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Nat Tyorner

Nat Tyorner

Nat Tyorner 1800 yil 2 oktyabrda Virjiniya shtatining Sautgempton shahrida tug'ilgan. Natning onasi va buvisi Amerikaga Afrikadan olib kelingan va qullikka qattiq nafrat bilan qarashgan.

Nat onasining qullik haqidagi qarashlari bilan o'rtoqlashdi. Xo'jayinining o'g'li o'qishni o'rgatgan Nat, chuqur diniy e'tiqodni rivojlantirdi va ota -onasi uni rag'batlantirdi, asta -sekin Xudo uni xalqini qullikdan chiqarish uchun tanlaganiga ishona boshladi.

1831 yilda Tyorner Jozef Travisga sotildi. O'sha yilning fevral oyida quyosh tutilishi Tyornerni bu qo'zg'olonni boshlash uchun Xudodan g'ayritabiiy belgi ekanligiga ishontirdi. Biroq, 21 -avgustgacha Tyorner va yana etti ga yaqin qul Travis va uning oilasini o'ldirishdi. Hammasi bo'lib 50 ga yaqin oq tanlilar o'ldirilgan.

Tyorner bu harakat katta qullar qo'zg'oloniga olib keladi deb umid qilgan edi, lekin faqat 75 kishi uning isyoniga qo'shildi. Tyorner qo'zg'oloni bilan kurashish uchun shtat militsiyasining 3000 dan ortiq a'zolari yuborildi va ular tez orada mag'lubiyatga uchradi. Qasos sifatida yuzdan ortiq begunoh qullar o'ldirildi. Tyorner yashiringan, lekin olti haftadan so'ng qo'lga olingan. Nat Tyorner 1831 yil 11 -noyabrda qatl qilindi.

Sautgemptonda kechki qo'zg'olon jamoatchilik ongini katta hayajonga soldi va minglab bo'sh, bo'rttirib aytilgan va noto'g'ri xabarlarga olib keldi. Bu bizning tariximizda qullarning ochiq qo'zg'olonining birinchi misolidir va shafqatsizlik va vayronagarchilikning shafqatsiz sharoitlari bilan qatnashgan, chunki bu dahshatli fojia yuz bergan jamoatchilik ongida ham chuqur taassurot qoldirmaydi. qilingan, lekin bu aholi yashaydigan mamlakatimizning har bir qismida. Bu dahshatli fitnaning kelib chiqishi va taraqqiyoti va uning shaytoniy aktyorlariga ta'sir etuvchi sabablarni tushunish uchun jamoatchilikning qiziqishi oshdi. Qo'zg'olonchi qullarning hammasi yo'q qilindi, yoki qo'lga olindi, sudlandi va qatl qilindi, (rahbardan tashqari), hech qanday qoniqarli narsa, ularni boshqargan motivlar yoki o'z maqsadlariga erishish usullari. ob'ekt

Bu qayg'uli ish bilan bog'liq bo'lgan hamma narsa sir bo'lib qoldi, shu paytgacha butun imperiyamizda nomi yangragan bu shafqatsiz guruhning rahbari Nat Tyorner qo'lga olinmaguncha. Bu "buyuk qaroqchi" ni yakshanba kuni, o'ttizinchi oktyabr, yakshanba kuni, hech bo'lmaganda qarshilik ko'rsatishga urinmasdan, vafot etgan xo'jayinining qarorgohi yaqinidagi g'orda olib ketishdi va ertasi kuni xavfsiz tarzda qamoqxonaga joylashtirishdi. okrug. Uning asirlari Benjamin Fipps edi, u o'q otilgan qurol bilan yaxshi zaryadlangan. Natning yagona quroli kichik qilich edi, u darhol taslim bo'ldi va uning hayotini saqlab qolishlarini iltimos qildi. Hibsxonaning ruxsatisiz, u qamoqda bo'lganidan beri, men unga kirishga tayyor bo'ldim va u qullarning qo'zg'olonchi harakatlarining kelib chiqishi, rivojlanishi va yakunlanishi to'g'risida to'liq va erkin e'tirof etishga tayyorligini aniqladim. yolg'onchi va bosh.

Men o'ttiz 2 yoshda o'ttiz bir yoshda edim va shu viloyatning Benjamin Tyorner shahrida tug'ilganman. Bolaligimda, mening ongimda unutilmas taassurot qoldiradigan va oq -qora rangdagi ko'pchilik uchun halokatli tarzda tugagan va men dor ostiga puflamoqchi bo'lgan bu ishtiyoqning asosini qo'ygan bir holat ro'y berdi. Bu vaziyatni gapirish kerak - bu ahamiyatsiz tuyulsa -da, vaqt o'tishi bilan o'sib borayotgan e'tiqodning boshlanishi edi va hozir ham, janob, bu zindonda, men kabi yordamsiz va tashlandiq, men o'zimni chetlab o'tolmayman. .

Boshqa bolalar bilan o'ynab, uch -to'rt yoshimda, men onam eshitgan bir narsani aytgan edim, bu men tug'ilishimdan oldin bo'lganini aytgan edim, lekin men o'z hikoyamga sodiq qoldim. uning fikri, buni tasdiqlash uchun-chaqirilganlar, bu voqealar ro'y berganini bilganlarida, juda hayron bo'lishdi va eshitishimga qaraganda, men, albatta, Rabbim menga sodir bo'lgan voqealarni ko'rsatganidek, men payg'ambar bo'lardim. mening tug'ilishim. Va otam va onam meni birinchi taassurotda kuchaytirdilar, mening ko'zlarim bilan ular mening boshim va ko'kragimdagi aniq izlardan o'ylab topilgan katta maqsadlar uchun mo'ljallanganligini aytishdi.

Mening cherkovga mansub xo'jayinim va uyga tashrif buyurgan boshqa dindorlar, men tez -tez namoz o'qiyotganimda, mening xulq -atvorimning o'ziga xosligini va bola uchun g'ayrioddiy aql -idrokimni payqab, men juda aqlli ekanimni aytdi. Agar men o'sgan bo'lsam, hech qachon hech kimga qul sifatida xizmat qilmagan bo'lardim. Menga o'xshagan, tinimsiz, izlanuvchan va o'tayotgan har bir narsaga diqqat bilan qaraydigan odam uchun, din unga yo'naltiriladigan mavzu deb taxmin qilish oson. O'qish va yozishni o'rganish uslubim nafaqat o'z ongimga katta ta'sir ko'rsatdi, chunki men uni eng osonlik bilan sotib oldim, shuning uchun alifboni o'rganishni eslay olmayman, lekin Bir kuni, yig'lab yubormaslik uchun menga kitob tikilganida, men turli xil narsalarning nomlarini yozishni boshladim - bu mahallada, ayniqsa qora tanlilarda, hayratga tushdi. barcha imkoniyatlarda yaxshilandi.

Ishga ketadigan darajada katta bo'lganimda, men o'zimni tasavvur qila oladigan ko'p narsalar haqida o'ylardim va har safar kitob o'qish imkoni bo'lganda, maktab o'quvchilari dars olayotganlarida, men topardim. o'z tasavvurimning unumdorligi menga ilgari tasvirlab bergan ko'p narsalar; Mening xo'jayinim xizmatiga bag'ishlanmagan butun vaqtim na namoz o'qishga, na erdan yasalgan qoliplarga turli narsalarni quyish bo'yicha tajribalar o'tkazishga, qog'oz, porox va boshqa ko'plab tajribalarni o'tkazishga sarflandi, lekin men buni mukammal qila olmadim. Ammo, agar menda imkoniyat bo'lsa, meni uning amaliyligiga ishontirdi.

