardan foydalaning:

1. Chak Yeager mashhur:

a) F-15 burgutini loyihalash.

b) Mojave sahrosida yashash.

v) juda tez tezlikda uchadigan samolyotlar.

2. Iste'fodagi general birinchi ovozdan tez parvoz qildi -

c) u 60 yoshda edi.

3. Harbiy havo kuchlari ofitseri ovoz to'sig'ini buzganida, u -

a) tovush tezligidan tezroq yurgan.

b) aeroport uchish -qo'nish yo'lagining bir qismini vayron qilgan.

4. Yeager samolyoti 1947 yil 14 oktyabrda uchgan -

b) xotini Glennis nomi bilan atalgan.

c) a) ham, b) ham to'g'ri.

5. 79 yoshida Yeager qaror qildi:

b) okrug atrofida havo shoularini o'tkazish.

v) oxirgi ovozdan tez parvoz qilish.

6. Havoga bo'linadigan so'nggi parvoz paytida, general Yeager-

a) Mach 1.45 tezligiga erishdi.

b) Bell X-1 raketasini uchirdi.

v) samolyotning orqa o'rindig'iga o'tirdi.

7. Tezyurar samolyotda uchayotganda Yeager-

a) NASA kosmonavti qo'shildi.

b) 300000 fut balandlikka ko'tarildi.

v) vaqtini behuda sarflayotganini aytdi.

8. O'n olti yoshli Jennifer Tompson-

a) kiyimni osib qo'yganida, Yeager uchib ketdi.

b) sonik bumning tebranishlarini sezdi.

c) havo shou uchun kun juda salqin deb o'yladim.

9. Amerikalik aviator F-15 burgutini Edvards aviabazasiga qo'ndirgandan so'ng-

b) u suv oqimi ostidan o'tdi.

v) minglab tomoshabinlar tribunani tark etishdi.

10. Afsonaviy sinovchi uchuvchi o'zining 60 yillik karerasini oxirgi marta tez ovozli parvoz bilan boshlamoqchi edi, chunki-

a) ko'p odamlar nima uchun mashhur bo'lganini unutgan.

b) u o'z muxlislarini hayratda qoldirishi kerak edi.

v) bundan buyon u sekinroq samolyotlarda uchadi.

Afsonaning tarjimai holi

Charlz Elvud Yeager ovoz tezligidan tezroq uchadigan birinchi aviator edi. AQSh Harbiy -havo kuchlarining jasur qiruvchi uchuvchisi haqida qo'shimcha ma'lumot olish uchun ensiklopediyaga qarang. Ikkinchi jahon urushi paytida u nechta missiya bajargan? U 1953 yilda qanday tezlik rekordini o'rnatdi? U qanday samolyotni uchirdi? Aytgancha, ovoz qanchalik tez uchadi?

Javob kaliti: 1) c 2) a 3) a 4) b 5) c 6) a 7) a 8) b 9) b 10) c

Ko'proq o'qish.

Germaniya: Harbiy havo kuchlari halokat sabablarini aniqlay olmaydilar

FAIRCHILD AIR FORCE BASE (AP) - AQSh Harbiy -havo kuchlari Germaniyaning NATO bazasida Vashington Havo Milliy gvardiyasi havo yonilg'i quyish tankerining qulashiga nima sabab bo'lganini ayta olmaydi. & quot; Men qila olmadim. [Ko'proq o'qish. ]

Tarix qanot oladi

B-17 bombardimonchisining burun konusida o'tirgan Arvid Dal, chorshanba kuni Port-Anjelesdan Bremertonga uchib ketayotganda, Ikkinchi Jahon urushi samolyotlarining parvozini his qilganini esladi. Gig Xarborlik Dal, B-17 uchuvchisi sifatida 50 ta missiyani amalga oshirdi. [Ko'proq o'qish. ]

Uchuvchisiz samolyotlar harbiylar bilan baland uchadi

EDWARDS AIR FORCE BASE, qanotlari qanotlari va soatiga 84 mil tezlikda harakatlanadigan, pervanelli Predator josuslik samolyoti cho'l osmonida uchayotgan jangovar samolyotlarga qaraganda ancha zo'r ko'rinardi. Ammo yirtqich rasmga mos tushganda, uni 600 kishi o'rab oldi. . [Ko'proq o'qish. ]

