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Arab -Isroil mojarosi haqida qisqacha ma'lumot - tarix

Arab -Isroil mojarosi haqida qisqacha ma'lumot - tarix

1917 yilda inglizlar Balfur deklaratsiyasini chiqardilar, unda ular Falastinda yahudiy vatanini o'rnatishni qo'llab -quvvatladilar. Millatlar Ligasi Birinchi Jahon Urushidan keyin Britaniyaning yahudiy vatanini qurish haqidagi va'dasiga asoslanib, Falastin bo'yicha Buyuk Britaniyaning mandatini tasdiqladi. 1920 yilda Falastindagi Yaffada yahudiy immigratsiyasiga qarshi birinchi tartibsizliklar bo'lib o'tdi. Germaniyada fashistlarning hokimiyat tepasiga kelishi bilan yahudiylarning Falastinga immigratsiyasi oshdi, Falastin arablari norozilik bildirishdi va Britaniya nazoratiga qarshi isyon ko'tarishdi. Birinchi bo'lib inglizlar juda kichik yahudiy davlatlari va ancha katta arab davlatini yaratadigan Peel rejasini taklif qilishdi. Yahudiylar rozi bo'lishdi, lekin arablar rad etishdi. Ko'p o'tmay, inglizlar "Oq kitob" chiqargandan so'ng, yahudiylarning Falastinga immigratsiyasini chekladi.

1947 yilda 6,000,000 yahudiylar natsistlar tomonidan o'ldirilgan va Falastinda davom etayotgan Xolokost oqibatida Birlashgan Millatlar Tashkiloti Falastinni yahudiy va arab davlatiga bo'lish rejasini ma'qulladi. Quddus xalqaro miqyosda bo'lishi kerak edi. Yahudiylar bu rejani qabul qildilar, lekin arablar qabul qilmadilar. Keyin urush boshlandi, birinchi qism yahudiylar va Falastin arablari o'rtasida bo'lib o'tdi. Bu davrda yahudiylar Birlashgan Millatlar Tashkiloti tomonidan berilgan ko'p joylarni o'z nazoratiga oldilar. Aynan shu davrda birinchi falastinlik qochqinlar yaratildi. Ko'pchilik o'z xohish -irodasi bilan yoki isroilliklar ularga nima qilishidan qo'rqib ketishdi, shubhasiz, kimdir isroilliklarni tark etishga undagan, kimdir esa quvilgan. Urushning ikkinchi bosqichida, 1948 yil 14 -mayda Isroil davlati e'lon qilinganidan so'ng, qo'shni arab davlatlari Isroilga hujum qilishdi, natijada hammasi qaytarildi. 1949 yilda Isroil va unga qo'shni arab davlatlari o'rtasida sulh bitimi imzolandi. Trans-Iordaniya (G'arbiy Sohil va Sharqiy Quddus, shu jumladan Eski shahar) Falastinning arab hududlarini, G'azo sektorini esa Misr qo'shib oldi. 18 yil davomida tinchlik zo'ravonlik va 1956 yilda Misr bilan bo'lgan urushda saqlanib qoldi. Sinay kampaniyasi, 1967 yilgacha. Tiran bo'g'ozi Isroil kemalari uchun yopilganidan va Misr qo'shinlari Isroil chegaralarida to'planganidan so'ng, Isroil ishga tushdi. olti kunlik urush boshlangan oldindan ogohlantiruvchi ish tashlash. Isroil tezda butun Sinayni Misrdan tortib oldi. Bu urush paytida Iordaniya Isroilning qolmasligini talab qilganiga qaramay, G'arbiy Quddusga hujum qila boshladi. Isroil bunga javoban Eski Quddus shahrini va G'arbiy Sohilni egalladi. Isroil Golan tepaliklarini Suriyadan tortib oldi.

1973 yilda Misr va Suriya o'zlariga ishongan Isroilga hujum qilishdi. Isroil birinchi marta katta yo'qotishlarga duch keldi, lekin qaytdi va Suriya va Misr armiyasini mag'lub etdi. Urushning ta'siri ikkala tomonni mojaroni urush bilan hal qilib bo'lmaydi, deb ishontirish edi. Ikkala tomon ham vaqtinchalik tinchlik bitimi tuzdilar. Suriya kelishuvi shundan beri kuchga kirdi. Misr prezidenti Sadat Quddusga Isroil va Misr o'rtasida tinchlik kelishuviga olib kelgan Kemp -Devid kelishuvi bilan Quddusga tashrif buyurganidan keyin, Misr kelishuvlari bekor qilindi.
1993 yilda Falastin ozodlik tashkiloti va Isroil o'rtasida kelishuvga erishildi. Oslo kelishuvi deb nom olgan bu kelishuv natijasida G'azo sektori va G'arbiy Sohildagi yirik arab shaharlari Falastin nazoratiga o'tdi. U etti yil ichida yakuniy kelishuvga erishishga chaqirdi. Bu kelishuvga erishish qiyinligini isbotladi. Isroil bosh vaziri Rabin o'ldirilgandan so'ng, Quddusda ketma -ket portlashlar ko'plab isroilliklarni tinchlik ehtimoli yo'qligiga ishontirdi va ular Isroil muxolifati bosh vaziri Netanyaxuga ovoz berishdi. Undan keyin Bosh vazir Barak keldi. Barak tinchlik shartnomasini tuzishga harakat qildi. Bosh vazir Barak va Falastin ma'muriyati rahbari Yassir Arafat Kemp -Devidda uchrashishdi. O'sha uchrashuvda Barak G'arbiy Sohilning deyarli barchasidan voz kechishni taklif qildi. Bu konferentsiya ikkita muhim nuqtani- 1948 yilgacha bo'lgan Falastinlik qochqinlarni o'z uylariga qaytarish huquqini buzdi. shtatlar va tog'ni kim boshqarishi haqidagi savol. Yahudiylar uchun tog 'birinchi va ikkinchi ma'badning o'rnini anglatadi, musulmonlar uchun bu Islomdagi uchinchi muqaddas joy. Muzokaralar to'xtatilgandan so'ng, Isroil muxolifatining vaqtli lideri Ariel Sharon Ma'bad tog'iga tashrif buyurdi. Bu tashrif falastinliklarga zo'ravonlik qilish uchun bahona bo'ldi. Bu zo'ravonlik Ikkinchi Intifada nomi bilan mashhur bo'lib, Isroil avtobuslari, restoranlari va boshqa jamoatchilik yuzlarida o'z joniga qasd qilishni takrorladi. Ariel Sharon erta saylovda Barakni mag'lub etib, Bosh vazir bo'ldi. Fisih bayrami arafasida, ayniqsa, halokatli portlashdan so'ng, Isroil G'arbiy Sohilning yirik shaharlarini qayta egallab oldi va terror to'lqiniga barham berdi.

Terror to'lqinining to'xtashi bilan Sharon Isroil va G'arbiy Sohil o'rtasida xavfsizlik devorini qurish va G'azodan bir tomonlama chiqib ketish bilan shug'ullanadigan ikki tomonlama strategiyani amalga oshirdi. Isroil G'azodan Hamasni olib chiqib ketgandan so'ng, Falastin va Isroil o'rtasidagi kelishuvlarni tan olmagan, muxolifat guruhi G'azoda hokimiyatni qo'lga kiritdi. Ular vaqti -vaqti bilan Isroilga raketalar otib, Isroil bilan uchta qisqa urushga olib keldi. Birinchisi, 2008 yilda Hamas raketasi katta zarar va jarohatlarga olib kelgan bo'lsa, Isroil G'azoga quruqlikdagi qo'shinlarini yuborishga majbur bo'ldi. 2012 yil ikkinchi turda Isroil "Temir gumbaz" deb nomlangan raketalarga qarshi mudofaa tizimini joylashtirdi. Bu XAMAS raketalarining samaradorligini cheklab qo'ydi va natijada Isroil havo hujumlariga javobini cheklay oldi. Uchinchi turda, 2014 yilda Isroil raketalarga qarshi mudofaa tizimi yana juda samarali bo'ldi, ammo XAMAS tunnel orqali hujumlar bilan javob berdi. Bu Isroilni yana yerga javob berishga va tunnellarni yo'q qilish uchun G'azoning bir qismiga kirishga majbur qildi. 2014 yildan beri tinchlik hukm surmoqda.


1973 yil-Arab-Isroil urushi

1973 yildagi Arab-Isroil urushi AQShning Yaqin Sharqqa nisbatan tashqi siyosatining boshi edi. Bu Nikson ma'muriyatini Isroil 1967 yilda bosib olgan hududlardan chiqib ketishni istamaganidan noroziligi AQSh uchun katta strategik oqibatlarga olib kelishi mumkinligini tushunishga majbur qildi. Urush shu tariqa davlat kotibi Genri Kissingerning "diplomatiya diplomatiyasi" va oxir-oqibat 1979 yildagi Isroil-Misr tinchlik shartnomasiga yo'l ochdi.