Biz bayramda tunda taxminan ikki soat turdik, uyga borib Ostinni topdik; hammasi sidr pressiga borib, ichdilar, faqat men. Uyga qaytgach, Xark boltani olib, eshikni ochish uchun eshik oldiga bordi, chunki biz bilardikki, agar ular shovqindan uyg'ongan bo'lsa, biz oilani o'ldirishga qodir edik. lekin bu mahallada signal paydo bo'lishi mumkinligini o'ylab, biz uyga yashirincha kirib, uxlab yotganimizda ularni o'ldirishga qaror qildik. Xark zinapoyaga ega bo'ldi va uni oyoqqa qo'ydi, men tepaga ko'tarildim va derazani ko'tarib, zinadan tushdim, eshikni ochdim va qurollarni joyidan olib tashladim.

Men birinchi qonni to'kishim kerakligini payqadim. Men ustamning xonasiga kirgizib, Uill bilan birga, qorong'i edi, men o'lim zarbasini berolmadim, kepka boshidan qaradi, u to'shakdan turib xotinini chaqirdi. uning oxirgi so'zi, Uill boltasi bilan uni o'ldirdi va Travis xonim ham xuddi shunday taqdirni bo'lishdi. Besh kishidan iborat bu oilaning o'ldirilishi bir lahzalik ish edi, ulardan hech kim uyg'onmadi; beshikda uxlab yotgan kichkintoy bor edi, biz unutdik, biz uydan chiqib, uzoqqa ketgunimizcha, Genri va Uill qaytib kelib, uni o'ldirishdi; biz bu erga keldik, o'q otadigan to'rtta qurol va bir necha kukunli eski mushaklar.

Biz bir muddat omborxonada qoldik, u erda biz parad qildik; Men ularni askar sifatida navbatma -navbat tuzdim va men barcha mashqlarni bajarganimdan so'ng, ularni olti yuz yard narida janob Salatxul Frensisga olib bordim. Sem va Uill eshik oldiga borib taqillatishdi. Janob Frensis u erda kim borligini so'radi, Sem javob berdi, u o'zi, va u uchun maktub bor edi, u o'rnidan turib, eshik oldiga keldi, ular darhol uni ushlab, eshikdan bir oz sudrab chiqib ketishdi. boshiga takroriy zarbalar bilan yuborilgan; oilada boshqa oq tanli odam yo'q edi. Biz o'sha erdan Riz xonim uchun yurishni boshladik va yurishimizda eng zo'r sukunatni saqladik, u erda eshik qulflanmaganini bilib, uyga kirib, Riz xonimni to'shagida o'ldirdik. uning o'g'li uyg'ondi, lekin faqat o'lim uyqusida uxlash edi, u kimligini aytishga vaqt topdi va u endi yo'q edi.

Vatanparvar Nataniel Tyorner noto'g'ri va adolatsizlikdan umidsizlikka tushdi. Despotizmga ko'ra, uning ismi shafqatsizlar ro'yxatiga kiritilgan, ammo kelajak avlodlar uni olijanob va jasur kishilar qatoriga qo'shadilar.


Nat Tyorner Xushxabarini tushunish

1831 yil 27 -avgustda Richmond kompilyatori so'radi: “Bu Nat Tyorner kim? ” O'sha paytda Tyorner Virjiniya shtatining Sautgempton shahrida yashirinib yurgan, u Amerika tarixidagi eng muhim qul qo'zg'olonini boshlagan joydan unchalik uzoq bo'lmagan. Nat Tyorner ’s qo'zg'oloni, bundan atigi besh kun oldin sodir bo'lgan, sinovlar tugagunga qadar 50 dan ortiq oq tanlilarning o'limiga sabab bo'lgan, shunga o'xshash gumonlanuvchi isyonchilar qonuniy ravishda o'ldirilgan yoki hukm qilingan va qatl etilgan.

Nat Tyorner qo'lga olinganda ham, 1831 yil 30 oktyabrda Tuzuvchi va#8217 savol javobsiz qoldi. Natijada, oq tanli advokat Tomas R. Grey Tyorner sudlanganini kutayotgan qamoqxonaga borishni va Tyorner ta'riflaganidek, meni kechki qo'zg'olonga undagan sabablar tarixini olib tashlashni buyurdi. #8221   So'nggi o'n yillikda olimlar boshqa manbalar bilan ish olib borishdi va matnni yaqin tahlil qilishdi The Nat Tyornerning e'tiroflari Grey, Tyornerning e'tirofini, Grey aytganidek, "ozgina yoki hech qanday o'zgarishsiz" yozganiga tobora ishonch hosil qila boshladi.

Qachon Nat Tyornerning e'tiroflari Nat Tyornerni tushunishni istagan har bir kishiga ur-matn bo'lib qoladi, bu 5000 so'zdan iborat hisob qancha ko'p savollarga javob beradi. Natijada, hujjat eng mashhur amerikalikning hayotini quldorlikka qarshi chiqishni tasavvur qilmoqchi bo'lgan rassomlar uchun tramplinga aylandi.   1967 yilda yozuvchi Uilyam Steyron Tyornerga asoslangan romanini nashr etdi. E'tiroflar.   Roman ikkalasi ham birdaniga Pulitser mukofotiga sazovor bo'ldi va shov -shuvga sabab bo'ldi, chunki qora tanli olimlar Jon Xenrik Klark, Styron, isyonchi etakchining oq tanli ayolga bo'lgan umidsiz jinsiy ehtirosidan ilhomlangan deb o'ylashdi. 160   va#160

Er qon bilan o'raladi: Nat Tyorner qo'zg'olonining yangi tarixi

Bu hafta Nat Tyorner va#8217s hikoyasining yangi tasavvuri katta ekranga chiqadi Millatning tug'ilishi butun mamlakat kinoteatrlarida ochiladi.   Kinorejissyor va aktyor Neyt Parker Sautgemptonning eng mashhur o'g'lini "iliq, va'zgo'y va'zgo'y" va "8221" sifatida tasvirlaydi. Nyu -Yorklik va#8217 Vinson Kanningem.   Neyt Parkerning tasviri qullar isyonkorining dindorligini ta'kidlaydi, uning shaxsiy Injili birinchi marta Smitsonning yangi Afrika -Amerika tarixi va madaniyati milliy muzeyida namoyish etilgan.     Tyorner dini haqida biz nimani bilamiz?  

Yaxshiyamki, Tyorner ’ E'tiroflar, Tomas R. Grey tomonidan yozilgan, Turner ’s markaziy diniy e'tiqodlari uchun muhim maslahatlar beradi.