Intruder qanotlarini bukadi

Bu hafta, Navy A-6 hujum samolyotlarining oxirgi ikkita eskadroni, 36 yillik xalqqa xizmat qilish tarixidan so'ng, nafaqaga chiqadi. A-6E INTRUDER roli: AQSh Harbiy-dengiz kuchlarining 1960-yillardan 1990-yillarning o'rtalariga qadar tashuvchi-o'rta bombardimonchi. . [Ko'proq o'qish. ]

B-2 bombardimonchi uchuvchisi "boshqa hech narsa" qilishni xohlamaydi

SEATTLE (AP)-Xo'sh, Harbiy havo kuchlarining texnologik jihatdan eng ilg'or samolyoti B-2 bombardimonchi samolyotini uchish uchun nima kerak? Vashington shtati fuqarosi, o'tgan yozning boshidan buyon ko'p emas, deydi u. & Bu ajablanarli. Qaraganingizda. [Ko'proq o'qish. ]


Yeager dehqonchilik bilan shug'ullanadi-ota-onalar Syuzi Mey va Albert Xal Yeager, G'arbiy Virjiniya shtatining Myra shahrida va G'arbiy Virjiniya shtatining Xamlin shahrida o'rta maktabni tugatgan. Yeagerning ikkita aka -ukalari bor edi: Roy va Xol, kichik va ikkita opa -singillar, Doris Enn (tasodifan Roy bolaligida ov miltig'i bilan o'ldirilgan) va Pensi Li. Harbiylar bilan birinchi aloqasi 1939 va 1940 yil yozida, Indianapolis, Indiana shtatining Fort Benjamin Harrison shahridagi fuqarolarning harbiy o'quv lagerida qatnashgan. 1945 yil 26 fevralda Yeager Glennis Dikxausga uylandi va er -xotinning to'rttasi bor edi. bolalar Glennis Yeager 1990 yilda vafot etdi.

Chak Yeager Rutan Voyager samolyotining ikki uchuvchisidan biri bo'lgan Jeana Yeager bilan aloqasi yo'q, u erga qo'nmasdan yoki yonilg'i quyishsiz aylanib chiqdi. "Yeager" nomi - bu nemis, golland va skandinaviya ismining inglizcha shakli. J & aumlger (Nemischa: "ovchi"), va shu jamoalarning muhojirlari orasida keng tarqalgan. U sobiq beysbolchi Stiv Yeagerning amakisi.

Ikkinchi jahon urushi

Yeager 1941 yil 12 sentyabrda AQSh Qurolli Kuchlari Harbiy -havo kuchlariga (USAAF) oddiy askar sifatida qo'shildi va Viktorvil, Kaliforniya shtatidagi Jorj havo kuchlari bazasida mexanik -mexanik bo'ldi. Yeger harbiy xizmatga qabul qilinganida yoshi va ma'lumoti tufayli parvoz bo'yicha tayyorgarlikdan o'tishga haqli emas edi, lekin AQShning Ikkinchi Jahon urushiga ikki oydan kam vaqt o'tishi bilan kirishi USAAFni ishga qabul qilish standartlarini o'zgartirishga undadi. 20/10 ning ajoyib ko'rinishi bilan muborak bo'lgan Yeager, tabiiy iste'dodni uchuvchi sifatida ko'rsatdi va parvoz mashg'ulotlariga qabul qilindi. U qanotlarini oldi va Arizona shtatining Lyuk-Fild shahrida uchish xodimi lavozimiga ko'tarildi, u erda 1943 yil 10-martda 43C sinfini tugatdi. 357-chi qiruvchi guruhga Nevada shtati Tonopada tayinlandi, u dastlab P-39 uchuvchi qiruvchi uchuvchi sifatida o'qidi. Airacobras va 1943 yil 23 -noyabrda guruh bilan chet elga ketdi.

Birlashgan Qirollikda RAF Leistonda joylashgan Yeager P-51 Mustanglarni jangda uchirdi (u o'z samolyotini nomladi) Qiziqarli Glennis sevgilisi Glennis Fey Dikxausdan keyin, 1945 yil fevralda uning rafiqasi bo'ldi) 363 -jangchi eskadroni bilan. U 1944 yil 5 martda sakkizinchi missiyasi davomida Frantsiya ustidan urib tushirilishidan oldin bitta g'alabaga erishdi. U 30 mart kuni Ispaniyaga qochib ketdi. Maquis (Frantsiya qarshilik) va 1944 yil 15 mayda Angliyaga qaytib keldi MaquisYeager partizanlarga to'g'ridan -to'g'ri jangni o'z ichiga olmaydigan vazifalarni bajarishda yordam berdi, garchi u guruh uchun bomba yasashda yordam bergan bo'lsa, bu mahorat u otasidan olgan. Qochishga urinish paytida oyog'ining bir qismini yo'qotgan boshqa bir havo kuchiga Pireneyni kesib o'tishda yordam bergani uchun u Bronza yulduzi bilan taqdirlangan.

