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Matilda tanki Token -Bichga, Buvenvilga qo'ndi

Matilda tanki Token -Bichga, Buvenvilga qo'ndi

Matilda Tank Toko -Bichga, Buvenvilga qo'ndi

Avstraliyalik Matilda II tanki Toko sohiliga, Empress Augusta ko'rfazidan janubda, Bugenvilning g'arbiy sohilida va Puriata daryosining g'arbiga qo'ndi. Bu Avstraliyaning janubidagi Buinning Yaponiya bazasi tomon harakatlanishining bir qismi edi.


Janobi Oliylari Sharqqa qarab yo'l oladi

1940 yilga kelib, Matilda II piyodalar tanki Shimoliy Afrikaning g'arbiy cho'llarida shuhrat qozondi va "Sahro malikasi" laqabini munosib topdi. Biroq, 1941 yilga kelib, Matilda II harakatchanligi va o'q otish kuchi bo'yicha cho'l urushining ortib borayotgan tezligidan orqada qoldi. Matilda II asta -sekin arzonroq va bir xil darajada samarali Valentin piyoda tankiga almashtirildi. Matilda II karerasi shu bilan tugamaydi.
1942 yil boshida Tinch okeanidagi vaziyat og'irlashdi. Yaponiya imperiyasi mintaqadagi Britaniya hududining ko'p qismini bosib oldi va fevral oyiga kelib, yaponlarning etakchi tomoni etarlicha janubga cho'zildi, Yaponiya havo kuchlari to'g'ridan -to'g'ri Avstraliya materikiga havo hujumlarini uyushtirishi mumkin edi.
Avstraliya, o'z navbatida, ikkinchi Avstraliya Imperatorlik kuchlariga tanklar kerakligini tan oldi va 1941 yil oxirigacha qo'shimcha ikkita zirhli diviziya qurishni rejalashtirgan holda to'liq zirhli divizionni ko'tarishni rejalashtirdi. Muammo bunday transport vositalarining mavjudligi edi. Mahalliy ishlab chiqarilgan Avstraliyaning Cruiser tanklari endigina prototip shaklida ishlab chiqarilgan va yaponlar Avstraliyaning eng yaqin qo'shnilarini nazorat qilishganida, tanklarga bo'lgan ehtiyoj shoshilinch edi.

Matilda II tanki 9 askar, B eskadroni, 2/4 zirhli polk, Xatay kesishmasidagi yo'l bo'ylab harakatlanmoqda. Buganvill 1945 yil 17 may -Manba: Avstraliya urushi memoriali
1942 yil o'rtalariga kelib Avstraliyaga 200 dan ortiq Matilda II tanklari keldi, garchi ularning deyarli yarmi flotning qolgan qismini saqlab qolish uchun qismlar uchun kanibalizatsiya qilinishi kerak edi. Jungli jangida yaqindan yordam berish muhimligini anglab, Yangi Zelandiya zaxiralaridan 3 '(76,2 mm) gaubitsalar bilan jihozlangan qo'shimcha tanklar mos keladigan 2 funtli qurol tanklari olindi. 3 -gubitka tanklari qo'shin boshlig'i mashinasi sifatida ishlatilgan va odatda, bir yoki ikkita 2 funtli qurolli tanklar tomonidan qo'llab -quvvatlangan.
400 ga yaqin Matilda II tanklari oxir -oqibat Avstraliyaning qo'riqxonasiga kiradi. Ular Avstraliyaning xizmatini urush tugagunga qadar davom ettirar edilar, natijada Matilda II 1939 yildan 1945 yilgacha uzluksiz xizmat ko'rsatadigan yagona Britaniya tankiga aylandi.


Belgilar va tafsilotlar

Avstraliya Qirollik zirhli korpusi odatda Britaniya transport vositalarini markalash va detallashtirish amaliyotiga amal qilgan. Biroq, ba'zi mahalliy o'zgarishlar muqarrar ravishda paydo bo'ldi va Ikkinchi Jahon Urushida qo'zg'atilgan ko'plab tendentsiyalar (masalan, transport vositalarining nomlanishi) Avstraliyaning Qirollik zirhli korpusi (RAAC) tomonidan shu kungacha ishlatilmoqda.

Formalash belgisi

Britaniya amaliyotidan so'ng, barcha avstraliyalik mashinalarda ular tarkibiga kiruvchi 8 va 2158 dyuymli nishonlar ko'rsatildi. Avstraliyalik Matilda II tanklariga kelsak, barcha operatsion bo'linmalar 4 -chi zirhli brigada guruhidan edi. 4 -zirhli brigada guruhining nishoni timsoh ustidagi oq palma daraxti va qora fonda bumerang edi. Hamma tanklarda ikkita shakllanish belgisi ko'rsatildi, biri old tomonida birlik belgisi va haydovchining ko'rinishi, ikkinchisi tankning orqa qismidagi yonilg'i bakining tashqi qavslari o'rtasida joylashgan.

Xizmat belgisi

"Xizmatga qurol" belgisi katta politsiya turiga qarab transport vositasini aniqladi (Matilda II tanklarida, Armor). Avstraliyaning Matilda IIsida xizmat ko'rsatishning ikki xil belgisini ko'rish mumkin edi. Birinchi tur 1943 yilda joriy qilingan bo'lib, Britaniyaning avtomobil markirovkasi tizimiga amal qilgan. Bu qizil maydonda 51 raqamli oq rangdan iborat bo'lib, Yangi Gvineyadagi 1 -chi tank tanklari (keyinchalik 1 -zirhli polk) tanklariga bo'yalgan.
Ikkinchi tur 1943 yildan keyin mahalliy darajada ishlab chiqilgan va joriy qilingan. U birlik tipining raqamli belgisi ustidan polk raqamining oq kasr belgisidan iborat edi. Masalan, 2-4 zirhli polki 2-4/52 (52 ta zirhli polk), 2/1 zirhli brigadasining razvedka otryadi 2-1/214 (214 ta razvedka eskadroni) sifatida ko'rsatildi.
Avtotransport vositasining old va orqa tomonida, xizmat ko'rsatish belgisi, bo'yash belgisi yonida, qurbaqa olovli tanklar bundan mustasno, orqa belgi o'ng orqa panjara bilan biriktirilgan vertikal plastinkada aks ettirilgan. . Rasmiy siyosat shuni ko'rsatadiki, "Xizmatga yaroqli" fraktsion belgisi yashil maydonga bo'yalgan bo'lishi kerak edi, lekin ba'zi hollarda u to'g'ridan-to'g'ri avtomobilning asosiy bo'yoqiga bo'yalgan.