Ko'pchilik qullar o'qiy olmaydilar.   Ularning ba'zilari baribir Injilga egalik qilishgan, bu esa keyinchalik "Xushxabar" va#8221 haqida eslatmalar bo'lib xizmat qilishi mumkin. Boshqa tomondan, Tyorner bolaligidanoq o'qishni o'rgandi va uning Injili u biladigan kitob edi.   Qo'zg'olondan keyin qo'lga kiritilganda, Tyorner o'z qo'zg'olonini bibliyadagi kontekstga qo'ydi va o'zini ba'zida o'zini solishtirdi. Eski Ahd payg'ambarlariga, boshqa nuqtada Iso Masihga. Uning ichida E'tiroflar, Tyorner Luqo Xushxabaridan ikki marta iqtibos keltirdi va olimlar uning tili Bibliya tiliga mos keladigan boshqa ko'plab parchalarni topdilar, shu jumladan Hizqiyol, Yoshua, Ishayo, Matto, Mark va Vahiy. 19-asrning ko'plab Amerika protestantlari singari, Tyorner ham ilhom va so'z boyligini Muqaddas Kitobdan olgan.

Tyorner Muqaddas Kitobni qadrlagan bo'lsa -da, diniy va axloqiy masalalar bo'yicha yagona ishonchli yo'l -yo'riq faqat oyatdir degan xulosani rad etdi.   Tyorner Xudo dunyo bilan muloqotni davom ettirayotganiga ishondi. u bilan muloqot qildi. Birinchidan, Xudo unga to'g'ridan -to'g'ri xabar berdi: “ Rabbim menga tug'ilishimdan oldin bo'lgan voqealarni aytib berdi. 1828 yil 12, 1828 va "8220" ruhlari darhol menga ko'rinib qoldi. ” Grey Tyorner Ruh nimani anglatishini so'raganida, Tyorner "Oldingi paytlarda payg'ambarlar bilan gaplashgan Ruh" deb javob berdi. zamonaviy payg'ambar.

Tyorner Xudo unga tabiiy dunyo orqali ham xabar berganiga ishondi. Uning qo'shnilari osmonda yulduzlarni ko'rishdi, lekin Tyornerning so'zlariga ko'ra, ular haqiqatan ham Qutqaruvchining qo'llari, sharqdan g'arbga cho'zilgan chiroqlari ekanligini bilishmagan. #8212 - Xudoning bilvosita xabarlari.   Bir kuni dalada u makkajo'xori osmondan shudring kabi qon tomchilarini topdi. va raqamlar, har xil munosabatdagi erkaklar shakllari bilan, qon bilan tasvirlangan, va u men osmonda ko'rgan shakllarni eslatdi. ”  

Eng muhim belgilar qo'zg'olondan oldingi oylarda paydo bo'lgan. Fevral oyida janubiy Virjiniya shtatida joylashgan Sautgemptonda quyosh tutilishi yuz berdi, uni Tyorner potentsial isyonchilarni yollashga boshlash uchun signal sifatida talqin qildi. Tutilish bilan lablarimdan muhr olib tashlandi va men o'zimga ishonib topshirilgan to'rtta buyuk ishni va uning fitnasiga qo'shilgan birinchi fitnachilar bilan gaplashdim. Avgust oyida sharqiy dengiz qirg'og'ida yashil rangdagi quyosh paydo bo'ldi. Tyorner bu g'ayrioddiy hodisani Xudodan qo'zg'olonni boshlash vaqti kelganini bildirgan signal sifatida tushundi.  

Tyornerning shaxsiy vahiy haqidagi qarashlari uning zamondoshlari, mormonizm asoschisi Jozef Smit va adventistlar harakatining otasi Uilyam Millernikidan farq qilmagan. Tyornerning qarashlari Sautgempton millatlararo cherkovlarini boshqargan oq tanlilar uchun aniq qabul qilinishi mumkin emas edi.  Butun mintaqada oq tanlilar tomonidan boshqariladigan protestant cherkovlari oq va qora tanlilarga xizmat qilishgan.   Ko'pincha bu qora tanli a'zolar oq tanlilaridan alohida yig'ilishgan, lekin birlashish kuni butun oq va qora cherkov Isoni xotirlash uchun yig'ilishgan. #8217 -yillarning oxirgi kechki ovqatlari.   Tyorner bu cherkovlardan biriga kirmoqchi bo'lganida, cherkov o'zini payg'ambar deb bilgan diniy qulni suvga cho'mdirishdan bosh tortdi.

Oq tanlilar Tyornerning diniy qarashlarini rad etishlari ajablanarli bo'lmasa -da, ular qora tanli jamiyatda ham gumon qilingan. Qisman, buning sababi shundaki, bir paytlar uning tasavvuri ko'pchilik qullar rad etgan sajda qilish diniga juda yaqin bo'lib tuyuldi.   U 20 yoshlarida Tyorner o'z egasidan qochib ketdi.   U o'rmonda bo'lganida, Muqaddas Ruh Tyornerga paydo bo'ldi va unga "er yuzidagi xo'jayinim xizmatiga qaytishni" buyurdi, chunki kim o'z xo'jayinining irodasini bilsa va qilmasa, ko'p jarohatlaydi va men seni jazoladim. . ’ ”   Qullar Tyorner qul egalarining Luqodan sevimli parchasini keltirganini eshitganlarida, qullarning o'zlari Tyornerning bashorat qilish haqidagi da'vosini rad etishgan. agar ular mening aql -idrokimni bilsalar edi, ular dunyodagi hech bir xo'jayinga xizmat qilmas edilar. ”  

Bu dindor Tyorner uning qo'zg'oloniga qo'shiladigan erkaklar bilan to'qnash kelgan yagona vaqt emas edi.   1831 yilning bahorida, Tyorner va uning sheriklari qo'zg'olon kunini belgilashganida, isyonchilar tanladilar. Mustaqillik kuni o'zining aniq siyosiy rezonanslari bilan.   Tyorner, qo'zg'olonni Bibliya ma'nosida ko'rgan, shu kungacha hech qachon murosaga kelmagan. 4 -iyul yaqinlashganda, u o'zini xavotirga soladi va qo'zg'olonni qoldiradi.   Shunga o'xshab, 1831 yil 21 -avgustda Tyorner birinchi marta o'zi yollamagan isyonchilar bilan uchrashdi.   U Uilldan so'radi 8212 kim isyonchilar orasida eng g'ayratli bo'lardi va nima uchun u qo'zg'olonga qo'shildi. Uill javob berdi va uning hayoti boshqalardan ko'ra qadrli emas edi va uning erkinligi u uchun juda qadrli edi. ” Uill Tyornerga sodiqligini tan olmagan va Tyornerning diniga ishonganini bildirmagan.   Balki shunga o'xshash sabablarga ko'ra , qora tanlilar sud jarayonida Tyornerni nazarda tutganlarida, uning diniy mavqeini voiz yoki payg'ambar sifatida ko'rsatishning o'rniga, uni kapitan Nat yoki general Nat deb atashgan.

Balki Tyornerning qora tanlilar jamoasidan diniy ajratilishi Tyorner dinidagi eng ajablanarli narsani tushunishga yordam beradi: Tyorner o'z nomida nom bergan yagona shogird. E'tiroflar Oq tanli Etheldred T. Brantli edi.   Mintaqada oq qullikka qarshi urf-odatlar mavjud bo'lganda va#8212 faqat qo'zg'olondan besh yil oldin, Jonatan Lankford Blek Krik Baptist cherkovidan itoat etishdan bosh tortgani uchun quvilgan. Qul egalari —, bu qo'zg'olonda qatnashmagan Brantli Tyornerning qullikka qarshi bo'lganligi ehtimoldan yiroq emas.   Buning o'rniga, Brantli Tyornerning millennializmi, Tyornerning Brantlini konvertatsiya qilish qobiliyati bilan chizilgan bo'lishi ehtimoldan yiroq emas. 8217 -yillarning yuragi, va Tyornerning muvaffaqiyati, Brantli teshiklaridan qon oqayotgan kasallikning tarqalishini to'xtatdi.