"Qochganlar" (qochib ketgan uchuvchilar) qarshilik ittifoqchilariga zarar bermaslik uchun yana dushman hududi ustidan ucha olmasligi to'g'risidagi nizomga qaramay, Yeager uchuvchi jangga tiklandi. Yeager bombardimonchi qochuvchi kapitan Fred Gloverga qo'shildi, 1944 yil 12 -iyunda Ittifoqning oliy qo'mondoni general Duayt D. Eyzenxauer bilan gaplashdi. Glover o'z ishini iltimos qilib, Ittifoqchilar Frantsiyani bosib olgani uchun. Maquis O'sha paytda qarshilik harakati Ittifoq qo'shinlari bilan birgalikda natsistlar bilan ochiqdan -ochiq jang qilar edi, shuning uchun agar ular qo'lga olishdan qochishga yordam berganlarni fosh qilish uchun yana urib tushirilsa, ular hech narsani oshkor qila olmasdilar. Eyzenxauer, Urush bo'limidan so'rovlarni hal qilishga ruxsat olganidan so'ng, Yeager va Glover bilan kelishib oldi. Yeager keyinchalik harbiy -havo kuchlaridagi urushdan keyingi muvaffaqiyatini shunday qaror bilan izohladi, uning aytishicha, uning uchuvchi -karerasi, tabiiyki, yaxshi o'ldirish rekordiga ega bo'lgan, shuningdek, uchuvchi maktabiga o'qishga kirishdan oldin, samolyotlarga texnik xizmat ko'rsatuvchi bo'lgan. Qisman texnik xizmat ko'rsatganligi sababli, Yeager tez -tez uchuvchi bo'linmalarida texnik ofitser bo'lib xizmat qilgan.

Yeager ajoyib ko'rish qobiliyatiga ega (20/10 deb baholangan, unga kiyikni 600 metrga (550 m) otishga, uchish qobiliyatiga va jangovar etakchilikka ega bo'lib, u o'z guruhida bir kun ichida "as" yasagan birinchi uchuvchi bo'ldi. ": u bitta topshiriqda dushmanning beshta samolyotini urdi va urushni 11,5 rasmiy g'alaba bilan tugatdi, shu jumladan samolyot qiruvchi ustidan birinchi havo-havo g'alabalaridan biri (Germaniya Messerschmitt Me 262). Uning ikkita askari Kun "o'ldirishlar bitta o'q otmasdan ham amalga oshirildi, u Messerschmitt Bf 109 ga qarshi o'q otish joyiga uchib ketdi va samolyot uchuvchisi vahimaga tushib, sancakdan yiqilib, qanotli Yeger bilan to'qnashib ketdi. Rasmiy hisob-kitoblarga ko'ra, u jangovar maqomi tiklanishidan oldingi davrda kelgan: Shimoliy dengiz ustidagi P-51 samolyotida o'qish paytida u Germaniyaning "Junkers Ju 88" og'ir qiruvchi samolyotida B-17 uchayotgan qal'a ekipajiga hujum qilgan. qui Fikr va reflekslar B-17 ekipajini qutqarib qoldi, lekin u hali uchish jangiga qo'yilmaganligi sababli, uning qurolli kamerasi va qotillik uchun qarori uning qanoti Eddi Simpsonga berilgan. (Yeager keyinchalik xato Simpsonga uning beshinchi qotilligini berganini esladi).

Yeager Leystonda ikkinchi leytenant unvonini oldi va safari tugashidan oldin kapitan unvonini oldi. U o'zining oltmish birinchi va oxirgi missiyasini 1945 yil 15 yanvarda uchib o'tdi va fevral oyining boshida AQShga qaytdi. Qochuvchi sifatida u o'z vazifalarini tanlab oldi va yangi xotini homilador bo'lgani uchun G'arbiy Virjiniyadagi uyi yonida bo'lish uchun Rayt Fildni tanladi. Uning yuqori parvoz vaqti va texnik xizmat ko'rsatish tajribasi uni ta'mirlangan samolyotlarning funktsional sinov uchuvchisi bo'lishga imkon berdi, bu esa uni Aeronavtika tizimlarining uchish sinovlari bo'limi boshlig'i polkovnik Albert Boyd qo'mondonligiga olib keldi.