Eskadron nishoni

Britaniya amaliyotida bo'lgani kabi, avstraliyalik zirhli mashinalarda geometrik shakldagi raqamlardan iborat rangli nishon bor edi, bu avtomobil polkini, eskadronini va qo'shinini ko'rsatdi. Rang 1 -zirhli polkni (qizil), 2/4 zirhli polkni (sariq), 2/9 zirhli polkni (ko'k), 2/1 zirhli brigadani razvedka eskadronini (oq) ko'rsatdi.
Shakl A eskadroni (uchburchak, yuqoriga), B eskadroni (kvadrat), C eskadrasi (aylana), Regimental HQ (olmos), zirhli brigada razvedka eskadronini (uchburchak, pastga qaragan) belgilab berdi. Shakl ichidagi raqam tank tarkibidagi eskadronni ko'rsatdi. Masalan, 9 raqami bilan qizil kvadrat tasvirlangan tank 9 askar, B eskadroni, 1 -zirhli polkdan iborat bo'ladi. Bu nishonlar minoraning atrofida uchta nuqtada, minoraning yonoqlarida ham, minoraning orqa tomonida ham ko'rsatildi.

Qayta tiklangan Matilda II tanki, 2/4 zirhli polkining 10 ta B guruhi eskadroni uchun Avstraliya belgilarini ko'rsatadi. 1.squadron nishoni (qo'shin raqami) 2. eskadron nishoni (eskadron shakli va polk rangi) 3. 4 -zirhli brigada guruhi uchun tuzilish belgisi 4. xizmat ko'rsatuvchi belgisi. 5. Ko'prikli og'irlik belgisi. Manba Gizmodo

Urush bo'limining raqamlari va kirish belgilari

Urush bo'limi raqamlari tankning ro'yxatga olish raqamlari bo'lib, bosh harf T bilan boshlangan, lekin bu mashinada ko'rsatilmagan. Urush bo'limining raqami 3 dyuym uzunlikdagi oq harflar bilan tank yon plastinkasining markaziy loydan yasalgan trubkalari ustiga bo'yalgan. Ta'kidlash joizki, ba'zi bir birlik holatlarda, raqamlarning joylashuvining yuqori yon plastinkasining burchakli qismida yoki avtomobilning old va orqa qismlarida o'zgarishi bor edi.
Uchish raqamlari 5 ta raqamli koddan iborat bo'lib, 3 rangli chiziq bilan birga, ranglar kodning oxirgi 2 ta raqamiga to'g'ri keladi. Uchish kodlari Buyuk Britaniyaning amaliyotidan olingan bo'lib, uskunalarni yukga oson va tartibli yuklashga imkon beradi va shu tariqa polk transport vositalarini old tomonga etkazib berish uchun guruhlangan bo'lishini ta'minlaydi.

Belgilash va ko'priklarni belgilash

Burilish belgilari Avstraliyalik Matilda II -ning eng o'ziga xos vizual belgilaridan biri bo'lib, ekipajni tankning xavfsiz va samarali o'tishi mumkin bo'lgan suv chuqurligi uchun ingl. Ular tankning har ikki tomonida balandligi taxminan 1 dyuym bo'lgan ikkita qizil chiziqdan iborat edi, pastki marker loydan yasalgan truba ustki qismidan pastda bo'yalgan va undan yuqori bir necha dyuym balandroq.
Har bir satrda oq belgi qo'yilgan, pastki belgi uchun "Qopqoq ochilgan", yuqori belgi uchun "Qopqoq yopilgan". Ba'zi hollarda, "balandlik balandligi" so'zlari yuqori chiziq yaqinida yoki uzilib qolgan. Ko'prik belgisi Matilda II xavfsiz o'tishi mumkin bo'lgan ko'priklarning og'irlik chegarasini ko'rsatdi. U Matilda II ning ko'prik og'irligi 25 tonnani ko'rsatuvchi 25 qora raqamli sariq doiradan iborat edi. Ko'prik belgisi tankning old tomoniga, haydovchining ko'rish oynasining o'ng tomoniga yoki asboblar qutisining o'ng tomoniga bo'yalgan.

Qayta tiklangan Avstraliyadagi Matilda II tankidagi markirovka. Manba: Avstraliya zirhlari va artilleriya muzeyi

Ismlar va har xil belgilar

Avstraliyada xizmat ko'rsatadigan Matilda II tanklari tez -tez, lekin hamma uchun ham emas, korpusning burchakli yon plastinkasida "ismlar" bilan tasvirlangan. Avtomobillar eskadronining bosh harfiga ko'ra nomlangan. Masalan, C eskadronining tanklari "Jasur", A eskadroni tanklari "Asp" yoki "Apache" kabi nomlarga ega bo'ladi. Har bir transport vositasining nomini odatda uning ekipaji tanlagan va avstraliyalik askarlar (og'zaki so'z bilan aytganda, qazuvchilar) o'zlarini hazil yoki boshqa ijodiy tanlovlar orqali ifoda etishgan.
Matilda qurbaqasi tanklari eskadron harfidan boshlanadigan tank nomlari qoidasidan istisno bo'lib tuyuladi. Masalan, 2/9 zirhli polk bilan ishlaydigan Matilda II Frog Flame tankiga D eskadroni bo'lmaganiga qaramay, uning ekipaji "Iblis" deb nom bergan, boshqasiga esa "Ko'mir" deb nom berilgan. Ba'zi ekipajlar o'z tanklarining tafsilotlarini qo'shimcha darajaga ko'tarishdi, masalan, T29923 'ACE' tanki, uning nomi chap tomonida Ace of Spades o'yin kartasi bilan bo'yalgan. Ekipajlar ba'zida o'z tanklariga shaxsiy shiorlarni yozib olishgan, masalan, bitta mashinada koaksiyal avtomatning tepasida "Buni bu" yozuvi bor. Biroq, bu belgilar kamroq uchraydi.