Nikson ma'muriyati va Arab-Isroil mojarosi, 1969–1973

Prezident Richard Nikson ishg'ol qilingan hududlar taqdiri bo'yicha arab-isroil qarama-qarshiligi Amerikaning arab dunyosidagi obro'siga putur etkazishi va AQSh-sovet munosabatlarining istiqbolini buzishi mumkinligiga ishongan holda ishga kirdi. Qulfni echishga urinib, u Davlat kotibi Uilyam Rojersga har bir super kuch o'z mintaqaviy mijozlariga sotishi mumkin bo'lgan kelishuvga erishish maqsadida Yaqin Sharqdagi kelishuv parametrlari bo'yicha sovetlar bilan muzokara o'tkazishni buyurdi. Biroq, 1969 yil dekabrga kelib, Sovet Ittifoqi, Misr va Isroil tinchlik evaziga "ahamiyatsiz o'zgarishlar" bilan Isroilni 1949 yilgi sulh chizig'iga chekinishga chaqirgan "Rojers rejasi" ni rad etishdi.

Rojers rejasining muvaffaqiyatsizlikka uchrashi Niksonni Sovetlar bilan kelishuvga erishish harakatlarini to'xtatishga majbur qildi va milliy xavfsizlik bo'yicha maslahatchi Genri Kissingerning Qo'shma Shtatlar Isroilni imtiyozlarga majburlamasligi kerak degan daliliga ishonchi komil edi. sovetlar bilan. 1970 yil yozida Nikson Kissinjer bilan aloqani uzdi va Rojersga Sovet qo'shinlari ishtirok etgan Suvaysh kanali bo'ylab Isroil-Misr "Yo'qotish urushi" ni to'xtatish bo'yicha cheklangan tashabbus ko'rsatishga ruxsat berdi. Isroil va Misrni BMT vositachisi Gunnar Jarring homiyligida uch oylik sulhga va muzokaralarga rozi bo'lishga chaqirgan "Rojers II" 7 avgustda jangni to'xtatgan ikkala tomon tomonidan ham qabul qilindi. Biroq Niksonning diplomatiyaga bo'lgan ishtiyoqi buzildi. Misr va Sovetlarning zenit raketalarini kanalga yaqinlashtirish va Iordaniyadagi fuqarolar urushiga Suriya aralashuvi. 1971 yil fevralgacha Kissinjerning sovet mijozlarini muddatidan oldin mukofotlashga qarshi bahslari yana o'z kuchini topdi.

Ammo 1971 yil fevral oyida Misr Prezidenti Anvar Sadat Nikson ma'muriyatiga arab-isroil tinchlik o'rnatish uchun yangi imkoniyatni taqdim etdi. Sadot, agar Isroil mudofaa kuchlari (Sharqiy qirg'oq) kanalning sharqiy qirg'og'idan chekinsa va keyinchalik olib chiqib ketish jadvaliga rozi bo'lsa, Misr Suvaysh kanalini qayta ochishni taklif qildi. U, shuningdek, agar ID xalqaro chegaraga chekinsa, Isroilga qarshi urush haqidagi barcha da'volaridan voz kechishini aytdi. Biroq, Rojersning Sadotning so'zlarini vaqtinchalik hal qilish yo'li bilan amalga oshirishga urinishlari isroilliklarning qarshiligiga uchradi va Kissinjer va Nikson tomonidan unchalik qo'llab -quvvatlanmadi. Kissinjerning fikricha, Misrning vaqtinchalik kelishuv to'g'risidagi takliflari, shu yilning sentyabr oyida tuzilgan Sovet tinchlik rejasi, isroilliklar tomonidan rad etiladi va 1972 yil may oyida bo'lib o'tadigan Moskva sammitidan oldin Yaqin Sharqdagi kelishmovchiliklarning buzilishiga olib kelishini istamadi. Niksonning fikricha, bunday mulohaza 1972 yilgi prezidentlik saylovidan oldin AQSh-Isroil munosabatlaridagi inqirozdan saqlanish istagi bilan mustahkamlangan.

Yaqin Sharqni muhokama qilishdan amerikaliklar va sovetlar ataylab qochishgan Moskva sammitidan so'ng, Sadat Nikson ma'muriyatini arab-isroil turg'unligini buzish uchun yana ikkita harakat qildi. 1972 yil iyul oyida u Sovet harbiy maslahatchilarini Misrdan chiqarib yuborishga qaror qildi va uning milliy xavfsizlik bo'yicha maslahatchisi Hofiz Ismoil orqali Kissingerga kanal ochdi. 1973 yil fevral oyida Ismoil Kissinjer bilan uchrashdi va Misr Isroil bilan alohida tinchlik bitimini imzolashga tayyorligini bildirdi, unga xalqaro chegaraning har ikki tarafidagi qurolsizlantirilgan zonalar va Sharm ash-Shayx kabi nozik joylardagi tinchlikparvar kuchlar kiradi. Biroq, Misr-Isroil normallashuvi 1967 yilda Isroil bosib olgan barcha hududlardan chiqib ketguncha kutishi kerak edi. Isroilliklar bunga keskin javob berishdi, Nikson va Kissinjer o'z fikrlarini o'zgartirish uchun ko'p harakat qilishmadi. Sadotning umidsizlikka tushgani, Iordaniya qiroli Husayn va Sovet bosh kotibi Leonid Brejnevning ogohlantirishlariga qaramay, Nikson va Kissinjer harbiy muvozanatni hisobga olgan holda, Misr va Suriya Isroilga hujum qilmaydi, deb ishonishgan, buni AQSh razvedkasining ko'p qismi qo'llab-quvvatlagan. jamiyat. 1973 yilning kuzigacha, Prezident va Kissinjer, Amerika diplomatik tashabbusi oktyabr oyida Isroilda saylovlar o'tkazilguncha kutish kerak, degan xulosaga kelishdi.

Urush va uning oqibatlari

1973 yil 6 oktyabrda Misr va Suriya Sinay yarim oroli va Golan tepaliklarida Isroil qo'shinlariga hujum qildi. Isroilning dastlabki muvaffaqiyatsizliklariga qaramay, hozir davlat kotibi va milliy xavfsizlik bo'yicha maslahatchi bo'lgan Kissinger Isroil tezda g'alaba qozonishiga ishondi. U arablarning hiyla -nayranglari Sovetlarni aralashishga majburlashidan qo'rqib, ularning arab dunyosidagi obro'sini yuksaltirib, détentega zarar etkazishi mumkin edi. Shunday qilib, u Qo'shma Shtatlar va Sovet Ittifoqiga janglarni to'xtatishni va 1967 yilgi sulh chizig'iga qaytishni taklif qilishni taklif qildi. O'z mijozlari nomidan aralashishni istamagan sovetlar rozi bo'lishdi, ammo misrliklar sulh taklifini rad etishdi. Arablarning mag'lubiyatidan ham, harbiy aralashuvdan ham qochishni istagan sovetlar keyinchalik Misr va Suriyani qurol -yarog 'bilan ta'minlay boshladilar. 9-oktabrga kelib, Misr kuchlariga qarshi ID hujumining muvaffaqiyatsiz hujumidan so'ng, isroilliklar Amerikadan ular uchun ham shunday qilishni so'rashdi. Isroil mag'lub bo'lganini ko'rishni istamagan Nikson rozi bo'ldi va qurol ko'targan Amerika samolyotlari 14 oktyabrdan Isroilga kela boshladi.

Amerika samolyotlari ko'tarilishi bilan jang arablarga qarshi boshlandi. 16 -oktabrda IDning bo'linmalari Suvaysh kanalidan o'tdi. Sadat otashkesimga qiziqishni ko'rsata boshladi, bu Brejnevni Kissinjerni Moskvaga kelishuvga taklif qilishga undadi. 22 oktyabr kuni BMT Xavfsizlik Kengashi 338-sonli rezolyutsiyani qabul qilib, tinchlik muzokaralarini davom ettirish bo'yicha AQSh-Sovet taklifini qabul qildi. Ammo Kissinjer Tel-Avivga jo'nab ketdi. ID Vashingtonga qaytgan sari oldinga siljishni davom ettirdi. Kissinjer AQShga qaytgach, u 23 oktyabrda Xavfsizlik Kengashi qabul qilgan boshqa sulh rezolyutsiyasini so'rash haqidagi Sovet talabiga rozi bo'ldi. Lekin isroilliklar baribir to'xtashdan bosh tortishdi. 24 -oktabrda Brejnev Niksonga ishonch telefoni orqali AQSh va Sovet Ittifoqi Misrga otashkesimni "amalga oshirish" uchun qo'shin yuborishini taklif qildi. Agar Nikson bunday qilmaslikni tanlagan bo'lsa, Brejnev: "Biz bir tomonlama ravishda tegishli choralar ko'rish masalasini zudlik bilan ko'rib chiqishimiz kerak", deb qo'rqitdi. Qo'shma Shtatlar bunga javoban 25 oktabrda o'z yadroviy kuchlarini dunyo miqyosida tayyor holatga keltirdi. Kun oxiriga kelib, Xavfsizlik Kengashi 340 -sonli rezolyutsiyani qabul qilib, o't o'chirishni, 22 oktyabrdagi pozitsiyalariga barcha kuchlarni olib chiqishni talab qildi. , va BMT kuzatuvchilari va tinchlikparvar kuchlari sulhni kuzatish uchun. Bu safar isroilliklar rezolyutsiyani qabul qilishdi.