Urushdan keyingi davr

Yeager urushdan keyin Harbiy-havo kuchlarida qoldi, Murok armiyasi havo maydonida (hozirgi Edvards harbiy-havo bazasi) sinov uchuvchisi bo'ldi va oxir-oqibat yuqori tezlikda parvozni o'rganish uchun NACA dasturida raketali Bell X-1 uchish uchun tanlandi. , Bell Aircraft sinov uchuvchisi "Slick" dan keyin Goodlin ovoz "to'siq" ni buzish uchun 150 ming dollar talab qildi. Bu vazifaning qiyinligi shundaki, ko'pgina qiyinchiliklarga javob "Yeager to'langan sug'urta bilan yaxshiroq" edi. Yeager 1947 yil 14 oktyabrda ovozli to'siqni sindirib, X-1 eksperimental Mach 1da 45000 fut (13700 m) balandlikda uchdi. Rejalashtirilgan sanadan ikki kecha oldin, u ot minayotganda ikkita qovurg'asini sindirib tashlagan. U missiyadan chetlatilishidan juda qo'rqardi, u davolanish uchun yaqin atrofdagi shahar veterinariga bordi va bu haqda faqat uning rafiqasiga, shuningdek, do'sti va loyiha uchuvchisi Jek Ridliga aytdi.

Parvoz kuni Yeager shu qadar og'riqqa tushdiki, samolyot lyukini o'zi muhrlay olmadi. Yeiderga samolyot lyukini muhrlashga ruxsat berish uchun Ridli supurgi tutqichining uchini qo'shimcha tutqich sifatida ishlatib, qurilmani o'rnatdi. Yeagerning parvozi Mach 1.07-ni qayd etdi, ammo u hamma e'tiborni butun sonlarga qaratganini va keyingi bosqich Mach 2 dan oshib ketishini ta'kidladi. Yeager X-1 Smitson institutining Milliy havo va kosmik muzeyida namoyish etilmoqda. Yeager 1948 yilda "MacKay" va "Collier" sovrinlari bilan mukofotlangan, 1954 yilda esa "Harmon International Trophy".

Some aviation historians contend that American pilot George Welch broke the sound barrier before Yeager, once while diving an XP-86 Sabre on October 1, 1947, and again just 30 minutes before Yeager's X-1 flight. There was also a disputed claim by German pilot Hans Guido Mutke that he was the first person to break the sound barrier, on April 9, 1945, in a Messerschmitt Me 262.

Yeager went on to break many other speed and altitude records. He also was one of the first American pilots to fly a MiG-15 after its pilot defected to South Korea with it. During the latter half of 1953, Yeager was involved with the USAF team that was working on the X-1A, an aircraft designed to surpass Mach 2 in level flight. That year, he flew a chase plane for the female civilian pilot Jackie Cochran, a close friend, as she became the first woman to fly faster than sound. However, on November 20, 1953, the NACA's D-558-II Skyrocket and its pilot, Scott Crossfield, became the first team to reach twice the speed of sound. After they were bested, Ridley and Yeager decided to beat rival Crossfield's speed record in a flight series that they dubbed "Operation NACA Weep." Not only did they beat Crossfield, but they did it in time to spoil a celebration planned for the 50th anniversary of flight in which Crossfield was to be called "the fastest man alive." The Ridley/Yeager USAF team achieved Mach 2.44 on December 12, 1953. Shortly after reaching Mach 2.44, he experienced a loss of aerodynamic control due to inertial coupling at approximately 80,000 ft (24,000 m)., Yeager lost control of the X-1A. With the aircraft out of control, simultaneously rolling, pitching and yawing out of the sky, Yeager dropped 51,000 feet (16,000 m) in 51 seconds until regaining control of the aircraft at approximately 29,000 feet (8,800 m). He was able to land the aircraft without further incident.