R.Fox askari Matilda II tankining minorasidagi belgilarga ishora qilmoqda. Xuon yarim oroli, Yangi Gvineya. 1944 yil 26 fevral -Manba: Avstraliya urushi memoriali


Tarkibi

1942 yil 7 -avgustda ittifoqchi kuchlar (asosan amerikaliklar) Solomon orollaridagi Guadalkanal, Tulagi va Florida orollariga qo'ndi. Orollarga qo'nish, yaponlarning AQSh va Avstraliya o'rtasidagi etkazib berish yo'llarini tahdid qilish uchun asos sifatida ishlatishini rad etish va orollarni Rabaul shahridagi asosiy Yaponiya bazasini zararsizlantirish kampaniyasi uchun boshlang'ich nuqtalar sifatida himoya qilish uchun mo'ljallangan edi. Ittifoqdosh Yangi Gvineya kampaniyasini qo'llab -quvvatladi. Qo'ng'iroqlar olti oylik Gvadalkanal kampaniyasini boshladi. [7] Yaponiyaliklarni hayratga solgan holda, 8 -avgust kuni kechqurun ittifoqchi desant qo'shinlari Tulagi va yaqinidagi kichik orollarni, shuningdek, keyinchalik Ittifoqchi kuchlar tomonidan Xenderson dala deb nomlangan aerodromni, Gvadalkanaldagi Lunga -Pointda qurilgan. [8] [9]

Ittifoqchilarning Guadalkanalga qo'nishiga javoban, Yaponiya Imperatorlik Bosh shtabi Yaponiya Imperator Armiyasining 17-armiyasini-Rabaul shahrida joylashgan general-leytenant Harukichi Xyakutake qo'mondonligi ostida-Guadalcanalni ittifoqchi kuchlardan qaytarib olish vazifasini topshirdi. . 17 -armiya, shu paytgacha Yaponiyaning Yangi Gvineyadagi kampaniyasi bilan faol shug'ullangan, Solomons janubidagi hududga yuborish uchun faqat bir nechta bo'linmaga ega edi. Bu bo'linmalardan general -mayor Kiyotake Kawaguchi boshchiligidagi 35 -piyoda brigadasi Palauda, ​​4 -chi (Aoba) piyodalar polki Filippinda va 28 -chi (Ichiki) piyoda polki Guam yaqinidagi transport kemalariga joylashdi. Har xil bo'linmalar darhol Gvadalkanal tomon yura boshladilar, lekin Ichikining polki - eng yaqini - birinchi bo'lib keldi. 917 ga yaqin askarlardan tashkil topgan Ichiki bo'linmasining "birinchi elementi" 19 avgustda Lunga perimetri sharqidagi Taivu -Poytda qirg'inchilar tomonidan qo'ndi, AQSh dengiz mudofaasiga hujum qildi va Tenaru jangida deyarli butunlay yo'q qilindi. 21 avgustda. [10]

29 avgustdan 7 sentyabrgacha yaponiyalik esminetslar (ittifoqchi kuchlar tomonidan "Tokio ekspressi" deb nomlangan), shuningdek, sekin barjalar karvoni Kawaguchi brigadasining 6000 kishini, shu jumladan Ichiki polkining qolgan qismini (Kuma batalyoni deb nomlangan) va ko'p qismini etkazib berdi. Aoba polki, Gvadalkanalgacha. General Kawaguchi va 5000 askar Luna atrofidan 20 mil (32 km) sharqda, Taivu -Pointga qo'ndi. Qolgan 1000 askar - polkovnik Akinosuke Oka qo'mondonligida - Lunga perimetri g'arbida Kokumbonaga qo'ndi. [12] [13] [14] Bu vaqt ichida Vandegrift Lunga perimetri mudofaasini mustahkamlash va yaxshilashga qaratilgan sa'y -harakatlarini davom ettirdi. 21 avgustdan 3 sentyabrgacha u uchta dengiz batalonini, shu jumladan AQSh podpolkovnigi Merritt A. Edson (Edson bosqinchilari) boshchiligidagi birinchi bosqinchi batalonni - Tulagi va Gavutudan Gvadalkanalga ko'chirdi. [15] [16]

Kawaguchi -ning 3000 askaridan iborat markaziy organi hujumlarini Xenderson maydonining janubidagi tog 'tizmasiga hujumlarini 12 sentyabrdan boshlab, keyinchalik Edson tizmasining jangi deb atashdi. Ko'p sonli frontal hujumlardan so'ng, Kawaguchi hujumi 14 sentyabrda o'rmonga qaytgan yaponiyaliklar uchun katta yo'qotishlar bilan qaytarildi. G'arbda Okaning hujumi va sharqda Kuma batalyonining hujumi AQSh dengiz piyodalari tomonidan shu ikki kun ichida qaytarildi. Kawaguchi bo'linmalariga Lunga perimetrining g'arbiy qismidagi Okaning bo'linmasi bilan qo'shilish uchun g'arbdan Matanikav vodiysiga chekinishga buyruq berildi. Kawaguchi shogirdlarining ko'pchiligi 20 sentyabrga qadar Matanikavga etib kelishdi. [17] [18] [19]

Yaponiyaliklar Matanikau g'arbida qayta to'planishganda, AQSh kuchlari Lunga mudofaasini mustahkamlash va mustahkamlashga e'tibor qaratdilar. 18 sentyabrda Ittifoqchi dengiz konvoyi 3 -vaqtinchalik dengiz brigadasidan (AQSh 7 -dengiz polki) 4157 kishini Guadalkanalga etkazib berdi. Bu qo'shimchalar Vandegriftga (19 sentyabrdan boshlab) Lunga perimetri bo'ylab uzluksiz himoya chizig'ini o'rnatishga imkon berdi. [20] [21]

Yaponlar darhol Xenderson maydonini qaytarib olishga urinishlariga tayyorgarlik ko'rishni boshladilar. 3 -batalon, 4 -chi (Aoba) piyodalar polki, 11 sentyabr kuni Guadalkanalning g'arbiy chekkasidagi Kamimbo ko'rfaziga qo'ndi, Kawaguchi ning AQSh dengiz piyodalariga hujumiga qo'shilish uchun juda kech edi. O'shanda batalon Matanikau yaqinidagi Okaning qo'shinlariga qo'shilgan edi. Keyingi Tokio ekspresslari 15 sentyabrdan boshlab oziq -ovqat va o'q -dorilarni, shuningdek Aoba polkining birinchi batalonidan 280 kishini Guadalcanaldagi Kamimboga olib keldi. [22] [23] [24]