1973 yilgi urush Isroilning g'alabasi bilan yakunlandi, lekin AQSh uchun katta xarajat. Urush hech qanday ta'sir ko'rsatmagan bo'lsa -da, u AQShni Kubadagi raketa inqirozidan keyingi har qanday davrga qaraganda Sovet Ittifoqi bilan yadroviy qarama -qarshilikka yaqinlashtirdi. Amerika harbiy samolyotlarining Isroilga olib borishi arab neft ishlab chiqaruvchilarini AQSh va G'arbiy Evropaning ayrim mamlakatlariga neft etkazib berishga embargo qo'yishiga olib keldi, bu esa xalqaro iqtisodiy inqirozni keltirib chiqardi. Arab-Isroil tinchlik o'rnatish uchun Kissinger katta kuch sarflashi kerak edi.


Miloddan avvalgi 3000 dan 2500 yilgacha -Hozirgi Isroilning O'rta er dengizining serhosil qirg'oqlarini Arabistonning qurg'oqchil cho'llaridan ajratib turadigan tepaliklar shahriga dastlab Kan'on o'lkasi deb nomlanuvchi butparast qabilalar joylashdilar. Muqaddas Kitobda aytilishicha, shaharni boshqargan oxirgi kan'onliklar yevuslar edi.

Yoqub, ibroniy Yaaqov, arabcha Yaqub, shuningdek, Isroil, ibroniy Isroil, arabcha isroil, Ibrohimning nabirasi, Is'hoq va Rivqoning o'g'li, Isroil xalqining an'anaviy ajdodi bo'lgan ibroniy patriarxi. Muqaddas Kitobda Yoqub haqidagi hikoyalar Ibtido 25:19 da boshlanadi.


Arab-Isroil mojarosi

Arab-Isroil mojarosi
Arab-Isroil mojarosining tarixiy kontekstini tushunish Yaqin Sharqning dastlabki tarixini tushunishga yordam beradi va Falastin va Isroil o'rtasidagi to'qnashuvlar tarixiy voqealari haqida umumiy ma'lumot beradi.

Arab-Isroil mojarosi tarixi xronologiyasi miloddan avvalgi 1400 yilda Isroil va Yahudiya, Isroilning Rim tomonidan bosib olinishi va uning nomini Falastin deb o'zgartirish, Usmonli imperiyasining musulmon qo'shinlari, Falastinning bo'linishi, Isroil davlati va Isroil bilan Urush o'rtasidagi urushlardan boshlanadi. uning qo'shnilari. Arab-Isroil mojarosining asosiy sanalari va voqealari "Tarix xronologiyasi" da batafsil ko'rsatilgan.

Arab-Isroil mojarosi
Bolalar uchun arab-isroil mojarosi tarixi.

Arab-Isroil mojarosi: asosiy sanalar va voqealar

Arab-Isroil mojarosi: Miloddan avvalgi 1400 yil - Isroil va Misr o'rtasidagi ziddiyat ming yillar oldin Injil davriga borib taqaladi. Miloddan avvalgi 1400 yilda Isroil va Yahudiya Kan'on erlarida Ibroniy shohligini egallab olishdi.

Arab-Isroil mojarosi: 90 -yil - Eramizning 90 -yilida rimliklar Isroil yahudiylarini Muqaddas Vatanni tark etishga majbur qilishdi, rimliklar Quddusni egallab, bu erni Falastin deb atashdi.

Arab-Isroil mojarosi: 621 - Rim imperiyasi qulab tushdi va taxminan 621 yilda Falastinning Rim mintaqasi musulmon qo'shinlari tomonidan bosib olindi, ular Islom dinini Falastinga olib kelishdi.

Arab-Isroil mojarosi: 1517 - Usmonli turklari Usmonli imperiyasi tarqatib yuborilgach, 1517-1918 yillarda Yaqin Sharq imperiyasini boshqargan.

Arab-Isroil mojarosi: 1918 - Birinchi jahon urushi oxirida inglizlarga mintaqani nazorat qilish topshirildi (1920 - 1948) va Falastinda yahudiy xalqining milliy uyi tashkil etilishini ma'qul ko'rdi.

Arab-Isroil mojarosi: 1947 - Falastinning bo'linishi 1947 yilda BMTning 181 -sonli rezolyutsiyasi bilan sodir bo'lgan, unda yahudiy davlati, arab davlati va Quddusni baynalmilallashtirish tashkil etilgan.

Arab-Isroil mojarosi: 1948 - Isroil davlati 1948 yilda G'arbiy Sohil va G'azo sektori sharq va g'arbni o'z ichiga olgan Livan, Suriya, Iordaniya va Falastin hududlari bilan quruqlik chegaralarini (qisman Isroil nazorati ostidadir) tashkil etilgan. va janubi -g'arbda Misr. Arablar Birlashgan Millatlar Tashkilotining rezolyutsiyasini rad etishdi va Isroil va uning qo'shnilari o'rtasida, asosan Misr boshchiligida katta urushlar boshlandi.

Arab-Isroil mojarosi: 1948 - 1948 yilgi Arab-Isroil urushi Isroil bilan beshta arab davlati va Falastin-arablar o'rtasidagi keng ko'lamli urush edi.

Arab-Isroil mojarosi: 1956 - 1956 yildagi Sinay kampaniyasi va Suvayz inqirozi natijasida Isroil Misrga bostirib kirdi.

Arab-Isroil mojarosi: 1967 - 1967 yilgi olti kunlik urush (1967 yil 5-10 iyun) Isroil va unga qo'shni bo'lgan barcha Misr, Iordaniya, Suriya va Livan o'rtasida bo'lib o'tdi, ularga boshqa arab davlatlari yordam berdi.

Arab-Isroil mojarosi: 1973 - 1973 yom -kippur urushi yoki arab -isroil urushi, Misr va Suriya boshchiligidagi arab davlatlari koalitsiyasi tomonidan (SSSR tomonidan qo'llab -quvvatlangan) 1973 -yil 6 -oktabrdan 25 -oktabrgacha Isroilga (AQSh tomonidan qo'llab -quvvatlangan) qarshi olib borilgan. Urush Misr armiyasi deyarli 7 yil davomida Isroil qo'shinlari tomonidan bosib olingan Sinayni qaytarib oldi.

Arab-Isroil mojarosi: 1978 - 1978 yilgi Kemp -Devid bitimiga Isroilning Sinayning qolgan qismidan chiqish sharti kiritilgan.

Arab-Isroil mojarosi: 1979 - 1979 yil 26 martda Isroil tinchlik shartnomasi imzolandi.

Arab-Isroil mojarosi: 1987 - Birinchi Intifada (1987-1993), G'arbiy Sohil va G'azoni Isroil bosib olishiga qarshi Falastin qo'zg'oloni.

Arab-Isroil mojarosi: 1991 - Madrid konferentsiyasi (1991 yil yanvar-fevral), AQSh va Sovet Ittifoqi birgalikda Ispaniyaning Madrid shahrida xalqaro tinchlik konferentsiyasini o'tkazdilar.

Arab-Isroil mojarosi: 1993 - Oslo bitimlari (1993 - 1994), Isroil hukumati va Falastin ozodlik tashkiloti (PLO) o'rtasidagi kelishuvlar to'plami.

Arab-Isroil mojarosi: 1994 - Iordaniya tinchlik shartnomasi 1994 yil 26 oktyabrda "qon to'kish va qayg'u" va adolatli va mustahkam tinchlik to'g'risida imzolandi.

Arab-Isroil mojarosi: asosiy sanalar va voqealar

Arab-Isroil mojarosi
Tarix xronologiyasi bolalar uchun arab-isroil mojarosi bilan davom etadi.

Arab-Isroil mojarosi: asosiy sanalar va voqealar

Arab-Isroil mojarosi: 2000 - Ikkinchi Intifada (2000 - 2005), Isroilning G'arbiy Sohil va G'azoni bosib olishiga qarshi yana bir Falastin qo'zg'oloni.

Arab-Isroil mojarosi: 2002 - AQSh prezidenti Jorj Bush Isroil bilan tinch -totuv yashaydigan mustaqil Falastin davlatini tuzishga chaqirdi

Arab-Isroil mojarosi: 2005 - Isroil 2005 yilda G'azodan butunlay chiqib ketdi

Arab-Isroil mojarosi: 2006 - 2006 yil Livan urushi. Taxminan bir million livanlik va 300.000-500.000 isroillik ko'chirildi.

Arab-Isroil mojarosi: 2007 - G'azo urushi (2007 - 2009) va blokada boshlandi, natijada Hamas G'azo sektorini o'z nazoratiga oldi

Arab-Isroil mojarosi: 2010 - AQSh Vashingtonda Isroil va Falastin ma'muriyati o'rtasida to'g'ridan -to'g'ri muzokaralarni boshladi

Arab-Isroil mojarosi: 2012 - Falastin ma'muriyati BMTning Falastin davlatchiligini tan olish to'g'risidagi rezolyutsiyasini "Falastin bahori" deb atadi.