Tyorner har doim uning isyonini diniy ma'noda tushungan.   Tyorner qamoqxonaga qamalganida, ma'lum bir sana bilan Sautgempton jallodiga duch kelganida, Grey so'radi: “Hozir adashmaysizmi? ” Tyorner javob berdi, 8220 Masih xochga mixlanmaganmi [?] ”   Tyorner uchun, lekin uning qo'zg'oloniga qo'shilgan har bir kishi uchun shart emas, Sautgempton qo'zg'oloni zamonaviy Bibliya dramasining bir qismi edi.

Patrik X.Brin Providence kollejida dars beradi.   Uning kitobi, Er qon bilan o'raladi: Nat Tyorner qo'zg'olonining yangi tarixi, Oxford University Press tomonidan 2015 yilda nashr etilgan.  


Nat Tyorner o'zi boshlagan qul isyonini qanday izohladi

Men 1831 yil avgustda Nat Tyorner Virjiniya qullarining qo'zg'olonini boshqargan edi, natijada o'nlab odamlar, jumladan, bolalar ham o'lgan edi. Yuz sakson besh yil oldin, shu hafta, 22-avgust tongida, Tyorner va uning ba'zi xizmatkorlari Turner ustasining uyiga kirib, Tyorner birinchi qonni to'kish kerak deb qaror qilishdi. 8221 qo'zg'olonni boshlash uchun, keyinroq Tyorner aytadi. Tez orada Tyorner qo'lga olindi va qo'zg'olon bostirildi. Ammo bir necha hafta o'tgach, hamma joyda amerikaliklar hozir aniq ko'rinadigan narsani bilishni talab qilishdi: nega u bunday qildi? Taxminan ikki asr o'tgach, bu savolning merosi hali ham rivojlanib bormoqda.

1831 yil noyabr oyida, qatl qilinishidan biroz oldin, Turner bu savolga javob berish uchun advokat Tomas Greyga qamoqxonada aybini tan oldi. Hikoya boshlandi, dedi Tyorner, bolaligida, uning oilasiga bashorat qilishning kuchini ko'rsatadigan voqea bo'lganida. U ulug'vor narsalarga loyiq ekaniga ishonib ulg'aygan va oxir -oqibat burilish nuqtasiga yetgan.

Bir kuni men haydaladigan joyimda ibodat qilayotganimda, ruh menga shunday dedi: "Osmon Shohligini izlang va hamma narsa sizga qo'shiladi." Savol& mdashhu Ruh deganda nimani tushunasiz. Javoblar. Oldingi paytlarda payg'ambarlar bilan gaplashgan Ruh men juda hayratda qoldim va ikki yil davomida ibodat qildim, qachonki mening burchim ruxsat bersa, men yana o'sha vahiyga ega bo'ldim, bu meni qandaydir buyuk maqsad uchun tayinlanganim taassurotida to'liq tasdiqladi. Qodir Tangrining qo'lida. Bir necha yillar davom etdi, bu mening ishonchimni mustahkamlash uchun ko'plab voqealar sodir bo'ldi. Bu vaqtda men bolaligimda o'zim haqimda aytgan so'zlarimga va bolaligimda menga aytilganidek, oq va namoz o'qishni o'rgatgan narsalarga qaytdim. qora va men o'zimga ishonchim komil edi, men o'zimni tarbiyalashni juda ko'p his qilardim va agar shunday bo'lganimda, hech kimga qul sifatida hech qanday foyda keltirmasdim. Endi men odam va mulkka kelganimni, qul bo'lganimni va bu vahiylar menga ma'lum bo'lganini bilib, men o'zimni shu buyuk ob'ektga qarata boshladim va shu vaqtga qadar o'zimni ishonch bilan his qildim. mo'ljallangan

Tyorner bir vaqtlar qochib ketgan, lekin tez orada plantatsiyaga va qullikka qaytgan. Shuning uchun, dedi u, belgini kutdi va mdashand, buni ko'rganiga ishonib, chora ko'rdi. Shuning uchun, qatl qilinishidan biroz oldin, u: "Men bu erda zanjirlar bilan o'ralganman va meni kutayotgan taqdirni boshdan kechirishga tayyorman."

Grey ’ ning bularning barchasi haqidagi qarori? “U butunlay fanatik. ”

Ammo, shunda ham, ba'zilar uning fanatizmini boshqa kontekstda ko'rishgan. Virjiniya Qonunchilik palatasining navbatdagi sessiyasi isyonni bekor qilishga chaqirish uchun sabab sifatida ishlatilgan bir nechta nutqlar sahnasi bo'lib, shulardan biri Tomas Jefferson Randolf, asos solgan nabirasi va CJ Faulkner, shimol va shtat o'rtasidagi farqlar haqida gapirganda. Janub, ayniqsa, oldindan o'ylab topilgan edi: “Siz qandaydir ozodlik rejasini qabul qilishingiz kerak, ” yoki u bundan keyin ham yomonroq bo'ladi. ”

20-asrning o'rtalarida Nat Tyornerning hikoyasini ko'pchilik maktablarda qora tarixni o'rganish harakati davomida qayta ko'rib chiqishdi, bu esa ko'plab asosiy darsliklar darsliklarning asosiy burilish nuqtalarini yaltiratib qo'yishi yoki yo'q qilishini bartaraf etishga urinish edi. AQSh tarixi qora tanli bo'lsa. Masalan, TIME 1964 yilda tushuntirganidek, o'qituvchilar va o'quvchilarga o'qituvchilar va o'quvchilarga ko'rsatma berish uchun maktablarga tarqatish kerak edi, chunki xalq og'zaki ijodidan farqli o'laroq, qullar qullikdan shunchalik nafratlanishganki, minglab qonli qo'zg'olonlarga qo'shilishgan. Eng kattasini 1831 yilda Virjiniya quli va'zgo'yi Nat Tyorner boshqargan, uning isyonchilari qo'lga olinib, osib qo'yilishidan oldin 60 oq tanlini o'ldirgan. ”

Keyin, 1967 yilda, roman yozuvchisi Uilyam Styron ’ Nat Tyornerning e'tiroflari Tyorner hikoyasini mukofotga sazovor bestsellerga aylantirdi, uni tarixiy roman emas, tarix bo'yicha meditatsiya va#8221 deb atadi. “Bu roman tarixni qayta hikoya qilishdan boshqa narsa emas, chunki inson ruhi sabr -toqatdan oshib ketganida, qanday qilib qotillik g'azabiga aylanishi mumkinligini ko'rsatib beradi, ” TIME va#8217larning tanqidchisi.