AQSh dengiz piyodalari general -leytenanti Vandegrift va uning xodimlari Kawaguchi qo'shinlari Matanikau g'arbidagi hududga chekinishganini va Lunga perimetri va Matanikau daryosi oralig'ida ko'plab yapon stragglers guruhlari tarqalganini bilishgan. Dengiz piyodalari tomonidan ilgari o'tkazilgan ikkita reyd - 19 va 29 avgust kunlari, o'sha hududda lagerlashgan yapon qo'shinlarining bir qismi o'ldirilgan, biroq bu joyni dengiz mudofaasining g'arbiy qismiga tahdid solayotgan yapon qo'shinlarining yig'ilish maydoni va mudofaa pozitsiyasi sifatida inkor eta olmagan. Shunday qilib, Vandegrift Matanikav vodiysi atrofida kichik bo'linmalarning navbatdagi operatsiyalarini o'tkazishga qaror qildi. Bu operatsiyalarning maqsadi-Matanikavning sharqida joylashgan yapon qo'shinlarining tarqoq guruhlarini "tozalash" va Lungadagi asosiy Dengiz mudofaasiga yaqin joylashuvlarini mustahkamlashiga yo'l qo'ymaslik uchun yapon askarlarining asosiy qismini muvozanatdan saqlash edi. Nuqta. Birinchi operatsiya podpolkovnik Chesty Puller boshchiligidagi 7 -dengiz polkining 1 -bataloniga, boshlanish sanasi 23 -sentabrga tayinlangan. Operatsiya AQShning 11 -dengiz polkining artilleriya o'qlari bilan qo'llab -quvvatlanadi. [25] [26]

Tahrir qilish uchun prelude

AQSh Dengiz Dengiz rejasi Puller batalonini Lunga perimetri bo'ylab g'arbga qarab, Osten tog'i deb nomlangan katta er maydonini kesib o'tishni, Matanikau daryosidan o'tishni, so'ng Matanikau va Kokumbona qishlog'i orasidagi hududni qidirishni talab qildi. Shu bilan birga, podpolkovnik Samuel B. Griffit boshchiligidagi 1 -chi bosqinchilar bataloni Matanikau og'zidan o'tib, daryo, Kokumbona orasidagi masofani va g'arbdan Tassafaronga tomon o'tishi kerak edi. Dengiz piyodalari bu hududda 400 ga yaqin yapon bor deb o'yladilar. [27] [28] [29]

Matanikav vodiysidagi yapon qo'shinlarining haqiqiy soni Dengiz piyodalari taxminidan ancha ko'p edi. Ittifoqchilar Matanikau daryosi yaqinida katta amfibiya qo'nishga urinishi mumkinligiga ishongan holda, Kavaguchi Matanikavni himoya qilish uchun Okaning 124 -chi piyoda polkini - 1900 ga yaqin odamni tayinladi. Oka o'zining "Maizuru" batalyonini Osten tog'ining tagida va Matanikau daryosining g'arbiy va sharqiy qirg'oqlarida joylashtirdi. Okaning qolgan kuchlari Matanikavning g'arbiy qismida joylashgan edi, lekin ittifoqchilarning bu hududdagi har qanday hujumlariga tezkorlik bilan javob bera olishdi. Kokumbona yaqinida joylashgan boshqa yapon qo'shinlarini hisobga olganda, umumiy Matanikau hududidagi jami yapon kuchlari 4000 ga yaqin edi. [30] [31] [32]

Amalni tahrirlash

Puller batalyonining 930 askari 23 sentyabr kuni erta tongda Lunga atrofidan g'arbga yurish qilishdi. O'sha kuni ertalab Puller qo'shinlari Dengiz Lunga mudofaasini qidirayotgan ikkita yapon patrulini quvib chiqarishdi. Keyin Puller batalyoni tunab qoldi va ertasi kuni Osten tog'iga chiqishga tayyorlandi. [33]

24 -sentabr kuni soat 17:00 da Pullerning odamlari Osten tog'ining shimoli -sharqiy yonbag'rida ko'tarilishar ekan, 16 yapon askaridan iborat bivakni hayratda qoldirdilar. To'qnashuv shovqini yaqin atrofda joylashtirilgan Okaning Maizuru batalyonining bir nechta kompaniyalarini ogohlantirdi. Mayzuru qo'shinlari tezda Puller dengiz piyodalariga hujum qilishdi, ular boshpana olib, olovni qaytarishdi. Okaning buyrug'iga binoan, yaponlar Matanikau daryosi tomon chekinayotganda asta -sekin ajralishdi va kelishuv kechga yaqin tugadi. Dengiz piyodalari 30 o'lik yaponni hisobladilar, 13 kishi o'ldi va 25 kishi yaralandi. Puller shtab -kvartirani radio bilan ta'minladi va yaradorlarni evakuatsiya qilish uchun yordam so'radi. Vandegrift ertasi kuni 2 -batalon, 5 -dengiz polkini (2/5) qo'shin sifatida yuborishini aytdi. [34] [35] [36] [37]

5/5 - podpolkovnik Devid Makdugal boshchiligida - 25 sentyabr kuni Puller bo'linmasi bilan uchrashdi. Puller o'z qurbonlarini Lunga perimetriga uchta batalon kompaniyasi bilan yubordi va missiyasini qolgan kompaniyasi (Kompaniya C), shtab -kvartirasi xodimlari va 2/5 qismi bilan davom ettirdi va ular Osten tog'i bilan Qirollik orasidagi tunni tark etishdi. Matanikau daryosi. [38] [39] [40]

26 sentyabr kuni ertalab Puller va Makdugal qo'shinlari Matanikau daryosiga etib kelishdi va ilgari yaponlar qurgan "bir yog'ochli ko'prik" deb nomlangan ko'prikdan o'tishga harakat qilishdi. Ko'prik atrofida 100 ga yaqin yapon himoyachilari qarshilik ko'rsatganligi sababli, dengiz piyodalari Matanikavning sharqiy qirg'og'i bo'ylab shimolga, daryo bo'yidagi qirg'oqqa tupurishdi. Oka qo'shinlari dengiz tuprog'i Matanikavni qum tupurish orqali kesib o'tishga urinishni, shuningdek, tushdan keyin bir yog'ochli ko'prikdan o'tishga urinishni qaytarishdi. Bu orada Griffitning "Raider" bataloni - 5 -chi dengiz polkining komandiri Merritt A. Edson bilan birga Matanikau og'zidagi Puller va Makdugal qo'shinlariga qo'shildi. [41] [42] [43] [44]