Arab-Isroil mojarosi: 2014 - Isroil tomonidan 2014 yil 8-iyulda Hamas boshqargan G'azo sektorida boshlangan Isroil-G'azo mojarosi.

Arab-Isroil mojarosi: 2015 - Isroilliklar tomonidan "terror to'lqini" yoki ommaviy axborot vositalarida "pichoq intifada" nomi bilan tanilgan va potentsial uchinchi intifada sifatida tasvirlangan Isroil mojarosi. Ma'bad tog'ining maqomi borasidagi falastinliklar va isroilliklar o'rtasidagi ziddiyat tufayli nizo.

Arab-Isroil mojarosi: asosiy sanalar va voqealar

Arab -Isroil mojarosi - AQSh tarixi - Matn - Asosiy voqea - Tarix xronologiyasi - Asosiy sanalar va voqealar - Ta'rif - Amerika - AQSh - AQSh - Tarix xronologiyasi - Asosiy sanalar va voqealar - Amerika - Sana - AQSh - Bolalar - Bolalar - Tarix xronologiyasi - Asosiy sanalar va voqealar - Maktablar - Uy vazifasi - Muhim - Matn - Muammolar - Asosiy - Asosiy - Asosiy - Matn - Voqea - Tarix - Qiziqarli - Tarix xronologiyasi - Asosiy sana va voqealar - Amerika tarixi - Matn - Tarixiy - Katta voqea - Arab- Isroil mojarosi


Bu "aparteid" haqida emas

Isroil falastinliklarga "aparteid" ni majburlaydigan "bosib oluvchi davlat" emas. Haqiqiy aparteid iqtisodiy va siyosiy kamsitish bilan birga rasman ruxsat etilgan irqiy segregatsiya deb ta'riflanadi. Bu Isroilga to'g'ri kelmaydi. Arab isroilliklari to'liq fuqarolar bo'lib, yahudiy isroilliklar bilan bir xil huquqlarga ega. Arablar siyosiy va harbiy lavozimlarda, jumladan Isroil sudlari va boshqaruv organi - Knessetda. Arablar Isroil iqtisodiyotida imkoniyatlar va xizmatlarni ajratmasdan erkin ishtirok etadilar. Isroil dinidan qat'i nazar, barcha fuqarolarining diniy erkinligini himoya qiladi. Aslida, tadqiqotlar shuni ko'rsatadiki, ko'pchilik isroillik arablar Isroil boshqaruvini Falastin ma'muriyatidan ko'ra afzal ko'rishadi. Bu sarlavhalarda va arab hukmdorlari, o'qituvchilari va diniy rahbarlarining chiqishlarida tarqalgan ayblovlar, lekin ularning hech biri to'g'ri emas. Mojaroning haqiqiy sababi ham emas.

Xo'sh, arab-isroil mojarosining sababi nima? Bu hujumlarning harakatlantiruvchi kuchi - yahudiy xalqiga nisbatan kuchli nafrat va Isroil davlatining mavjud bo'lishga haqqi yo'qligi. Ko'plab falastinliklar va boshqa arab rahbarlarining yagona maqsadi? Isroilning yo'q qilinishi.


Asosiy muammolar qanday?

Isroil va falastinliklar kelisha olmaydigan bir qancha muammolar bor.

Bunga quyidagilar kiradi: ishg'ol qilingan G'arbiy Sohildagi yahudiy aholi punktlari qoladimi yoki yo'q qilinadimi, ikki tomon Quddusni bo'lishishi kerakmi yoki, ehtimol, eng qiyin - Falastin davlati Isroil bilan bir qatorda tuzilishi kerakmi, falastinlik qochqinlar bilan nima sodir bo'lishi kerak.

Tinchlik muzokaralari 25 yildan ortiq davom etmoqda va davom etmoqda, ammo haligacha mojaro hal qilinmagan.


Isroil va Arab-Isroil mojarosi xronologiyasi-1800-yillar

Bosh vazir Ben Gurion va elchi Eban prezident Trumanga Vashingtondagi sovg'ani sovg'a qilmoqdalar, 1951 yil 8 may. Foto: Public Domain
    - Urush tugagandan so'ng, yahudiy davlatining chegaralari 37% BMT tomonidan 1947 yilda qabul qilinganidan kattaroq bo'lib ketdi, Falastinda birorta arab davlati tashkil etilmadi, Iordaniya Arab davlati uchun belgilangan hududning katta qismini egallab oldi va janglar "urush holatida" davom etdi. Isroil va arab davlatlari o'rtasida sulh bitimi deb nomlanuvchi hech qanday shartnoma tuzilmagan. 730 ming falastinlik Isroil davlatiga aylangan hududni tark etadi. Quddus bo'linib ketgan shaharga aylanadi va Iordaniya va Isroil har biridan ulush oladi.

  • 1948-1952 yillar-Arab mamlakatlaridan kelgan 800,000 yahudiylar, barcha yahudiylar yangi sionistik davlatni qo'llab-quvvatlaydilar, deb ishongan ko'plab arab rahbarlarining qo'lidan kelganidan so'ng, Isroilga ko'chib o'tdilar va joylashdilar. Isroilning qaytish qonunidagi yahudiylarga Isroilga kelish va fuqaro bo'lish huquqi berilgan. AIPACning tashkiliy kashfiyotchisi, Isroilning Jamoatchilik bilan aloqalar bo'yicha Amerika qo'mitasi tashkil etilgan. Iordaniya 1951 yilda Isroil bilan shartnoma imzolamoqchi edi, biroq Iordaniya qiroli Abdulloh Quddusda o'ldirilganda bekor qilindi. Truman doktrinasi ham, Eyzenxauer doktrinasi ham Amerikaning Yaqin Sharqni kommunizm va SSSRning Yaqin Sharqqa tarqalishidan himoya qilishini namoyish etadi.
  • 1950-1970 yillar -Amerika yahudiylari Isroil rahbarlarining yahudiylarning Isroilga immigratsiya qilishlarini talab qilishiga unchalik qiziqishmaydi. AQSh Isroilning yadroviy izlanishlarini sekinlashtirmoqchi emas. Isroil arab boykotlari va yuz minglab yahudiy qochqinlarni o'zlashtirishi natijasida yuzaga kelgan qiyinchiliklar tufayli og'ir iqtisodiy davrlarni boshdan kechirmoqda.
  • 1956 yil - Suvaysh urushi Isroil bilan 5 kun ichida Sinayni suiqasd qildi, lekin Frantsiya va Buyuk Britaniyaning yordamisiz. Arab davlatlarining fikricha, Isroilning bu muvaffaqiyati Buyuk Britaniyaning yordamisiz bo'lmasdi.
  • 1957 yil - Eyzenxauer Isroilning Sinaydan chiqib ketishiga to'sqinlik qilar ekan, BMT Isroilga yuk tashish huquqlarini himoya qilish uchun Sinayda xalqaro favqulodda kuchlarni joylashtirishni taklif qildi. Davlat kotibi Dalles Isroildan g'azablandi, lekin Isroil AQShning qurol bilan himoyalanishiga muhtoj ekanini angladi va SSSRning Yaqin Sharqdagi ta'siri kuchayishi bilan Isroilni strategik boylik deb atadi. Isroilning Ben-Gurioni Misrdagi kamsitish, dushmanlik va boykot haqidagi adolatsizliklarga murojaat qiladi.
  • 1950 -yillarning oxiri - AQSh Isroilga cheklangan qurol -yarog 'berishni boshladi, chunki arab davlatlari AQShning SSSR bilan birlashishi, Isroilning yadroviy salohiyatini izlashdan hali ham bezovta. Falastin Ozodlik Tashkiloti 1964 yilda tashqi tomondan Isroilni yo'q qilish maqsadida tuzilgan.
  • 1967 yil-Misr Prezidenti Nosir boshchiligidagi arab davlatlari Isroilning vayronagarchiliklari bilan qattiq tahdid qilishdi, Isroil harbiy ustunlikka ega bo'lish uchun arab davlatlariga zarba berib, Isroil omon qolishidan qo'rqib, besh barobar kengayib, Sharqiy Quddus, G'arbiy Sohil, G'azo sektori va uning bir qismini nazorat ostiga oldi. Suriya Golan tepaliklari va butun Misr Sinay yarim oroli. BMT Xavfsizlik Kengashining 242-sonli rezolyutsiyasi o'tib ketadi va kelajakdagi arab-isroil muzokaralari uchun asos bo'ladi, u mintaqadagi barcha davlatlarni tan olish va Isroil 1967 yilgi urushda egallab olmagan hududlarning ma'lum miqdorini almashishni talab qiladi. Isroilliklar Quddus munitsipalitetini Eski shahar va Isroil 1967 yilgi urushdan oldin nazorat qilgan hududlarning shimolida, janubida va sharqidagi ba'zi arab mahallalarini qamrab olish uchun kengaytirdilar. Urush tugashi bilan hech qanday arab-isroil shartnomalari muhokama qilinmaydi.
  • 1967 yil - Urushdan keyin arab davlatlari Xartum sammitidagi konferentsiyada Isroilni "tinchlik, muzokaralar va tan olmaslik" to'g'risida bir ovozdan rozi bo'lishdi. Golan tepaliklarida va Xevron yaqinida birinchi yahudiy aholi punktlari tashkil etilgan. Isroil G'arbiy Sohil va boshqa hududlarni saqlab qolish haqida ellik yillik qarashlarni boshladi.