Biroq, hamma ham 1968 yilda nashr etilgan natijaga sabab bo'lgan m & mdash romanini yoqtirmasdi. Uilyam Styron va#8217s Nat Tyorner: O'nta qora yozuvchi javob beradi, unda Styron, boshqa tanqidlar qatorida, isyonkor istaklarni haqli ravishda saqlagan ko'plab qullardan biri bo'lgan Tyornerning darajasini kamaytirish uchun chaqirilgan. Bu kitobga ba'zi reaktsiyalar, hech bo'lmaganda TIME tomonidan aytilganidek, hozirgi sanada o'qiladi: jurnal va qora tanli yozuvchilarning javoblarini ko'rib chiqish, oq tanli Styronga qarshi o'z irqchiliklari tomonidan ko'rdirilgan va#8220.

Tyorner merosini baholash va qayta baholash imkoniyatlari hali tugamagan: "Sundance sensatsiyasi Nat Tyorner" filmi, Millatning tug'ilishi, teatrga oktyabr oyida keladi.


Nat Tyorner - tarix

Nat Tyorner Amerika tarixi va Amerika adabiyotidagi eng murakkab shaxslardan biri sifatida tan olingan. Oktabrda uning tug'ilgani va AQShning eng mashhur qul qo'zg'olonlaridan birining boshlig'i sifatida hibsga olinganining bir yilligi nishonlanadi.

Nat Tyorner 1800 yil 2 oktyabrda Virjiniya shtatining Sautgempton okrugidagi plantatsiyada tug'ilgan. Tyorner o'zining nasroniy e'tiqodiga sodiq edi va u Xudodan vahiylar va alomatlar orqali xabar olganiga ishondi. U 20 yoshida bo'lganida, bu belgilar uni qochishga urinishdan keyin xo'jayiniga qaytishga undagan. Xuddi shunday, quyosh tutilishi va g'ayrioddiy atmosfera hodisasi uning 1831 yil 21 avgustda boshlangan qo'zg'oloniga turtki bo'lgan deb ishoniladi.

Nat Tyornerning isyoni Amerika tarixidagi eng qonli va eng samarali qo'zg'olon edi. Bu Virjiniyada qo'rquv madaniyatini qo'zg'atdi, u oxir -oqibat janubning qolgan qismiga tarqaldi va fuqarolar urushining kelishini tezlashtirdi. Qo'zg'olondan so'ng, ko'plab janubiy shtatlar, shu jumladan Shimoliy Karolina, afroamerikaliklarga cheklovlarni kuchaytirdi. Ikki kun mobaynida o'nlab oq tanlilar, Tyornerning ellikdan oshgan isyonchilar guruhi sifatida, Sautgempton okrugidagi plantatsiyadan plantatsiyaga muntazam ravishda ko'chib o'tdi. Qo'zg'olonchilarning aksariyati, fitna uyushtirishda qatnashganlikda gumon qilinayotgan, boshqa afrikalik amerikaliklar bilan birga qatl qilindi. Nat Tyorner, ikki oydan ko'proq vaqt davomida qo'lga olishdan qochdi. U "Buzilgan botqoq" hududida yashiringan va 30 -oktabr kuni ovchi tomonidan tasodifan topilgan. U tinch taslim bo'lgan.

Nat Tyornerning e'tiroflari Tyorner qo'lga olinganidan ko'p o'tmay paydo bo'ldi. Qo'zg'olon va uning motivatsiyasi to'g'risida aniq hisobot sifatida nashr etilgan "e'tirof" hali ham munozaralarda yashiringan. Huquqshunos Tomas Grey, hisobni Tyorner unga e'tirof etganini va mahbusning haqiqiy guvohligidan deyarli farq qilmaganini da'vo qilib, hisobni ochdi. Biroq, moliyaviy ahvolga tushib qolgan qul egasi sifatida, Grey jamoatchilikning bunday sirli shaxs haqidagi bilimga chanqoqligini qondirishda katta foyda va targ'ibot salohiyatini ko'rgan bo'lishi mumkin. Bundan tashqari, adabiyotshunoslar hujjat davomida Turnerning tili va ohangidagi tafovutlarga izchillik bilan e'tibor berishgan. Ular Tyorner va Greyning kun tartibi matnda ziddiyatli va shu tariqa hujjatni bir yarim asrdan ko'proq vaqt mobaynida tavsiflagan noaniqlikni keltirib chiqaradi, deb taxmin qiladilar.

Nat Tyornerning e'tiroflari "DocSouth" dagi uchta to'plamning bir qismi: "Shimoliy Amerika qullari haqidagi hikoyalar", unda 1920 yilgacha ingliz tilida keng nashrlar, risolalar yoki kitoblar sifatida nashr etilgan qochqin va sobiq qullarning avtobiografik hikoyalari mavjud. u janubiy afro -amerikaliklarning protestant xristianligini boshdan kechirgani va jamoat hayotining markaziy institutiga aylantirgani haqidagi tarixini taqdim etadi va "Shimoliy Karolina tajribasi, 1940 yillarning boshlari" tar tarixi haqida hikoya qiluvchi turli xil bosma va qo'lyozma materiallarni to'playdi. To'piq holati.


Abolitionistlar yozma so'z orqali qo'zg'aladilar

Afro -amerikaliklarning savodxonligi Injil o'qishlarini yoritib berish imkoniyati tufayli qullar uchun muammo emas edi. 𠇊xborot savodxonligi to'g'risidagi qonunlar shimolda bekorchilikning kuchayishiga javoban yozilgan,-deydi Breen. O'sha davrning eng tahdidli abolitsionerlaridan biri qora tanli ingliz Devid Uoker edi. 1829-1830 yillarda u   tarqatdiShikoyat qilish, qullikni tugatish uchun qo'zg'olonlarga chaqiruvchi risola. Qora dengizchilar Walker ’s matnini maxfiy tarzda tikilgan kiyimlarni janubga olib kelishdi.

Nat Tyorner va aposl Bibliya, Vashingtondagi Smitson va Afro -Afrika milliy tarixi va madaniyati milliy muzeyida, 2017.  

Endryu Lixenshteyn/Corbis/Getty Images

Tyornerning o'zi o'qiganiga hech qanday dalil yo'q Shikoyat qilish Yel universiteti tarix professori Edvard Rugemerning so'zlariga ko'ra, u bundan ilhomlangan. Biroq, bu vaqtda abolitsionistlarning Karib havzasidagi qo'zg'olonlarga bevosita ta'sir ko'rsatgani haqida ko'plab dalillar mavjud, deydi u. Agar yozma �olitionist qo'zg'oloni orollarda qullar qarshiligining tabiatini shakllantirgan bo'lsa, amerikalik qullar bu davlatning qul aholisiga ta'sir qilishi mumkinligiga ishonishgan.


Nat Tyorner va tarixiy xotirani kengaytirmoqda - Aziz Rana

Ko'rib chiqilgan: Kristofer Tomlins, Nat Tyorner masalasida: spekulyativ tarix. Princeton universiteti matbuoti, 2020 yil.

O'tgan yili 1619 yilgi Loyihadagi keng jamoatchilik suhbatiga guvoh bo'ldik New York Times ko'chalardagi namoyishlarga, Amerika tarixiy xotirasi haqida. Biz o'tmish haqida qanday hikoyalar aytamiz - ayniqsa, irqiy bo'ysunishning voqeliklari haqida - va bu voqealar kimning nuqtai nazaridan kelib chiqadi? Shu payt Kristofer Tomlinsning chuqur yangi kitobi keladi. Nat Tyorner masalasida: spekulyativ tarix. Kitob Nat Tyornerning 1831 yilda Virjiniyada qora tanli ishchilarning isyoni bilan bog'liq. Lekin u voqealarni haqiqatdan ham takrorlab berishni maqsad qilib qo'ygan. Tomlins bu tarixni Tyornerning o'zini o'zi anglashi orqali aytib berishga intiladi, bunda mazlumlar o'z ovozlari va o'z shartlari bilan gapirishlari mumkin bo'lgan hisobni taklif qiladi.