Edson o'zi bilan "shoshilinch o'ylab topilgan" hujum rejasini olib keldi, uni birinchi navbatda Vandegrift bo'linmasining a'zosi podpolkovnik Merrill B. Tvining yozgan-Griffith's Raiders va Puller's C kompaniyasi bilan birgalikda bitta yog'ochli ko'prikdan o'tishga chaqirdi. keyin daryo og'zida yaponlardan ustun turing/janubdan qum tupuring. Shu bilan birga, MakDugalning bataloni qum tupurgan joydan hujum qilishi kerak edi. Agar hujumlar muvaffaqiyatli bo'lsa, Pullerning qolgan bataloni qayiqda Point Cruz g'arbiga kelib, yaponlarni orqa tomondan hayratda qoldirdi. Xenderson -Fild samolyotlari, shuningdek, 75 mm (2,95 dyuym) va 105 mm (4,1 dyuym) artilleriya - operatsiyani qo'llab -quvvatlaydi. Dengiz hujumi ertasi kuni, 27 sentyabrda boshlanadi. [45] [46] [47]

Dengizchilarning 27 sentyabr kuni ertalabki hujumi unchalik katta muvaffaqiyat keltirmadi. Griffith's Raiders Matanikau ustidagi bitta yog'ochli ko'prikka bora olmadi, bir necha qurbonlarga, jumladan, mayor Kennet D. Beylining o'limi va Griffitning yaralangani. Raidersning yuqori oqimdan keyingi qanotli urinishi ham muvaffaqiyatsiz tugadi. 124 -piyoda polkining qo'shimcha kompaniyalari bilan kechasi Matanikau og'zida bo'linmalarini kuchaytirgan yaponlar Makdugal odamlarining hujumlarini qaytarishdi. [48] ​​[49] [50] [51] [52]

Dengiz aloqa tarmog'ini buzgan Xenderson maydoniga yapon havo hujumi tufayli Griffitdan kelgan "noto'g'ri" xabarlar natijasida Vandegrift va Edson Raiders Matanikavni kesib o'tishga muvaffaq bo'lishdi deb hisoblashdi. Shuning uchun, Puller bataloniga Point Cruzdan g'arbga rejalashtirilgan qo'nishni davom ettirish buyurildi. Major Oto Rojers boshchiligidagi Puller batalonining uchta rotasi soat 13:00 da Point Cruz g'arbidagi to'qqizta qo'nish kemasidan qo'ndi. Rojers dengiz piyodalari ichkariga kirdi va tepalikni tepalikni egalladi, 84 -chi, qo'nish maydonidan taxminan 600 yd (550 m). Oka, bu qo'nishning jiddiyligini anglab, o'z kuchlariga g'arbdan ham, sharqdan ham Rojers dengiz piyodalarini yopishni buyurdi. [53]

Tog'ni egallaganidan ko'p o'tmay, Rojersning odamlari Oka kuchlaridan ikki tomondan kuchli o'qqa tutildi. Maydon Rojers minomyotdan o'qqa tutilib, uni yarmi bilan portlatib yubordi va shu zahotiyoq o'ldi. Kapitan Charlz Kelli - kompaniyalardan birining qo'mondoni - qo'mondonlikni oldi va piyodalarga qarshi kurashish uchun tizma atrofidagi perimetrlik mudofaani joylashtirdi. [54] [55] 84 -tepalikdagi dengiz piyodalari radio aloqasiz edi va shu sababli yordam chaqira olmadi. Dengiz piyodalari tog 'tizmasidagi "H-E-L-P" so'zini yozish uchun oq ko'ylak yordamida improvizatsiya qilishdi. Kaktus havo kuchlari (Xenderson maydonida ishlaydigan Ittifoq samolyotlarining nomi) SBD Dauntless operatsiyani qo'llab -quvvatlab, ko'ylak ostidagi xabarni payqadi va xabarni Edsonga radio orqali etkazdi. [56] [57] [58]

Jangda qatnashgan, dengiz faxriysi, kichik Pol Mur buni tasvirlab berdi:

Har biri. [vzvod] ular qirg'oqqa qarama -qarshi bo'lmaguncha qum bo'lagi bo'ylab yugurib o'tishi, daryo bo'ylab suzib o'tishi va qirg'oqda avtomatlar va qo'l granatalari va minomyotlar bilan qazilgan yapon batalyoniga hujum qilishi kerak edi. Xo'sh, bitta vzvod o'tdi va yo'q qilindi. Yana bir vzvod yonidan o'tib, yo'q qilindi. Keyin boshqasi. hammamiz aqldan ozganimizni tushundik. Ammo agar siz dengiz piyodasi bo'lsangiz, sizni la'natlangan plyaj bo'ylab buyurtma qilishadi va siz ketasiz. [59]

Edsonga Raider batalyonidan Matanikavdan o'tolmaganliklari to'g'risida xabar keldi. Edson atrofdagilar bilan gaplashar ekan: "O'ylaymanki, biz ularni chaqirganimiz ma'qul, ular daryodan o'tolmaydilar". Puller jahl bilan: "Siz bu odamlarni tashlab yubormaysiz!" aftidan, Matanikavning g'arbiy tomonida qolib ketgan odamlariga ishora qilib, sohilga "bostirib kirdi", u erda shaxsiy signalisti yordamida Puller dengiz flotining USS esminetsini kutib oldi. Monssen bu operatsiyani qo'llab -quvvatladi. Bir marta bortda Monssen, Puller va qiruvchi 10 ta qo'nish kemasini Point Cruz tomon olib bordi va Kelli bilan tizma bo'ylab signal bayrog'i orqali aloqa o'rnatdi. [60] [61] [62]

Bu vaqtga kelib, Okaning qo'shinlari 84 -tepalikdagi dengiz piyodalarini qirg'oqdan butunlay kesib tashlash uchun joylashdilar. Shuning uchun Monssen- Puller tomonidan muvofiqlashtirilgan - tog 'tizmasi va plyaj orasidagi yo'lni portlata boshladi. Taxminan 30 daqiqa esminets tomonidan o'qqa tutilganidan so'ng, dengiz piyodalari uchun sohilga qochish uchun yo'l aniq bo'ldi. Dengiz piyodalarining ko'plari o'zlarining artilleriya o'qlaridan ba'zi qurbonlarni olishlariga qaramay, soat 16:30 da Point Cruz yaqinidagi sohilga etib kelishdi. Oka qo'shinlari muvaffaqiyatli evakuatsiya qilinmasligi uchun dengiz sohilidagi dengiz piyodalariga kuchli o'q otishdi va AQShning qo'nish kemasini boshqaruvchi AQSh Sohil Xavfsizlik ekipajlari dengiz piyodalarini olib chiqish uchun o'z kuchli olovlari bilan javob berishdi. Yong'in ostida, dengiz piyodalari desant kemasiga o'tirishdi va Lunga perimetriga muvaffaqiyatli qaytishdi va harakat tugadi. AQSh qirg'oq qo'riqchilarining birinchi darajali signalizatori Duglas Albert Munro-Xiggins qayiqlari guruhi ofitseri-dengiz piyodalari uchun qo'nish kemasidan o't o'chirish paytida, ular dengiz sohilidan evakuatsiya qilinganda halok bo'lishdi va o'limidan so'ng "Shon-sharaf" medali bilan taqdirlanishdi. harakat, hozirgi kunga qadar bezakni olgan yagona qirg'oq qo'riqchisi. [63] [64] [65]