  • 1969 yil - Amerika Rojers rejasi - "1967 yilgi chiziqlarga orqaga chekinish" - AQSh Davlat kotibining taklifi va Isroil jamoatchilik rejasidan hayratda qoldi va uning manfaatlari ifodalanmagan deb hisoblaganligi sababli g'oyani rad etdi. Isroil o'z taqdirini, chegaralarini va qo'shnilar bilan muzokaralar tezligini nazorat qilmoqchi. Har bir Isroil Bosh vaziri Isroilning xavfsizlik siyosati to'g'risida qaror qabul qilgan chet el rahbarlarini yoqtirmaydi.
  • 1970 yil - Isroil qirol Husayn rejimiga fuqarolar urushi va Suriyadan bostirib kirish xavfi tug'ilganda Iordaniyaga harbiy yordam beradi.
  • 1971 yil-1973 yil-AQSh Misr va Isroil o'rtasida muzokaralar suvini sinovdan o'tkazadi, lekin AQSh ma'muriyati Misr Prezidenti Sadatning maslahatchisi Xofiz Ismoil bilan maxfiy uchrashuvlardan so'ng muzokaralarni boshlamaydi.
  • 1973 yil - Yom Kippur kuni, Suriya va Misr bir vaqtning o'zida Isroilga hujum qilishdi - Misr Prezidenti Sadat, Isroilni yo'q qilishdan manfaatdor bo'lgan Sinayni ozod qilish uchun cheklangan harbiy urushni diplomatiya bilan birlashtirishdan manfaatdor - Qohira va Damashq AQShning aralashuviga boshqacha qaraydi. Misr Vashingtonni quchoqlaydi, Suriya unchalik emas.

  • 1973 va AQShning Isroilga harbiy yordami - dastlabki muvaffaqiyatsizlikka uchraganidan so'ng, Isroil kutilmagan hujumni qaytaradi va urush Isroil bilan Damashqdan 40 km uzoqlikda va Qohiradan 100 km uzoqlikda Isroil va Misr generallari kelishuvni bekor qilish to'g'risida muzokara olib boradi. Davlat kotibi Kissinjer UNSC 338 ni qo'lga kiritdi, bu tomonlar o'rtasida to'g'ridan -to'g'ri muzokaralar olib borishni talab qiladi, Isroilning oldingi barcha hukumatlarining orzusi, Kissingerning xoreografiyasi Jenevaning Yaqin Sharq tinchlik konferentsiyasi - SSSRni o'z ichiga oladi, lekin AQSh muzokaralarni olib boradi va evropaliklar va BMTni vositachilikdan chetlashtiradi. nizo. Suriya Misrning Isroil bilan muzokaralaridan norozi.
  • 1974 yil-Kissinger E-I farqlari vositachiligini davom ettirdi, natijada 1974 yil yanvar oyida mamlakatlar o'rtasida harbiy bo'linish yuz berdi va Suriyani Isroil bilan ham kelishuvga erishishga ko'ndirdi. 1973 yil urushida AQShga Isroilni qo'llab-quvvatlash uchun qo'yilgan besh oylik arab neft embargosi ​​bekor qilindi.
  • 1975 yil - AQSh prezidenti Ford Isroilga qurol uzatishni vaqtincha to'xtatdi, chunki Isroil Sinaydan darhol chiqib ketmaydi. Tinchlik buzildi va AQSh vositachilik qilmoqda Ikkinchi (1975) Misr-Isroil kelishuvi yordami sezilarli darajada tiklandi, AQSh Misr-Isroil harbiy kuchlarini ajratuvchi kuzatuvchilar sifatida o'z qo'shinlarini Sinayga joylashtirdi. Misr "normal holatga" qaytish belgisi sifatida Suvaysh kanalini qayta ochmoqchi Yitjak Rabin boshchiligida, Misrning yangi prezidenti Sadatning Isroil bilan urushni tugatishga tayyorligiga hali ham shubha bilan qaramoqda, garchi u Ruminiya va boshqa joylardan kelgan vositachilar, Sadat Misrning yo'nalishini Moskvadan, muvaffaqiyatsiz sotsialistik iqtisodiyotdan va Amerika texnologiyasidan foydalanishni o'zgartirmoqchi bo'lsa kerak. Sadot, AQSh Isroildan voz kechmasligini tushungani uchun, u Amerika prezidentligini diplomatiya bilan ishlatmoqchi. Sadat dastlab Jerald Fordning mag'lubiyatidan mamnun emas edi, bu Jimmi Karterning Isroil va uning arab qo'shnilari o'rtasida Yaqin Sharqda keng qamrovli tinchlik o'rnatishga qo'shilishidan mamnun.
  • 1977 yil - AQSh prezidenti Karter Isroilni Falastin tashkiloti bilan muzokaralarni qabul qilishga va G'arbiy Sohil va G'azo sektoridan chiqib ketishga, Falastin davlatini tuzishga umid qilmoqda. Isroil bosh vazirlari Rabin va Menachem Begin uning shartlarini qabul qilishdan bosh tortadilar. Isroil ham, Misr ham xalqaro konferentsiyaga borishni xohlamaydilar, u erda boshqalar muzokaralar bo'yicha o'z pozitsiyalarini aniqlaydilar va Karterning SSSRni Yaqin Sharq muzokaralarida qatnashishini xohlamaydilar. Sadat Karterning iste'molidan sabrsizlanib, u va Begin o'z emissarlarini AQShning ko'zidan uzoqroq tutishadi. Ular to'g'ridan -to'g'ri gapirishni afzal ko'rishadi. Sadat 1977 yil noyabr oyida Quddusga jo'nab ketadi va Karterning tinchlik muzokaralari olib borgan sa'y -harakatlaridan e'tiborini chalg'itadi. Sadat Isroil parlamentida chiqish qiladi. U arab dunyosini hayratda qoldiradi, lekin u Isroil bilan hech qanday tan olinishni yoki muzokaralarni rad etadi. Sadotni Isroilga ochiq kutib olishni boshlang. To'g'ridan-to'g'ri Isroil-Misr muzokaralarida katta yutuqlarga erishilmadi, bu esa AQShni Misr va Isroil bilan bevosita aloqada bo'lishiga olib keldi.
  • 1977 yil - Isroil - AQSh munosabatlari tobora yomonlashib bormoqda, chunki Karter ma'muriyati Saudiya monarxiyasini qo'llab -quvvatlashga moyil bo'lib, AQShning Nikson va Ford ma'muriyatlari ko'rsatgan Sadatni quchoqlashini davom ettirmoqda. Begin va uning barcha o'tmishdoshlariga qarshi chiqib, Karter, G'arbiy Sohil va G'azo sohilida Isroilning xavfsizligi nimaga muhtojligini aytib berishni talab qilmoqda - Begin bu hududlarda Falastin davlati tuzilishiga mutlaqo qarshi va yahudiy aholi punktlarini to'xtatishga qarshi. u yahudiy merosxo'rligining ajralmas qismi deb hisoblagan bu sohalarda.
  • 1978 yil-Sadat, Begin, Karter va ularning yordamchilari o'rtasidagi Kemp-Devid sammiti natijasida Misr va Isroil ikkita bitimni imzoladilar: biri o'z-o'zini boshqarish yoki Isroil nazorati ostidagi falastinliklar uchun avtonomiya, ikkinchisi Misr-Isroil tinchlik shartnomasi. E-I shartnomasi bo'yicha davom etayotgan muzokaralar asta-sekinlik bilan davom etmoqda, Falastinning o'zini o'zi boshqarishini amalga oshirish borasida ozgina yutuqlarga erishildi. Isroilliklar G'arbiy Sohil va G'azo sohilidan chiqib, Falastin tashkiloti yoki davlatiga er berishdan bosh tortmoqda. Karter ma'muriyati boshlang'ich hukumatdan juda g'azablangan va g'azablangan, ammo Sadat va Karter Misr-Isroil shartnomasi muzokara qilinishini va imzolanishini mutlaq ustunlik deb bilishadi. Arofat AQSh bilan muzokaralarga qo'shilishdan bosh tortdi.
  • 1979—E-I Peace Treaty signed Sadat willing signs a “separate peace” with Israel, leaving other Arab and Muslim states further angry at Sadat’s embrace of Israeli sovereignty Shah of Iran leaves country due to unrest and illness religious radical Islamic leader Khomeini returns to Iran he powers Islamic political hegemony in Middle East and beyond. Israel and Egypt maintain a “cold peace,” though ambassadors are exchanged. The Carter administration intentionally casts a UN vote categorizing Israel as occupier of territories taken in June 1967 War.