Natijada bir qancha muhim ilmiy va siyosiy aralashuvlarni amalga oshiradigan ish. Yangi boshlanuvchilar uchun, Nat Tyorner masalasida An'anaviy ravishda chiqarib tashlangan ovozlarni oldinga suradigan tarixiy yozuvni ishlab chiqarishni qanday amalga oshirishning kuchli timsolidir. Tomlins ko'rsatganidek, bunday korxonaning muammosi oddiy hisoblar boshqa muqobil manbalarni e'tiborsiz qoldirishida emas. Arxiv yozuvining o'zi ko'pincha bu istiqbollarni birinchi navbatda olib tashlagan. Qalam kuchiga ega bo'lganlar, bunday ovozlarni yozib olishni xohlamasdilar yoki shunday qilishardi - Virjiniya advokati Tomas Ruffin Grey risolasida bo'lgani kabi. Nat Tyornerning e'tiroflari- yozuvchining uchlari va qiymatlari orqali tarjima qilingan.

Tomlins uchun bu arxivning chekkasida "spekulyativ" usullar bilan ishlash zaruratini tug'diradi. Tarixchi, zarurat tug'ilganda, odam o'z da'volarini aytgan paytlarini va matn qismlarini bezovta qiladigan detektivga aylanishi kerak. Shundagina tarixan sukut saqlaganlarning keng doirasi, aslida, mutafakkirlarga aylanishi mumkin. Tyornerning o'ziga nisbatan, Tomlins bunday detektivlik ishidan foydalanib, Tyornerning boshqalarga yuklagan ta'riflarini, aql bovar qilmas darajada "iblislik" (XIX asr oq qullariga ko'ra) yoki dunyoviy va ma'naviy ziddiyatli qurolli timsol sifatida ishlatadi. siyosiy kurash (Yigirmanchi asrda yoqimli Tyorner topmoqchi bo'lgan Uilyam Styron kabi yozuvchilarga ko'ra). Tomlins uchun, Tyorner, birinchi navbatda, o'zini Yangi Ahd haqidagi tushunchasidan kelib chiqqan holda, Injil loyihasi bilan shug'ullanayotganini ko'rdi. Uning harakatlariga diniy e'tiqod sabab bo'lgan. U o'zini Luqo Xushxabarida Iso Masih bilan bir xil yo'lni ko'rsatgan diniy payg'ambar deb hisoblagan va zo'ravonlikni ming yillik va qutqaruvchi vosita deb bilgan.

This retelling does not seek to produce a usable past for the present. Yet, following Walter Benjamin, Tomlins believes that it assists us in making explicit critical elements of our own time that may otherwise be left latent or buried. I would contend that Tomlins’ approach highlights the discursive constraints within which oppressed voices operate. Such groups often find themselves only able to gain acknowledgement from the dominant society so long as they make arguments and employ narratives that fit within dominant self-understandings. In seeking to tease out Turner in his own words, Tomlins asks us to wrestle with the untidiness of what such voices actually believed and the intense estrangement that oppressed groups continue to experience—given the contradiction between what they say and what their society is often willing to hear.

Beyond seeking to make sense of Turner on his own terms, Tomlins’ foregrounding of Turner’s prophetic views about millennial violence generates a striking critique of both law and capitalism. First, Tomlins’ analysis undercuts a common and ubiquitous juxtaposition of law in opposition to violence. Law and legal process are often depicted as sites of reason-giving meant to contain violent excess. Under this reading, events like Nat Turner’s rebellion amount to extra-legal violence outside the bounds of established frameworks for social resolution. For Tomlins, however, the rebellion was an act of counter-sovereignty, one that collapses that common juxtaposition. Turner’s faith-driven actions embodied a form of religious violence that challenged the basic legitimacy and foundational values of the existing secular state. His actions exposed the degree to which that state itself was a product of continuous racial terror, as expressed both in the brutal suppression of the rebellion and in the everyday operation of Virginian legality. It also highlighted how safeguarding the law from enslaved resistance required what Tomlins calls law’s “own work of death” (p. 125)—the killing and even mutilation of individuals like Turner. The slave-holding legal order did not reaffirm itself through reason-giving but by blunt force. For Tomlins, all of this speaks to the constitutive flaws in accounts of the law—including of contemporary liberal legality—that seek to keep court-based process uncontaminated by or separate from the coercive power that it ultimately imposes.

Second, to the extent that Turner’s religious act of counter-sovereignty tore the social fabric of slave-holding society, in the book’s final chapter Tomlins emphasizes the role of political economy in restitching that fabric. After the rebellion, white Virginian elites eventually rallied around a new account of slavery as a positive good. This account was grounded in the idea that labor should be viewed as a commodity like any other, which depending on climate and agricultural product may well take very different forms—including enslaved workers. Slave-holding elites defended the institution—not out of claims of paternalism—but precisely because of its wealth generating potential, such as through available markets in the deep South in which Virginian enslavers could sell human beings for significant profit. Tomlins’s reconstruction of these debates highlights the interconnected relationship between slavery and capitalism in the United States. It also speaks to a feature of capitalism often left under-explored—namely, the way in which market logic operates as a form of social cohesion in collective life, uniting various constituents through economistic reasoning about social relations and order. In contrasting Turner’s redemptive and prophetic project with this dehumanized vision of labor’s fungibility, Tomlins exposes a profound ethical hollowness in modern political economy—how its rationality can warp the relevant criteria for social value and judgement.

In the Matter of Nat Turner is a book teeming with insight. Tomlins’ provocative analysis of Turner’s own ideas will no doubt generate fruitful debate and have to be reckoned with by scholars in a variety of fields. But beyond that, Tomlins provides us with a powerful model for how to write history that both links individual biography with broader structural analysis and that centers the perspective of those long excluded.

Aziz Rana is the Richard and Lois Cole Professor of Law at Cornell Law School and the author of The Two Faces of American Freedom (Harvard University Press, 2014).


Nat Turner

Nat Turner was a slave who led a failed 1831 slave rebellion in Southampton County, Virginia. That attempt became a reference to the justification for the Civil War. Dastlabki yillar Nat Turner was born on a small plantation in Virginia, owned by slaveholder Benjamin Turner.* Nat's mother was born in Africa and had been shipped to the United States as a slave. She taught her son to hate slavery. His master's son taught Turner to read. He grew up involved deeply in religion and served as a preacher to the slaves around him. Some of the slaves he preached to began to call him "the Prophet," owing to some of his visions he thought God had communicated to him in dreams. In 1831, Nat Turner was sold to plantation owner and slaveholder Joseph Travis. In February of that year, an eclipse of the sun convinced Turner that it was a sign from God to start an insurrection, and lead his people out of slavery. Turner had started planning the uprising that was to take place on July 4, but fell ill, and it had to be postponed. An atmospheric disturbance on August 13, in which the sun appeared bluish-green, served as another sign from God for Turner to commence his uprising.