Oxirgi tahrir

Aktsiya natijalari yaponiyaliklarni quvontirdi, ular ikki hafta oldin Edson tizmasidagi mag'lubiyatdan qutulib qolishdi. Oka qo'shinlari 84 -tepalik atrofida AQSh dengiz piyodalarining 32 jasadini sanashdi va ular dengiz piyodalari qoldirgan 15 ta miltiq va bir nechta pulemyotni qo'lga olishdi. General -mayor Akisaburo Futami - 17 -chi armiya shtabi boshlig'i, Rabaul o'z kundaligida bu harakat "Guadalkanaldan kelgan birinchi xushxabar" ekanligini qayd etgan. [66] [67] [68]

AQSh dengiz piyodalari uchun "sharmandali mag'lubiyat" deb ta'riflangan bu harakat, dengiz qo'mondonlari aybni ayblamoqchi bo'lib, "barmoqlarini ko'rsatishga" olib keldi. Puller Griffit va Edsonni, Griffit Edsonni, Tvining esa Puller va Edsonni aybladi. Polkovnik Jerald Tomas - Vandegrift operatsiyalari bo'yicha ofitseri - Tvininni aybladi. Dengiz piyodalari bu tajribadan saboq olishdi va mag'lubiyat Gvadalkanal kampaniyasi davomida AQSh dengiz kuchlari tomonidan eng katta zarar ko'rgan. [69]

Tahrir qilish uchun prelude

Yaponlar oktyabr oyining oxirida rejalashtirilgan yirik hujumga tayyorgarlik ko'rish uchun Gvadalkanalga qo'shimcha kuchlarni etkazib berishni davom ettirdilar. 1-5 oktyabr kunlari Tokio Ekspress 2 -piyoda diviziyasi qo'shinlarini, shu jumladan ularning qo'mondoni general -leytenant Masao Maruyamani etkazib berdi. Bu qo'shinlar 4, 16 va 29 -piyoda polklarining bo'linmalaridan iborat edi. [70] Sentabr oyida Matanikau harakatida qo'lga kiritilgan ustunlikdan foydalanishga urinish uchun Maruyama 4 -chi piyodalar polkining uchta batalonini general -mayor Yumio Nasu boshchiligidagi qo'shimcha bo'linmalari bilan Matanikau daryosining g'arbiy tomonida, Point Kruzning janubida joylashtirdi. daryoning sharqiy tomonida joylashgan 4 -piyoda polkining kompaniyalari. Okaning holdan toygan qo'shinlari Matanikau yaqinidagi hududdan olib chiqildi. Daryoning sharqidagi yapon bo'linmalari Lunga -Point atrofida AQSh dengiz piyodalari perimetri bo'ylab og'ir artilleriya o'q otadigan pozitsiyalarni tayyorlashda yordam berishlari kerak edi. [71]

Yaponiyaning Matanikau atrofidagi faolligidan xabardor bo'lgan AQSh dengiz piyodalari Yaponiya kuchlarini Matanikau vodiysidan g'arbga va uzoqlashtirish maqsadida bu hududda navbatdagi hujumga tayyorgarlik ko'rishdi. Sentyabr harakatidan olingan saboqlarni qo'llayotib, bu safar dengiz piyodalari beshta batalonni o'z ichiga olgan puxta muvofiqlashtirilgan harakat rejasini tayyorladilar: ikkitasi 5 -dengiz polkidan, ikkitasi 7 -dengiz polkidan va 2 -chi dengiz polkidan biri dengiz skauti va mergani bilan to'ldirildi. xodimlar (uning qo'mondoni polkovnik Uilyam J. Whaling nomi bilan kit ovlash guruhi deb ataladi). 5-chi dengiz piyodalari batalonlari Matanikau og'ziga hujum qilishlari kerak edi, qolgan uchta batalon Matanikavning ichki qismidagi "bitta yog'ochli ko'prik" orqali o'tib, shimolga burilib, yapon kuchlarini o'zlari bilan qirg'oq o'rtasida tuzoqqa tushirishga harakat qilishlari kerak edi. Bu safar Dengiz bo'linmasi shtabi butun operatsiyani o'z nazoratida ushlab turishni rejalashtirdi va artilleriya va samolyotlardan operatsiyani batafsil qo'llab -quvvatladi. [72] [73] [74] [75]

Amalni tahrirlash

7 oktyabr kuni ertalab ikkita 5 -chi dengiz batalyonlari Lunga perimetri bo'ylab Matanikav tomon g'arbga hujum qilishdi. Yarim yo'llarga o'rnatilgan 75 mmli qurollardan to'g'ridan-to'g'ri o'q otish va 1-chi bosqinchilar bataloni tomonidan qo'shimcha qo'shinlar bilan dengiz piyodalari Yaponiyaning 3-kompaniyasi, 1-batalyon, 4-piyoda askarlaridan 200 askarni Matanikau sharqidagi kichik cho'ntagiga majburlashdi. taxminan 400 yd (370 m) daryo og'zidan. Yaponiya 2 -chi kompaniyasi 3 -chi kompaniyadagi o'rtoqlariga yordam berishga harakat qildi, lekin Matanikavdan o'tolmadi va Dengiz o'qidan qurbon bo'ldi. Shu bilan birga, ikkita 7-dengiz piyodalari bataloni va kit ovlash guruhi bir tupli ko'prikning sharqidagi pozitsiyalariga qarama-qarshiliksiz etib kelishdi. [76] [77] [78] [79] [80] [81]

AQSh dengiz piyodalari hujumidan bexabar general Nasu 7 oktyabr kuni kechqurun Matanikau bo'ylab 4 -piyoda polkining 3 -batalonining 9 -rotasini yubordi. Yapon polk komandiri 8 -oktabr kuni soat 03:00 atrofida AQSh dengiz piyodalari operatsiyasi haqida xabar oldi va darhol dengiz operatsiyasiga qarshi turish uchun o'zining 1 va 2 -batalonlarini daryoga yaqinroqqa buyurdi. [82]