Yeager was foremost a fighter pilot and held several squadron and wing commands. From May 1955 to July 1957 he commanded the F-86H Sabre-equipped 417th Fighter-Bomber Squadron (50th Fighter-Bomber Wing) at Hahn AB, Germany, and Toul-Rosieres Air Base, France and from 1957 to 1960 the F-100D-equipped 1st Fighter Day Squadron (later, while still under Yeager's command, re-designated the 306th Tactical Fighter Squadron) at George Air Force Base, California, and Morón Air Base, Spain.

In 1962, after completion of a year's studies at the Air War College, he was the first commandant of the USAF Aerospace Research Pilot School, which produced astronauts for NASA and the USAF, after its redesignation from the USAF Flight Test Pilot School. An accident during a test flight in one of the school's NF-104s put an end to his record attempts. Between December 1963 and January 1964, Yeager completed five flights in the NASA M2-F1 lifting body.

In 1966 he took command of the 405th Tactical Fighter Wing at Clark Air Base, the Philippines, whose squadrons were deployed on rotational temporary duty (TDY) in South Vietnam and elsewhere in Southeast Asia. There he accrued another 414 hours of combat time in 127 missions, mostly in a Martin B-57 light bomber. In February 1968, he was assigned command of the 4th Tactical Fighter Wing at Seymour Johnson Air Force Base, North Carolina, and led the F-4 Phantom wing in South Korea during the Pueblo crisis.

On June 22, 1969, he was promoted to brigadier general, and was assigned in July as the vice-commander of the Seventeenth Air Force. In 1971, Yeager was assigned to Pakistan to advise the Pakistan Air Force at the behest of then-Ambassador Joe Farland. Prior to the start of hostilities of the Bangladesh War he is reported to have said that the Pakistani army would be in New Delhi within a week. During the war, his twin-engined Beechcraft was destroyed in an Indian air raid on the Chaklala air base - he was reportedly incensed and demanded US retaliation. Despite Pakistan's surrender to India in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, Yeager stayed in Pakistan until March 1973, and recalled his stay in Pakistan as one of the most enjoyable times of his life. During his stay he spent most of his time flying in an F-86 Sabre with the Pakistan Air Force and making several expeditions to the K2 mountain, vacationing in Swat, Pakistan, trekking and hunting in the Northern Areas and learning the Urdu language.


Chuck Yeager died December 7

Chuck Yeager named his bright-orange X-1 plane the "Glamorous Glennis" after his first wife, Glennis Yeager, who passed away in 1990. On October 14, 1947, Yeager officially became the first human to break the sound barrier, with a flight hitting Mach 1.06 — 1.06 times the speed of sound, or about 700 mph. Per CNBC, Yeager performed the flight with two broken ribs he had fallen off a horse a few days prior, but refused to tell his superiors about the injury for fear of jeopardizing the mission.

According to CNN, Yeager would continue to set records, flying at Mach 2.44 in 1953. Yeager also helped train America's first astronauts. Since Yeager lacked a college degree, he was ineligible for selection by NASA, but told Forbes that he "wasn't interested" anyway, since astronauts have very little control over their vehicles. In 1975, Yeager retired from the Air Force with the rank of Brigadier General, but continued to perform occasional flights. In 2012, reports Fox News, Yeager successfully re-enacted his supersonic flight. He was 89 at the time.

Per Vaqt, Yeager's death was called "a tremendous loss to our nation" by NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine. But in his 1985 autobiography, Yeager wrote, "Living to a ripe old age is not an end in itself. The trick is to enjoy the years remaining . If I [crash] tomorrow, it won't be with a frown on my face. I've had a ball."


Chuck Yeager - Page 2

By Stephen Sherman, Oct. 1999. Updated June 30, 2011.

Muroc Field

A fter WW2, Chuck Yeager was assigned to be a test pilot at Muroc Field in California.

Muroc was high up in the California desert, a barren place except for sagebrush and Joshua Trees. The main attraction of Muroc was Rogers Dry Lake, a flat expanse that was covered with a couple inches of water in the winter, and dried out hard and flat in the spring. A natural landing field, with miles of good surface in every direction. In 1946, the whole place was off-limits, a top secret Army base, developing jet and rocket planes. And there was almost nothing there - two simple hangars, some fuel pumps, one concrete runway, and a few shacks.

In many ways, Muroc was fighter pilot Heaven in the late '40s: the run-down, Quonset-hut facilities didn't attract many visits from the Army Air Force top brass, and there wasn't much to do there but fly, and drink and drive fast cars. Pancho Barnes' "Fly Inn" was the pilots' favorite watering hole.