(L-R) President Sadat, President Carter and Prime Minister Begin at Peace Treaty Signing at White House, March 26, 1979. Photo: Israel GPO
  • 1980s—Reagan administration views Israel as strategic asset Palestinian autonomy talks go nowhere, Israel builds settlements in West Bank and Gaza Strip, with US still opposed to settlement building Europe offers first ideas of negotiating end to conflict in Venice Declaration.
  • 1981—US sells AWACS planes to Saudi Arabia despite loud Israeli protest Israel withdraws from almost all of Sinai, per E-I Treaty. Reagan vilifies Israel for destroying Iraqi nuclear reactor Sadat assassinated by Islamic militants, his successor, Husni Mubarak stays true to treaty with Israel.
  • 1982—Reagan Plan– seeks to link future of West Bank with Jordan Israel surprised and miffed at not being consulted prior to announcement. Again, Begin and Israel do not want to be told how to negotiate and what to concede in negotiations.
  • 1982 – Israel invades southern Lebanon seeking to destroy PLO infrastructure there Reagan admonishes Begin for moving Israeli troops into Beirut American marines escort Arafat out of Beirut– PLO moves headquarters to Tunis.

  • 1983 – US-Israel sign agreement declaring Israel a strategic asset to US US assures Israel of Qualitative Military Edge in weapons supplies over Arab neighbors.
  • 1986-1995 – One million plus Russian Jews immigrate to Israel.
  • 1987 – Major Palestinian uprising (intifada) against Israeli rule in territories unfolds to Israel’s surprise it continues until 1992 with violence perpetrated against Israeli civilians–generating Israeli reprisals against Palestinians.
Young Palestinians throwing stones at Israeli soldiers during first Intifada, 1988. Photo: Public Domain.
  • 1988—US opens dialogue with PLO without telling Israel, hoping to modify PLO’s reluctance to give up terrorism and non-Israeli recognition. PLO accepts UNSCR 242 and forswears terrorism. Hamas, the Palestinian militant Islamic organization issues its founding charter calling all land west of the Jordan River Muslim land, rejecting any acceptance of Zionism whatsoever King Hussein announces his intention to politically disengage from the West Bank, leaving the PLO to fill the political vacuum.
  • 1989-1992—US-Israel relations grow distinctly cold over continuation of Israeli settlement building. Group of Israeli historians publish books putting much of the blame of the dispersed Palestinian condition on Israeli behavior in 1947-49.
  • 1991-1992—Bush administration— Iraq overruns Kuwait, with Iraqi president claiming he is also on the way to “liberate” Palestine. Iraq fires missiles at Saudi Arabia and Israel. Kuwait sovereignty is restored, Iraq is defeated, and Israel withholds military retaliation against Iraq. Israel curries favor with US for doing so. Madrid peace conference unfolds evolving into bilateral negotiations between Israel and each Arab neighbor, with Palestinians present in Jordanian delegation multi-lateral talks on topical issues like water, refugees, borders, and economic development ensue between Israel and individual Arab states, and international community. No agreements are reached from the Madrid Peace Conference.
President Bush addresses attendees of the Madrid Peace Conference, October 30, 1991. Photo: US National Archive
  • 1992-1993—Secret PLO-Israeli negotiations evolve, yielding 1993, Oslo Accords signed on White House lawn – – PLO and Israel recognize each other – Israel provides PLO with self-rule in the WB and GS. Nothing said about settlements Palestinian Authority (PA) formed to govern WB and GS, PLO is not dissolved. Yasir Arafat remains head of both Palestinian political organizations.

(L-R) King Hussein, President Clinton and Prime Minister Rabin at Jordan-Israel peace deal signing., July 1994. Photo: AP.
  • 1994—Jordan-Israel peace treaty signed US played no significant role in its signing Jordan and Israel see each other as having mutual vital interests. Jordanian – Israeli military and intelligence cooperation continues.
  • 1995 – Israeli PM Rabin assassinated by right wing leaning Israeli disgruntled with Rabin’s signature on Oslo Accords and possible provision of WB (Judea and Samaria) to Palestinian control.
  • 1996-1999—Clinton-Netanyahu relationship frosty growth and expansion of Israeli settlements continues.
  • 2000—Camp David II summit unfolds, without pre-negotiations, no tangible agreement results PLO leader Arafat is still not ready to accept Israel and especially Israeli PM Barak’s proposal to end the conflict.
  • 2000—Clinton tries to reopen Syrian-Israeli talks, but does not succeed in moving Damascus and Israel towards an agreement second major Palestinian intifada (uprising) erupts against Israeli civilians in the West Bank and inside pre-1967 Israel.
  • 2000-2001–Clinton leaves office after presenting Clinton Parameters as an outline for a negotiated settlement, no agreement is signed.
  • 2001—Israel initiates building the security “wall/fence” around pre-1967 borders, including many Jewish settlements built over the previous “green line” or armistice lines separating pre-1967 Israel from the West Bank as consequence, over next decade and more, terrorist attacks against Israel largely reduced. Israel condemned by international community for building “fence/wall.” Fear exists from those abroad that the “fence/wall” will become de facto border between Israel and any Palestinian political entity. Active political De-Legitimization of Israel spawned through international meetings by progressives is joined by growth Arab and Islamic anti-Semitism.
  • 2002 – US President Bush suggests a two-state solution to the Palestinian-Israeli conflict UNSC 1397 affirms a two-state solution first time UN suggests a two-state solution.
  • 2002 – Arab states call for qualified normalization of relations in the Arab Peace Initiative with Israel, but remain imprecise on resolution of Palestinian refugee issue Israel will not accept Palestinian Arab return to Israel inside the pre-1967 lines fearing end of Jewish majority in state.
  • 2003—Roadmap for a two-state solution suggested by Quartet-EU, UN, US, and Russia – ambiguous language Hamas rejects it out of hand Israel accepts some of the terms suggested, but has reservations because of no final resolution to Palestinian refugee issue. Several EU countries show increased disfavor of Israel for continued settlement growth.
  • 2004—Bush-Sharon letter—US affirms that Israel’s borders can be greater than the 1967 lines long time PLO leader Arafat dies. Palestinian Arabs remain severely splintered ideologically on whether to negotiate with and recognize Israel. Hamas says no, never. Israeli PM Sharon publically accepts idea of a two-state solution to the conflict. Palestinian intifada slowly ends, but Palestinian attacks against Israel continue. Sharon amplifies his Gaza Disengagement Plan.
(L-R) Prime Minister Abbas, President Bush and Prime Minister Sharon following joint statement in Aqaba, Jordan, June 4, 2003. Photo, Public Domain
  • 2005—Israel unilaterally withdraws from the Gaza Strip, and four small settlements in the West Bank, hoping to ease toward normalization with PA and PLO 9,000 Israeli settlers leave Gaza.
  • 2006—Israel and Hezbollah engage in 34-day war in Lebanon- no geographic changes result. Hezbollah rearms with weapons from Iran, via Syria.
  • 2006—Hamas defeats Fatah in Palestine Legislative Council elections corruption in Fatah leadership alienates many Palestinian voters.
  • 2007—Hamas removes PLO/PA control over the Gaza Strip in violent coup and militarizes the strip, which is then used to launch rocket and infiltration attacks against Israel.
  • 2007—Annapolis Peace Conference–Palestinian-Israeli negotiations jump started, but result in no end to the conflict, no agreements are signed Palestinians seek permanent halt of all Israeli settlements.
  • 2008-2009—Israel-Hamas conflict erupts Israel seeks to stop rocket attacks Iran continues to build nuclear capacity to international and Israeli displeasure.
  • 2009 – Settlements building controversy erupts anew between Israel and US Barack Obama says settlements should stop, while Netanyahu in Bar-Ilan speech calls for two-state solution, specifying a demilitarized Palestinian state.

  • 2009 – UN publishes scathing report highly critical of Israel’s recent conflict with Hamas for targeting civilians, then author of report retracts conclusions as perhaps biased. European Parliament endorses support for Palestinian self-determination.

  • 2010 – Renewed US effort at mediation US affirms Israel’s right to be “a Jewish state.” Israel still seeks direct bilateral, no-pre-conditions to commence talks with the Palestinians.
  • 2010-2011—Arab ‘Awakening’ – Arab publics overthrow many authoritarian regimes, seeking better economic opportunities and end of political cronyism and corruption. Syrian civil war remains brutal into 2017. Egyptian, Libyan, Tunisian, and Yemeni leaders turned out of office. Sanctions against Iran’s building of nuclear capacity tightened. Barak Obama calls for negotiations between Israelis and Palestinians based on the June 1967 War lines Israel again not pleased with US president defining what the negotiation outlines should be.

  • 2012—Israel again strikes at Hamas in Gaza for launching rockets into Israel violence ends after 8 days of fighting Hamas leader reaffirms need for Israel’s disappearance. Vice-President Biden reveals his own views deeply favoring Israel and his opposition to Iran obtaining a nuclear weapon.
  • 2012—US law makers create Enhanced Security Cooperation Act and President Obama signs it into law, bringing two states closer on military and strategic issues, all while White House continues to staunchly opposes building of Israeli settlements.