8 oktyabr kuni yomg'ir yog'ishi AQShning 7 -dengiz piyodalari va kitlar guruhini Matanikavdan o'tishga urinishda sekinlashtirdi. Kechga yaqin AQShning 3 -batalonining 2 -dengiz piyodalari Matanikau g'arbidagi birinchi tizmasiga Point Cruzdan 1,6 km masofada etib kelishdi. Daryoning sharqiy qirg'og'idagi pozitsiyalariga qarama -qarshi, AQShning 2 -batalonining 7 -dengiz piyodalari H kompaniyasi, sharqiy sohilda Yaponiya 9 -chi kompaniyasi va g'arbiy sohilda qolgan Yaponiya 3 -bataloni o'rtasida ochiq pozitsiyaga chiqib, majburan majburlandi. chekinmoq. Natijada, dengiz piyodalari hujumni bir kecha davomida to'xtatdilar va ertasi kuni uni davom ettirishga tayyorgarlik ko'rishdi. Dengiz piyodalari Matanikavning g'arbiy sohilidagi o'z pozitsiyalariga tahdid solganini bilmagan holda, yaponiyalik qo'mondonlar, jumladan Maruyama va Nasu o'z bo'linmalarini ushlab turishni buyurdilar. [83] [84] [85] [86] [87] [88]

Kechasi, Yaponiyaning 3 -kompaniyasidan omon qolganlar, taxminan 150 kishi, cho'ntagidan chiqib, Matanikau og'zidagi qumtoshni kesib o'tishga harakat qilishdi. 3-chi rota askarlari 1-chi bosqinchilardan ikkita vzvodni egallab olishdi, ular o'sha tomondan hujum kutishmadi va natijada qo'lma-qo'l jang 12 dengiz piyodasi va 59 yaponni o'ldirdi. Qolgan 3 -chi kompaniyadan omon qolganlar daryodan o'tib, do'stona chiziqlarga yetib olishdi. Dengiz piyodalari ishtirokchisi Frank J. Guidonning so'zlariga ko'ra, "Jang do'zax soatlari edi. Qichqiriq, yaradorlarning qichqirig'i va miltiqdan o'q uzish va tunda izlari bo'lgan avtomatlar - a) tuman kombinatsiyasi, tutun va tabiiy zulmat. Haqiqatan ham o'lim maydoni ". [89]

9 -oktabr kuni ertalab AQSh dengiz piyodalari Matanikavning g'arbiy qismidagi hujumlarini qaytadan boshladilar. Kit ovlash guruhi va podpolkovnik Xerman Xanneken boshchiligidagi 2 -batalon 7 -dengiz piyodalari Point Cruz atrofidagi qirg'oqqa etib kelishdi va Yaponiya qo'shinlarining katta qismini o'zlari bilan Matanikau daryosi o'rtasida ushlab qolishdi, bu erda yaponlar AQSh artilleriyasi va samolyotlaridan katta yo'qotishlarga duch kelishdi. bombardimon. G'arbda, Pullerning 1 -batalyoni, 7 -dengiz piyodalari, Yaponiyaning 2 -batalyonini, 4 -piyoda askarini o'rmonli jarlikda ushlab qolishdi. Jarlikka ommaviy artilleriya o'qlarini chaqirgandan so'ng, Puller o'z batalyonining minomyotlari olovini, Pullerning so'zlari bilan aytganda, "yo'q qilish mashinasi" ni qo'shdi. Tuzoqqa tushgan yapon qo'shinlari bir necha bor jarlikning qarama -qarshi tomoniga chiqib, qochishga harakat qilishdi, faqat katta miqdordagi dengiz miltig'i va pulemyotdan o'q uzishdi. Yaponiyaliklar Guadalkanalda kutilmagan katta hujum uyushtirishni rejalashtirayotgani haqida razvedka ma'lumotlarini olgach, Vandegrift Matanikavning g'arbiy qismidagi barcha dengiz bo'linmalarini o'chirib, daryoning sharqiy tomoniga qaytishni buyurdi. [90]

Oxir oqibat va ahamiyati Tartibga solish

Dengiz hujumi Yaponiyaning 4 -piyoda polkiga katta talafot etkazdi va 700 ga yaqin yapon qo'shinlarini o'ldirdi. Ushbu operatsiya davomida 65 dengiz piyodasi halok bo'ldi. [91] [92] [93]


Matilda IV: ko'rib chiqish, xususiyatlar, taqqoslash

Urush o'yinlari (Ikkinchi Jahon urushi) tank 6191 - Britaniya engil tank Matilda Mk I (1: 100). Urush o'yinlari (Ikkinchi jahon urushi) - Sd.Kfz.173 Jagdpanther Germaniya og'ir tanki. Bizning do'kon haqida (Matilda tank sahifasidan yo'naltirildi). Gezinti kısmına atla Arama kısmına atla. Mk II Piyade Tankı, Matilda II (A12) (bazen 'Senior Matilda' adı da kullanılırdı) Birleşik Krallık ordusu tarafından II The Tank, Infantry, Mk II, Matilda II (A12) (sometimes referred to as Senior Matilda) was a British tank of World War II. In a somewhat unorthodox move, it shared the same name as the Tank, Infantry, Mk I.. St. Gloriana comes with a single Matilda commanded by Rukuriri to help Ooarai against All-Stars University Team, it was assigned to Dandelion Platoon commanded by Miho. The Matilda was present during the engagement against Rumi's platoon in the swamp, after the Karl was destroyed it retreats in the theme park and alongside others St. Gloriana tanks was assigned to the eastern utility gate. After the T28 storms in the park the Matilda fled as it was unable to harm the rolling fortress but was surrounded at the amphitheater alongside others. Thanks to Rabbit Team they escaped and the Matilda was later taken down by Rumi's Pershing attempting to prevent the Bermuda Trio to regroup with the Centurion. Matilda II (tank). Wikipedia tasarımı üzerinden görüntüle. Mk II Piyade Tankı, Matilda II (A12) (bazen 'Senior Matilda' adı da kullanılırdı) Birleşik Krallık ordusu tarafından II