Breaking the Sound Barrier

One of the great unknowns of the time was the so-called "sound barrier." Planes like the British Meteor jets that approached the speed of sound (760MPH at sea level, 660 MPH at 40,000 feet) had encountered severe buffeting of the controls. At that time, no one knew for sure whether an airplane could exceed "Mach 1," the speed of sound. A British pilot, Geoffrey de Havilland, had died trying. The U.S. Army was determined to find out first.

The Army had developed a small, bullet-shaped aircraft, the Bell X-1, to challenge the sound barrier. A civilian pilot, Slick Goodlin, had taken the Bell X-1 to .7 Mach, when Yeager started to fly it. He pushed the small plane up to .8, .85, and then to .9 Mach. The date of Oct. 14, 1947 was set for the attempt to do Mach 1. Only a slight problem developed. Two nights before, after an evening at Pancho's, Chuck and Glennis went out horseback riding, Chuck was thrown, and broke two ribs on his right side. He couldn't have reported this to the Army doctors they might have given the flight to someone else. So Yeager taped up his ribs and did his best to keep up appearances. On the day of the flight, it became apparent that, with his injured right side, he wouldn't be able to shut the door of the Bell X-1. In the plane's tiny cockpit he could only use his (useless) right hand. He confessed his problem to Ridley, the flight engineer. In a stroke of genius, Ridley sawed off a short piece of broomstick handle using it with his left hand, Yeager was able to get enough leverage to slam the door shut.

And that day, Chuck Yeager became the first man to fly faster than the speed of sound. Tom Wolfe described the conclusion of the exhilarating flight in his splendid book, The Right Stuff:

The X-1 had gone through "the sonic wall" without so much as a bump. As the speed topped out at Mach 1.05, Yeager had the sensation of shooting straight through the top of the sky. The sky turned a deep purple and all at once the stars and the moon came out - the sun shone at the same time. . He was simply looking out into space. . He was master of the sky. His was a king's solitude, unique and inviolate, above the dome of the world. It would take him seven minutes to glide back down and land at Muroc. He spent the time doing victory rolls and wing-over-wing aerobatics while Roger Lake and the High Sierras spun around below.

Click here to read a review of The Right Stuff at Amazon.com.

After the flight, the Army clamped tight security on the whole thing, and Yeager couldn't tell anyone. He celebrated with just a few other pilots at Pancho's. He flew a dozen more transonic flights in the X-1, but still under tight wraps. His accomplishment wasn't announced to the public until mid-1948. The Bell X-1 is now on display at the National Air and Space Museum

After the establishment of the Air Force as a separate branch of the military, Muroc became Edwards Air Force Base.

Flight Test in the 1950's - The X-Planes

Because of his consummate piloting skill, his coolness under pressure and ability to detect a problem, quickly analyze it and take appropriate action, Yeager was selected to probe some of the most challenging unknowns of flight in aircraft such as the X-1A, X-3, X-4, X-5 and XF-92A.

Douglas D-558-II Skyrocket

The records of the X-1 were soon exceeded by the swept-wing Douglas D-558-II Skyrocket. First flown in February, 1948. Pilots such as Pete Everest, Bill Bridgeman, and Marion Carl pushed the envelope with it, achieving speeds of Mach 1.45 and 1.88. Carl took it as high as 83,000 feet. But its ultimate performance came in November, 1953, when Scott Crossfield reached Mach 2 in a shallow dive at 62,000 feet.

Crossfield's distinction as "the fastest man alive" was short-lived. Less than a month later, Yeager piloted the rocket-powered X-1A to a record 1,650 mph (Mach 2.44) on Dec. 12, 1953. During this flight, he became the first pilot to encounter inertia coupling. The aircraft literally tumbled about all three axes as it plummeted for more than 40,000 feet before he was able to recover it to level flight. Even his rival, Scott Crossfield , has since conceded that it was "probably fortunate" that Yeager was the pilot on that flight "so we had the airplane to fly another day." Later in 1953, Kit Murray flew the X-1A up to a new record height, 90,440 feet. Only one model of the Bell X-1A existed it was destroyed in July, 1955

As flight researchers designed aircraft that could fly at Mach 3, they encountered more problems: severe heating, instability, and worse inertial coupling. The swept-wing Bell X-2, with a 15,000 pound thrust, dual chambered rocket engine, constructed of stainless steel, was the next in the series to meet these challenges. Pete Everest made the first powered flight in the X-2 in November, 1955 and later flew it to a new speed record of Mach 2.87. In 1956 pilots Mel Apt and Iven Kincheloe (a Korean War ace) were assigned to the X-2 project. "Kinch" set a new altitude record of 126,000 feet on Sept. 7. Three weeks later Mel Apt became the first man to reach Mach 3 he encountered the same inertial coupling and tumbling as Yeager had in the X-1A, but couldn't pull out of it. Both he and the aircraft were lost.