  • 2013—President Obama in Jerusalem appeals to people of Israel to support negotiations based on a two-state solution.
  • 2013—Secretary of State Kerry makes concerted effort to restart Palestinian-Israeli negotiations based on creating a process that would lead to a two-state solution, but by middle of 2014, his mediation efforts do not succeed.
  • 2013-2014—Hamas-Israel violence erupts.
  • 2014 – European Parliament calls for recognition of Palestinian Statehood in context of two-state solution.
  • 2014 – US lawmakers pass the US-Israel Strategic Partnership Act which President Obama signs into law Israel’s UN Ambassador Prosor chastises UN for its hypocrisy.
  • 2015 – US and five other countries sign agreement with Iran to limit their nuclear development, relieve some sanctions major disagreement between Israel and US over agreement’s worth controversy swirls about Israeli PM’s address to US Congress opposing the agreement with Iran.
(L-R) Foreign ministers/secretaries of state Wang Yi (China), Laurent Fabius (France), Frank-Walter Steinmeier (Germany), Federica Mogherini (EU), Mohammad Javad Zarif (Iran), Philip Hammond (UK), John Kerry (USA announce the JCPOA in Vienna, July 14, 2015.
  • 2016 – US and Israel sign 10-year memorandum of understanding providing Israel with $38 billion over that span of time. Obama administration continues to chide Israel because of its settlement building. UN passes UNSCR 2334 that categorizes all the territories that Israel gained in the June 1967 war as occupied, including east Jerusalem as topics for negotiations.
  • 2017—Middle East Conference in Paris emphasizes need for two-state solution, PM Netanyahu does not participate. President Trump and PM Netanyahu meet in February, and Trump startles audience, “One-state or two-states, whatever the Israelis and Palestinians want.” This a break from traditional US advocacy of two-state solution. In breaking international precedent, the US officially recognizes Jerusalem as Israel’s capital.
  • 2018—Israeli parliament passes the 14 th Basic Law declaring Israel as Nation State of the Jewish people, emphasizing the Jewish nature of the state above other ethnic and religious groups. Israel warms relations with major eastern European states, strengthens ties with India and Japan women in Israel challenge denial of access to prayer at western wall Israel periodically attacks threatening Iranian presence and capabilities in Syria.
U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry stands with French President Francois Hollande and his counterparts on January 15, 2017 during the Paris, France, during the French-hosted conference on Middle East peace. Photo: US State Department
  • 2019—Through proclamation, US President Trump recognizes Golan Heights as part of Israel to the dismay of the international community. Israel’s population tops 9 million, 74% are Jewish, including 45% of world Jewry its GDP is $353,000 billion, ranking 32 in the world. By comparison in 1948, there were 806,000 people in Israel, 80% Jewish with only 6% of world Jewry living in Israel. Israel holds April parliamentary elections, but failure to construct a coalition of 61 members forces a second election in September.
  • 2020- After third Israeli election in less than 18 months, Israelis form coalition/unity government President Trump announces plan for two state solution to the conflict including option for Israel to annex West Bank lands with major economic plan associated with his proposal.

  • After the third Israeli election in less than 18 months, Israelis form a coalition/unity government President Trump announces his plan for a two state solution to the conflict including an option for Israel to annex West Bank lands, with a major economic plan proposed for his plan. The supportive funds to unfold a Palestinian state and support for other Arab states do not materialize. In August and September, through the good offices of the United States, the UAE and Bahrain recognize Israel diplomatically, on the explicit condition that Israel refrain from any annexation of West Bank lands. In October and December respectively, Sudan and Morocco announce normalization of relations with Israel. In all four cases, the US provides each Arab country with a specific strategic, political or military objective. Israel announces plans for another parliamentary election in March 2021.


The Arab-Israeli War of 1948—A Short History

President Harry Truman, Israeli Ambassador to the United States Abba Eban, and Israeli Prime Minister, David Ben-Gurion, The Truman Library

Ken Stein – The Arab-Israeli War of 1948 – A Short History

Kirish

Otherwise known as Israel’s War of Independence, or, “the nakbah” or disaster to the Arab world because a Jewish state was established, the war was fought between the newly established Jewish state of Israel opposed by Palestinian irregulars, and armies from five Arab states. Official beginning of the war is usually given as May 14, 1948, the date Israel declared itself an independent Jewish state, but the war’s first of four phases began in November 1947. Lasting for two years, the war ended with armistice agreements signed in 1949 between Israel and four Arab states. Brokered by the United Nations, these agreements did not result in the Arab world’s diplomatic recognition of Israel. Instead a ‘technical’ state of war characterized Arab-Israeli relations until 1979, when the Egypt-Israeli Peace Treaty was signed.

For the remainder of the century, the Arab-Israeli war of 1948 had international, regional, and local implications. This was the first of four major Arab-Israeli wars fought over Israel’s legitimacy or geographic size. The war crystallized an already emerging Palestinian Arab national desire to wrest Palestine from Israel’s Zionist founders. After some eighty years of step-by-step building of a Jewish national territory, the State of Israel emerged in the shadows of the holocaust. For the next three decades Israel would devote its resources and energy to preserving its territorial integrity and absorbing Jewish immigrants in peril. Though the United States reluctantly and the Soviet Union supported Israel’s creation, Washington and Moscow parted ways, supporting Israel and the Arab world respectively, adding the Arab-Israeli conflict and the Middle East to their keen global Cold War competition. And for the Arab world, eradicating the results of this “disaster”—Israel’s creation—became the focal point of political attention, ideological coherence, and resource expenditure for subsequent decades. As Egypt’s President Nassar declared about the June 1967 War, it was aimed at Israel’s destruction.

Causes of the War

The war was fought over whether a Jewish state should be established in the geographic areas of its ancient homeland, strategically situated in the middle of the Arab and Muslim world. From 1917 to 1947, the British government-controlled Palestine, securing it for themselves to protect their adjacent interests in Egypt and the Suez Canal as the strategic link to their presence in India. When World War II ended in 1945, the British, who had given Jews and Arabs political autonomy but not independence in Palestine, realized that they could neither contain the Zionist aspirations for a Jewish state nor provide protection for the Arab community’s political rights. In spring 1947, Britain turned the issue of Palestine’s future over to the United Nations. On November 29, 1947, the UN General Assembly passed a resolution to partition Palestine into Jewish and Arab states. It also called for an international regime for Jerusalem and an economic union between the proposed Arab and Jewish states. France, The United States, and the Soviet Union voted for partition while Britain abstained, and Muslim and Arab states vigorously opposed the partition plan, wanting instead a federal solution, one state in which the Arabs would be the majority.

Israel in the Middle East, 1949-1967

After the partition vote, Britain promised to evacuate her troops from Palestine by February 1948, but settled eventually on May 14, 1948. In the process of leaving Palestine, Britain did not cooperate closely with the Jewish Agency, the main Jewish political body in Palestine. Instead, it decidedly sided with Arab interests. Since the late 1930s, Britain did not wish to provoke her Arab or Muslim friends and jeopardize access to oil interests. In keeping with a pro-Arab policy, in early 1948, Britain embargoed the import of weapons for Jewish forces and turned over strategic locations to Arab forces in Palestine.

UN Partition Plan Map for two states, an economic union
with an international regime for Jerusalem, November 1947

Course of War

Arab political and physical opposition to the creation of a Jewish state was as passionately held as were Zionists committed to see their state established. Both sides made military preparations and skirmished with the other. Arabs and Jews organized multiple militias, with the Jewish fighting groups into one command structure very quickly after the war started.

Phase one of the war lasted from the partition resolution, November 29, 1947 until the British evacuated Palestine on May 14, 1948. During this phase, Jewish forces were on the defensive, Arab forces mustered but were disorganized with few leaders to take charge, as an already fraying Arab community dissolved further. After secret talks with Zionist leaders in 1947 and 1948, which promised him portions of lands that were to be part of the Arab state, Emir Abdullah of Transjordan, driven by a desire to control all of Jerusalem, did not remain out of the hostilities with the nascent Jewish state.

In 1945, the Arab League of States was established. Its primary function was to deny the Jewish state’s establishment in Palestine. In September-October 1947, in response to a genuine offer from Zionist leaders, Arab League representatives refused to reach a peaceful two-state solution, even acknowledging that going to war with the Jews might mean the loss of Palestine altogether. Other Arab leaders began to send troops to Palestine’s borders for a coming war. They formed the Arab Liberation Army for Palestine. Some 10,000 Arab volunteers divided Palestine’s coverage into northern, central, and southern sectors. Rifles, other light weapons, and funds were provided by surrounding Arab states, with groups formed under the direction of Iraqi, Palestinian, and Egyptian heads. These forces had little military training and were fragmented by family, ethnic, ideological and regional loyalties. Throughout all phases of the war, Egyptian and Jordanian leaders and their forces failed to cooperate in military planning, exchange of intelligence information, and operations the head of the Arab Liberation Army clashed severely with local Palestinian political leaders. Severe Arab disunity and very long lines of supply and communication allowed the geographically isolated and meagerly equipped Jewish forces a chance at success. Out of fear for their families’ security, hundreds of thousands of Arabs in Palestine fled their villages, forced to leave their lands and homes. By the time the 1948 war ended, more than 700,000 Arabs had fled Palestine.