A bloody rebellion One week later, on August 21, the rebellion erupted. Turner and seven other slaves on the plantation killed Joseph Travis and his family while they slept. They set off on a campaign of brutal murders along the countryside, picking up slave recruits as they progressed from plantation to plantation. Turner and his fellow escapees moved through Southampton County toward Jerusalem, the county seat, where they were intent on seizing the armory. Some of the slaves were on horseback, so they could run down anyone trying to escape the murderous rampage. The rebels killed all the white people they found, including women, children and the elderly. When the killing finally came to an end, 55 white people lay dead — bludgeoned to death. After 48 hours of rampaging and killing, the band was confronted by armed citizens and the state militia just outside Jerusalem, where most of its members were captured or killed. Nat Turner managed to escape and hid out for six weeks before he was captured. Turner and 16 of his followers were hanged on November 11, 1831. The aftermath What followed was a reign of terror against all blacks in Virginia. State and federal troops beat, tortured, and murdered some 200 blacks, many of whom had nothing to do with the rebellion. Virginians debated over abolishing slavery after the uprising, but instead enacted new slave codes to prevent future uprisings, including strict control of slaves' movements. In addition, educating slaves was outlawed. The long term impact in the south of Nat Turner's rebellion was adverse to Civil Rights before the Civil War. While in jail, Nat Turner dictated a confession to his attorney, Thomas R. Gray. It was later published. Nat Turner is regarded as a hero by large numbers of black people worldwide. No slave uprising, before or after the incident, had inflicted such a blow on the ranks of slaveholders and their families in the United States. *It is commonly held that slaves took their owners' surnames. While that did happen, the practice was not uniform.


Yoshlik

Nat Turner was born to a small plantation owner Benjamin Turner in a remote area of Virginia. His mother Nancy was an African native who taught Turner against slavery in a loving way. As a child, Turner had memories he could explain things happened before he was born. He learned to read and write from his master's sons and interested in reading, writing, and religion. Nat became religious by reading religious books, preaching and reading the Bible.

Nat was 22 years when he ran away from the house and returned a month later by telling that he received spiritual exposure. Turner often conducted Baptist services and taught bible his fellow slaves. In 1831, he heard some divine voices that the time has come to prepare a revolt against slave owners. He planned to start a revolution on July 4th, but he delayed because of illness and also wanted to plan with his co-conspirators. Slowly Nat became aloof from other slaves and familiar with spirits.

On August 13th was another solar eclipse day and sun appeared little bluish green on that day Turner decided that the final signal has come to begin a revolution. He employed a number of slaves to support this mutiny.


Nat Turner - History

Nat Turner Explains Why He Led His Insurrection
Digital History ID 505

Author: Nat Turner
Date:1831

Izoh: In response to questions from a white lawyer named Thomas R. Gray, Nat Turner explains why he led his revolt against slavery.


Hujjat: Sir- - You have asked me to give a history of the motives which induced me to undertake the late insurrection, as you call it- - To do so I must go back to the days of my infancy. In my childhood a circumstance occurred which made an indelible impression on my mind, and laid the groundwork of that enthusiasm, which has terminated so fatally to many, both white and black, and for which I am about to atone at the gallows. Being at play with other children, when three or four years old, I was telling them something, which my mother overhearing, said it had happened before I was born. others being called on were greatly astonished. and caused them to say in my hearing, I surely would be a prophet.

For two years [I] prayed continually, whenever my duty would permit- - and then again I had [a]. revelation, which fully confirmed me in the impression that I was ordained for some great purpose, in the hands of the Almighty.

About this time [around 1825] I had a vision--and I saw white spirits and black spirits engaged in battle, and the sun was darkened- - the thunder rolled in the Heavens, and blood flowed in streams.

And on the 12th of May, 1828, I heard a loud noise in the heavens, and the Spirit instantly appeared to me and said the Serpent was loosened, and Christ had laid down the yoke he had borne for the sins of men, and that I should take it on and fight against the Serpent, for the time was fast approaching when the first should be last and the last should be first.

[Question] Do you not find yourself mistaken now?

[Answer] Was not Christ crucified? And by signs in the heavens that it would be made known to me when I should commence the great work- - and until the first sign appeared, I should conceal if from the knowledge of men- - And on the appearance of the sign (the eclipse of the sun last February), I should arise and prepare myself, and slay my enemies with their own weapons. And immediately on the sign appearing in the heavens, the seal was removed from my lips, and I communicated the great work laid out before me to do, to four in whom I had the greatest confidence (Henry, Hark, Nelson, and Sam)- - It was intended by us to have begun the work of death on the 4th of July last- - Many were the plans formed and rejected by us, and it affected my mind to such a degree, that I fell sick, and the time passed without our coming to any determination how to commence- - Still forming new schemes and rejecting them, when the sign appeared again, which determined me not to wait longer.

Since the commencement of 1830, I had been living with Mr. Joseph Travis, who was to me a kind master, and placed the greatest confidence in me: in fact, I had no cause to complain of his treatment of me. On Saturday evening, the 20th of August, it was agreed between Henry, Hark, and myself, to prepare a dinner the next day for the men we expected, and then to concert a plan, as we had not yet determined on any. Hark, on the following morning, brought a pig, and Henry brandy, and being joined by Sam, Nelson, Will and Jack, they prepared in the woods a dinner, where, about three o'clock, I joined them.

I saluted them on coming up, and asked Will how came he there, he answered, his life was worth no more than others, and his liberty as dear to him. I asked him if he thought to obtain it? He said he would, or lose his life. This was enough to put him in full confidence. Jack, I knew, was only a tool in the hands of Hark, it was quickly agreed we should commence at home (Mr. J. Travis') on that night, and until we had armed and equipped ourselves, and gathered sufficient force, neither age nor sex was to be spared (which was invariably adhered to). We remained at the feast, until about two hours in the night, when we went to the house and found Austin they all went to the cider press and drank, except myself. On returning to the house Hark went to the door with an axe, for the purpose of breaking it open, as we knew we were strong enough to murder the family, if they were awakened by the noise but reflecting that it might create an alarm in the neighborhood, we determined to enter the house secretly, and murder them whilst sleeping. hark got a ladder and set it against the chimney, on which I ascended, and hoisting a window, entered and came down stairs, unbarred the door, and removed the guns from their places. It was then observed that I must spill the first blood. On which, armed with a hatchet, and accompanied by Will, I entered my master's chamber, it being dark, I could not give a death blow, the hatchet glanced from his head, he sprang from the bed and called his wife, it was his last word, Will laid him dead, with a blow of his axe, and Mrs. Travis shared the same fate, as she lay in bed. The murder of this family, five in number, was the work of a moment, not one of them awoke there was a little infant sleeping in a cradle, that was forgotten, until we had left the house and gone some distance, when Henry and will returned and killed it we got here, four guns that would shoot and several old muskets, with a pound or two of powder. We remained some time at the barn, where we paraded I formed them in a line as soldiers, and. marched them off to Mr. Salthul Francis', about six hundred yards distant. Sam and Will went to the door and knocked. Mr. Francis asked who was there, Sam replied it was him, and he had a letter for him, on which he got up and came to the door they immediately seized him, and dragging him out a little from the door, he was dispatched by repeated blows on the head there was no other white person in the family. We started from there for Mrs. Reese's, maintaining the most perfect silence on our march, where finding the door unlocked, we entered, and murdered Mrs. Reese in her bed, while sleeping her son awoke, but it was only to sleep the sleep of death, he had only time to say who is that, and he was no more. From Mrs. Reese's we went to Mrs. Turner's, a mile distant, which we reached about sunrise, on Monday morning. Henry, Austin, and Sam, went to the still, where, finding Mr. Peebles, Austin shot him, and the rest of us went to the house as we approached, the family discovered us, and shut the door. Vain hope! Will, with one stroke of his axe opened it, and we entered and found Mrs. Turner and Mrs. Newsome in the middle of a room, almost frightened to death. Will immediately killed Mrs. Turner, with one blow of his axe. I took Mrs. Newsome by the hand, and with the sword I had when I was apprehended, I struck her several blows over the head, but not being able to kill her, as the sword was dull. Will turning around and discovering it, dispatched her also. A general destruction of property and search for money and ammunition, always succeeded the murders. By this time my company amounted to fifteen, and nine men mounted, who started for Mrs. Whitehead's. As we approached the house we discovered Mr. Richard Whitehead standing in the cotton patch, near the lane fence we called him over into the lane, and Will, the executioner, was near at hand, with his fatal axe, to send him to an untimely grave. As I came around to the door I saw Will pulling Mrs. Whitehead out of the house, and at the step he nearly severed her head from her body, with his broad axe. Miss Margaret, when I discovered her, had concealed herself in the corner. on my approach she fled, but was soon overtaken, and after repeated blows with a sword, I killed her by a blow on the head, with a fence rail.