The Douglas X-3 looked like the hottest and faster airplane ever. It still does. But looks are deceiving. Westinghouse proposed J46 turbojet engines grew too large for the X-3. To get the plane airborne, a pair of J34's were installed, but could never power the plane as intended for sustained supersonic flight test. The X-3 could only exceed Mach 1 in a steep dive. Yeager flew the X-3.

Of course, the ultimate X-plane was the X-15, a true space plane, which pilots like Bob White, Joe Engle, and Neil Armstrong took to extraordinary new records in the 1960's. Joe Walker took the X-15 to a speed of Mach 5 in 1963.

Read an article about the X-15.

By latter-day standards, it is remarkable that, while engaged in a wide range of such highly experimental flight research programs, Yeager was also involved in the evaluation of virtually all of the aircraft that were then being considered for the Air Force's operational inventory. Indeed, he averaged more than 100 flying hours per month from 1947-1954 and, at one point, actually flew 27 different types and models of aircraft within the span of a single month.

In 1953, Yeager tested the Russian MiG-15, serial #2057, that a North Korean pilot had defected with. (Click on the link to read about Lt. Kum Sok No's dramatic defection on September 21, 1953.)

Command

Through the 1950's and 60's, Yeager continued his successful career as a United States Air Force officer and test pilot.

In October 1954, he was assigned to command the 417th Fighter Squadron, first in Germany and then in France. Returning to the United States in September 1957, he served as commander of the 1st Fighter Squadron at George Air Force Base, Calif.

While he did not enter the astronaut program with John Glenn and the other Mercury Seven, he was appointed director of the Aerospace Research Pilot School (ARPS) at Edwards Air Force Base.

One of the planes he tested in 1963 was the NF-104, an F-104 with a rocket over the tailpipe, an airplane which theoretically could climb to over 120,000 feet. Yeager made the first three flights of the NF-104. On the fourth, he planned to exceed the magic 100,000 foot level. He cut in the rocket boosters at 60,000 feet and it roared upwards. He gets up to 104,000 feet before trouble set in. The NF-104's nose wouldn't go down. It went into a flat spin and tumbled down uncontrollably. At 21,000 feet, Yeager desperately popped the tail parachute rig, which briefly righted the attitude of the plane. But the nose promptly rose back up and the NF-104 began spinning again. It was hopeless. At 7,000 feet Yeager ejected. He got tangled up with his seat and leftover rocket fuel, which burnt him horribly. He hit the ground in great pain and his face blackened and burned, but standing upright with his chute rolled up and his helmet in his arm when the rescue helicopter arrived.

This scene was dramatically presented toward the end of the movie, The Right Stuff, and some have conflated this scene with Yeager breaking the sound barrier in the X-1.

He went to Vietnam as commander of the 405th Fighter Wing in 1966 and flew 127 combat missions, and eventually rose to the rank of Brigadier General .

In February 1968, he took command of the 4th Tactical Fighter Wing at Seymour Johnson Air Force Base, N.C., and in February 1968, led its deployment to Korea during the Pueblo crisis. In July 1969, he became vice commander of the 17th Air Force, at Ramstein Air Base, Germany, and then, in January 1971, he was assigned as U.S. defense representative to Pakistan. On June 1, 1973, he commenced his final active duty assignment as director of the AF Safety and Inspection Center at Norton Air Force Base, Calif. After a 34-year military career, he retired on March 1, 1975. At the time of his retirement, he had flown more than 10,000 hours in more than 330 different types and models of aircraft.

In 1986, Yeager was appointed to the Presidential Commission investigating the Challenger accident.

Sources and Links

Edwards AFB - well-designed, easy to navigate site, good use of Flash on main page, lots of history on test pilots, airplanes, and Edwards/Muroc

List of site sources >>>