Jewish forces sought to protect outlying Jewish settlements, while Arab forces successfully assaulted various Jewish quarters in cities and rural settlements throughout Palestine. Roads between Jewish settlements were cut, while in Haifa, Acre, and Safed, Jews took control of these and other northern cities. On the other hand, by May 1948, Jews in Jerusalem were virtually isolated from the rest of the country. The Jewish Agency’s planning witnessed the first delivery of additional weapons from eastern Europe. Jews in neighboring states were attacked because they were considered to be sympathetic to Zionist aspirations. By the end of the 1948 war, more than 450,000 Jews from Arab lands would be compelled to leave because of Arab antagonism toward the newly established Jewish state.

Though threatening to block the transfer of philanthropic funds from Jewish sources in the United States, the State Department failed to persuade the Zionists to postpone declaring statehood. Despite strong opposition from the State Department for the creation of a Jewish state, President Truman recognized Israel officially moments after statehood was declared. As it turned out, Israel extracted almost three-fourths of the $300 million direct costs of the war from its own citizens, and while 86 per cent of Israel’s arms costs was born by foreign sources.

Phase two of the war lasted from Israel’s Declaration of Independence on May 14 to June 11, 1948. When the official war started, Israel mobilized perhaps 30,000 men and women the Arab states had combined forces in excess of that number. The Arab advantage was in the equipment and air forces at their disposal. However, by the end of May, Israel halted an Egyptian ground attack in the south by June 9, Israeli forces relieved the Arab siege around Jerusalem. When the first UN Truce was applied two days later, the Syrian army had gained little in the north, the Egyptians had gained a foothold in the Negev desert in the south, and the Transjordanian and Israeli armies were exhausted. From June onwards, the UN tried to mediate and supervise a cease-fire. The UN Mediator, Count Folk Bernadotte, presented his own plan for resolution of the Palestine-Israeli conflict, disregarding both the UN partition plan and the results of the early rounds of fighting. His ideas infuriated Jews because he wanted to virtually negate the establishment of Israel. After resubmitting revised ideas for resolving the conflict, he was killed in Jerusalem in September his assistant the American Ralph Bunche succeeded him and mediated the armistice agreements signed at the end of the war.

Phase three of the war last from July 8 to July 18, 1948. By then, the US State Department realized that Israel would win the war or at least not go down to a crushing defeat. During the previous truce-period, Israeli and Arab forces used the lull in fighting to rearm and to reorganize. Arab forces increased to a total of 40,000, Israeli forces to 60,000.

Equipment and ammunition were replenished on both sides. Israel obtained oil from Rumania, guns and ammunition from Czechoslovakia and France, and continued political support from Russia. With the acquisition of tanks and artillery, the Israeli side’s improvements were noticeably superior, giving its army a potential offensive punch. During this phase, Israel consolidated its grip on the center and northern areas of Palestine, but still wanted to take the Negev desert in the south.

When the fourth phase of the war started in October, Israeli forces had climbed to 90,000 men and women, including 5,000 volunteers from abroad. Already in September, Egypt had organized an “All Palestine Government” with its seat in Gaza, clearly an Egyptian puppet regime, but it lasted less than three months. Meanwhile, Jordanian and Egyptian leaders continued to vilify each other. In late December, the United Nations, which had repeatedly called for a cease-fire and truce on all fronts, finally issued a request for a permanent armistice in all parts of Palestine. Significantly, at the end of December 1948, the UN passed a resolution suggesting that refugees wishing to return to their homes and live in peace with their neighbors should be permitted to do so, or receive compensation for property left behind. The largest stumbling blocks in fulfilling this resolution were that Arab leaders did not want to countenance peace with the newly formed Jewish state, and Israeli leadership would not permit the return of refugees until Arab states recognized Israel’s legitimacy.

When this phase of the war ended on January 7, 1949, Israeli forces had made it untenable for Egyptian troops to sustain a presence in the Negev area. On January 12 th , on the Island of Rhodes, Egyptian-Israeli armistice talks commenced, but no Arab state negotiated with Israel in face-to-face talks. Arab states did not permit a separate Palestinian delegation to negotiate with the Israelis. Nonetheless, Egyptian-Israeli talks resulted in a signed armistice agreement on February 24, 1949. Similar agreements were signed by Israel with Lebanon on March 23, with Jordan on April 3, and Syria on July 20. Iraq was the only Arab state not to sign an armistice agreement with Israel. No peace treaties were signed that ended the conflict between Israel and Arab states that first treaty only came with the Egyptian-Israeli Treaty in 1979. No agreement was signed in 1949 between Israel and any Palestinian representatives the first agreement signed between them was the Oslo Accord in 1993.

Consequences of War

After the war, what happened to the area that the UN proposed for an Arab and Jewish state in November 1947? Israel controlled all of Palestine, with the exception of the Gaza Strip, which was administered by Egypt and the so-called West Bank of the Jordan River, taken during the war and eventually annexed by the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan in 1950.

The West Bank and Gaza Strip would be taken by Israel in the June 1967 war. From 1949 until the end of the June 1967 War, the old city of Jerusalem and most Jewish Holy Sites fell totally under Jordanian control. No economic union was created. And neither Jordan nor Egypt helped to establish a Palestinian state after the 1948 war in the Palestinian areas under their control, either in the Gaza Strip or West Bank. For Palestinian Arabs, the 1948 Arab-Israeli war became a traumatic benchmark in their history. A majority of them displaced by the war became pariahs and wards of neighboring Arab countries’ policies. Only Palestinians who fled to Jordan were offered citizenship the UN established a conciliation commission to bring about the recently signed truces and a United Nations Work Relief Agency was created to assist the Palestinian refugees. Some 150,000 Palestinians remained in the newly established Israeli state and eventually became Israeli citizens. Palestinian refugees solidified their national consciousness living outside Palestine with a firm commitment to destroy Israel and return to their homes of residence before the war. Only in 1964 did they form their own Palestine Liberation Organization and continued the call for Israel’s destruction via armed struggle. For the broader Arab world, Israel’s survival was a terrible stain on contemporary Arab history. The Arab world writ large continued to oppose Israel through war, economic boycott, international political isolation, and armed guerrilla attacks. Both Arab writers and Israel’s Palmach Commander Yigal Allon have given their reasons for why the Zionists won and the Arab sides lost the war.

For Zionists who had diligently labored since the end of the 19th century to establish a territory where Jews could be free from persecution, the war culminated in the reestablishment of a Jewish state. It was heralded as a justified redemption after six million Jews were killed systematically by the Nazi perpetrated Holocaust of World War II. That was only part of the evolving history the most significant part was that Jews without political or physical power in the 19 th century learned over half a century to persevere and improvise in forming a state. Finally, the 1948 Arab-Israeli war solidified world Jewry’s territorial identity in its ancient homeland it became a sanctuary for other Jews in need and crisis around the world, and a powerful emotional attachment for Jews and non-Jews around the world.

  1. Derek Penslar, “Rebels Without a Patron State, How Israel Financed the 1948 War,” in Rebecca Kobrin and Adam Teller (eds.), Purchasing Power: The Economics of Modern Jewish HistoryJewish Culture in Contexts, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015, pp. 186-188, and 191.
  2. Jon and David Kimche, Both Sides of the Hill Britain and the Palestine War, London: Secker and Warburg, 1960, p. 223.
  3. Howard M. Sachar, A History of Israel From the Rise of Zionist to Our Time, New York:Alfred Knopf, 1976, p. 339.

The Oslo Accords

The Oslo Accords were a pair of agreements signed between Israel and the PLO in 1993 and 1995. These agreements were seen as the first step towards peace and independent governance of Palestinians when the lands were divided between Area A and Area B, with the Palestinian government being set up in the West Bank. Despite the overtly peaceful nature of the accords, both Palestinians and Israelis were in strict opposition to the agreements. This gave a chance to Hamas, who consisted of extremist Palestinians openly calling for an end to Israel, to inflict more violence as they bombed several key places, killing many civilians. On the other hand, there was widespread hatred for the Israeli premier by his own people, who called their leader an antisemite and a Nazi. This hatred would eventually boil over and would result in the assassination of the Prime Minister, Yitzhak Rabin.


The two main issues of the Arab-Israeli conflict are Israeli security and Palestinian autonomy. Explanation: The Arab-Israeli conflict refers to political tension and armed conflicts between the State of Israel and its Arab neighbors, in particular the Palestinians.

3,000 to 2,500 B.C. — The city on the hills separating the fertile Mediterranean coastline of present-day Israel from the arid deserts of Arabia was first settled by pagan tribes in what was later known as the land of Canaan. The Bible says the last Canaanites to rule the city were the Jebusites.


A conflict between the Israelis and the Arabs in the Middle East. The United Nations established Israel, a nation under control of Jews (see also Jews), in Palestine in the late 1940s, in territory inhabited by Palestinian Arabs.

The two main issues of the Arab-Israeli conflict are Israeli security and Palestinian autonomy. Explanation: The Arab-Israeli conflict refers to political tension and armed conflicts between the State of Israel and its Arab neighbors, in particular the Palestinians.

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