. 'Twas my object to carry terror and devastation wherever we went. I sometimes got in sight in time to see the work of death completed, viewed the mangled bodies as they lay, in silent satisfaction, and immediately started in quest of other victims- - Having murdered Mrs. Waller and ten children, we started for Mr. William Williams'- - having killed him and two little boys that were there while engaged in this, Mrs. Williams fled and got some distance from the house, but she was pursued, overtaken, and compelled to get up behind one of the company, who brought her back, and after showing her the mangled body of her lifeless husband, she was told to get down an lay by his side, where she was shot dead.

Our number amounted now to fifty or sixty, all mounted and armed with guns, axes, swords, and clubs. We were met by a party of white men, who had pursued our blood- stained track. The white men, eighteen in number, approached us in about one hundred yards, when one of them fired. I then ordered my men to fire and rush them the few remaining stood their ground until we approached within fifty yards, when they fired and retreated. As I saw them re- loading their guns, and more coming up than I saw at first, and several of my bravest men being wounded, the other became panick struck and squandered over the field the white men pursued and fired on us several times.

All deserted me but two, (Jacob and Nat,) we concealed ourselves in the woods until near night, when I sent them in search of Henry, Sam, Nelson, and Hark, and directed them to rally all they could, at the place where had had our dinner the Sunday before, where they would find me, and I accordingly returned there as soon as it was dark and remained until Wednesday evening, when discovering white men riding around the place as though they were looking for someone, and none of my men joining me, I concluded Jacob and Nat had been taken, and compelled to betray me. On this I gave up all hope for the present and on Thursday night after having supplied myself with provisions from Mr. Travis' I scratched a hope under a pile of fence rails in a field, where I concealed myself for six weeks, never leaving my hiding place but for a few minutes in the dead of night to get water which was very near. I know not how long I might have led this life, if accident had not betrayed me, a dog in the neighborhood passing by my hiding place one night while I was out, was attracted by some meat I had in my cave, and crawled in and stole it, and was coming out just as I returned. A few nights after, two Negroes having started to go hunting with the same dog, passed that way, the dog came again to the place, and having just gone out to walk about, discovered me and barked, on which thinking myself discovered, I spoke to them to beg concealment. On making myself known they fled from me. Knowing when they would betray me, I immediately left my hiding place, and was pursued almost incessantly until I was taken a fortnight afterwards by Mr. Benjamin Phipps, in a little hole I had dug out with my sword, for the purpose of concealment, under the top of a fallen tree.

Source: The Confessions of Nat Turner, the Leader of the Late Insurrection in Southampton, Va. (Baltimore, 1831).


Yaradorlar

Historian Stephen B. Oates notes that Nat Turner had ordered his followers to "kill all the white people," including women and children. The rebels killed approximately 60 white men, women, and children. Most were hacked to death with axes, stabbed, or bludgeoned. The most numerous casualties were children. In one instance, Turner and his insurgents stopped at the house of Levi Waller where they killed him, his wife, and children. Ten of the children were decapitated and their headless bodies piled in the front yard. [10]

Nat Turner's Rebellion resulted in a fierce white response motivated by fear and desire for revenge. Planters and white militias throughout the South conducted vigilante justice, killing slaves and other persons of African descent, many of whom had no connection with the rebellion. [16]"

    Frederic D. Schwarz "1831: Nat Turner's Rebellion," Amerika merosi, August/September 2006.

Drewry, William Sydney (1900). The Southampton Insurrection. Washington, D. C.: The Neale Company. p. 108.

Description of Turner included in a $500 reward notice in the Washington Milliy razvedka on September 24, 1831.

Gray, Thomas Ruffin (1831). The Confessions of Nat Turner, the Leader of the Late Insurrections in Southampton, Va. Southampton, Virginia: Lucas & Deaver. pp. 7–9, 11.

Aptheker, Herbert (1993). American Negro Slave Revolts (6th ed.). New York: International Publishers. p. 298. ISBN 0-7178-0605-7 .

Richmond Enquirer, November 8, 1831, quoted in Aptheker, American Negro Slave Revolts, p. 299. Aptheker notes that the Enquirer was "hostile to the cause Turner espoused." p. 298.

Bisson, Terry. Nat Turner: Slave Revolt Leader. Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers, 2005. pp. 57–58

Aptheker, American Negro Slave Revolts, p. 301, citing the Huntsville, Alabama , Southern Advocate, October 15, 1831.

Richmond Whig, September 3, 1831, quoted in Aptheker, American Negro Slave Revolts, p. 301.

Richmond Enquirer, September 6, 1831, quoted in Aptheker, American Negro Slave Revolts, p. 301.

New York Evening Post , September 5, 1831, quoted in Aptheker, American Negro Slave Revolts, p. 301.

Southampton County Court Minute Book 1830-1835 pp.121-123.

Gibson, Christine (November 11, 2005). "Nat Turner, Lightning Rod" . American Heritage Magazine. Retrieved 2009-04-06 (archived).

Alfred L. Brophy, "The Nat Turner Trials" , North Carolina Law Review (June 2013), volume 91: 1817-80.

Virginia: A Guide to the Old Dominion (1992), p. 78

Lewis, Rudolph. "Up From Slavery: A Documentary History of Negro Education" . Rudolph Lewis. Retrieved September 5, 2007.

James D. Anderson, The Education of Blacks in the South, 1860–1935, Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1988, pp.244–245

    . American Negro Slave Revolts. 5th edition. New York, NY: International Publishers, 1983 (1943).

, The Fires of Jubilee: Nat Turner's Fierce Rebellion. New York, NY: HarperPerennial, 1990 (1975). ISBN 0-06-091670-2 .

, Virginia: A Guide to the Old Dominion, Richmond, VA: Virginia State Library, reprint, 1992. ISBN 0-88490-173-4 .

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