Koala Forest High School fields two Matilda Mk.III during the tournament first round match against Viking Fisheries High School. Their performance during the match is unknown other than that they rushed to the river and fell into Viking's trap. [Outro] This is from Matilda This is from Matilda Matilda Matilda Matilda. About Matilda. Named after Natalie Portman's character in Leon: The Professional, the name of the song follows the English.. The A12 Cruiser Tank Mk II "Matilda" (or just Matilda II) was one of the most successful British infantry tanks that served during the early stages of the Second World War. . They were fully aware of its armor thickness and devised appropriate tactics. An experimental conversion, the “Oswald“, fitted with a shielded 5 cm KwK L/42 gun and two MG 42s. It was used for training at some point, but its fate is unknown. Later, with the war in Africa turning in their favor, the DAK managed to capture a dozen more in May-June 1941. They were repaired and affected to the 5th Pz.Rgt. of the 21st Pz.Div., and the 8th Panzer-Regiment of the 15th Panzer-Division. They were popular with their crews because of their armor, but caused confusion on the battlefield, despite the profusion of large painted crosses, large Nazi and army flags, and makeshift camouflages in some cases. Under the crude light of the desert, its silhouette was unmistakable, but the associated symbols difficult to spot. Those captured in too bad shape for repairs were kept as reserves for spare parts. At least two or three had their turrets removed and mounted in concrete pillboxes, guarding strategic road junctions. On the Eastern Front, records of captured tanks are even more difficult to appreciate. But at least a dozen or so were seen with the Balkan cross in 1942-43, as testified by photographs of a German facility in Budapest, and in the field, or in Russian archives.

During the exhibition match between St. Gloriana and Pravda vs Chi-Ha-Tan and Ooarai, three Matildas were part of Darjeeling's forces on the golf course. Despite being under immensely heavy fire from all sides, only two Matildas were knocked out, one by the Panzer IV and one other by a the StuG, leaving Rukuriri's tank as the sole Matilda survivor during that encounter. Rukuriri was later taken out by the combined efforts of Duck Team and Fukuda's Ha-Go. . Karşılaştırmaya Ekle Araç karşılaştırmaya eklendi Araç kurulumunu karşılaştırmaya Lend-Lease programı çerçevesinde SSCB'ye verilmiş bir İngiliz tankı. Aralık 1941'de bir Matilda araç..

Be Unique. Shop matilda tank tops created by independent artists from around the globe. Main Tag. Matilda Tank Top. Description. The iconic image of Matilda the Musical on Broadway The 40mm, ordnance 2pdr had nothing to do with the Bofors 40mm antti-aircraft LAA gun. if it was its range of ammunition would have included HE, but it never had that. Further, the case is straight sided (though it does angle in) and is not necked. The Bofors round 40 X 311R is necked.


Sex Slaves of World War II

The practice was covered up the Japanese after their defeat, and largely forgotten until the 1990s. At that point, though, scholars began investigating various secret Japanese projects such as this and writing books about the practice. A public outcry arose to investigate the situation and make amends.

The survivors wanted compensation and official recognition. Tokyo at first refused to make any official settlement, considering the matter covered by the 1951 San Francisco Treaty and related agreements that assessed general penalties for the conflict. The government instead set up a fund for women from private donations. This did nothing but inflame the issue, however, as the Chinese and South Korean governments insisted on an official settlement agreement with all the trimmings. The tension was exacerbated by the fact that current Prime Minister Shinzo Abe repudiated the unofficial Kono apology early in his career, along with others who denied the dishonorable practice entirely. Basically, many in the Japanese government wanted to ignore the issue as already having been resolved. They found the entire discussion embarrassing and distasteful, if not entirely fictional. This was due to a mixture of national pride and outright denial. The victims still insisted on a conclusive settlement between governments specifically addressing the issue and wanted the denials to end.

Many were not entirely satisfied with the agreement and related statements, expecting a more explicit recognition of the situation and government culpability. Others continue to deny the practice existed at all. There are hard feelings on both sides. However, the issue of comfort women finally appears to be resolved.

5 comments:

It’s resolved? Men shunday deb o'ylamayman. Previous president Park Geun-hye in prison who made this agreement without nationwide consensus of Korean. It can’t be solved by money. It can be solved until victim said that’s enough. but no any victim(comport women) said ‘yes. I accept your apologies and regrets’ . That’s ironical and political result. I think that’s bullshit situation.

May I know where you got the first 2 pictures from? I want to use these pictures for a historical research project but can´t seem to find a/the legitimate source. Help a girl out!

The National Institute of Korean History (NIKH) (http://history.go.kr/en/main/main.do) has been compiling and cataloguing items relating to the Comfort Women issue since requested to do so in 2012 pursuant to a request made by the Ministry of Gender Equality and Family Affairs. You can read about the project here: https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2017/12/24/national/south-korean-research-institute-build-comprehensive-database-documents-comfort-women/#.XOXtbshKhaQ

Many World War II photos are difficult to source. If you are willing to put some time and effort into it, it may be possible to find some details. I'd ask the NIKH, they have a database online.


Matilda II specifications

Manbalar

Infantry Tank Mark IIA* Specifications, The Vulcan Foundary Ltd by designer Sir John Dodd August 1940
Infantry Tank Mark II manual, War Department
Osprey Publishing, New Vanguard #8, Matilda Infantry Tank 1938-45
Hopkins, Ronald Nicholas Lamond and Australian War Memorial Australian armour : a history of the Royal Australian Armoured Corps, 1927-1972.
Fletcher, David and Sarson, Peter Matilda infantry tank 1939-1945.
Bingham, James Australian Sentinel and Matildas.
The National Archives of Australia
Infantry Tank Mark II Specifications, by J.S. DODD The Vulcan Foundry Ltd, Locomotive Works, August 1940


Never Give Up, Never Surrender

Completely ignoring Wa.Prüf 4’s demands, Krupp produced drawing Bz 3445 on October 12th, 1944 for the Mittelerer Waffenträger sFH 18 auf Panther (dünnwandig) (dünnwandig means “thin-walled”). This was a lighter version of the Mittelerer Waffenträger sFH 18 auf Panther. It had thinner armor, carried only 50 rounds of ammunition instead of 60, and had a redesigned, cylindrical turret. These changed saved 7 metric tons of weight.

On the 25th of October 1944, the High Command General of Artillery suggested doing away with the requirement for a dismountable, 360 degree traversing turret for possible future weapons carriers. However, this was deemed necessary and the suggestion was declined. On the 23rd of December 1944, General Wolfgang Thomale requested that the High Command General of Artillery hold off on issuing another panther-based weapons carrier requirement, as Panther production numbers were lower than expected. Instead, he requested that they wait to see if the role could be fulfilled by the upcoming 38(d) platform.

Due to the situation of the War in late 1944 and 1945, surviving information on the remaining projects is highly fragmented.
A Directive dated November 19th, 1944, ordered the cessation of the Gerät 808 project, a Panther-based weapon carrier for the 15 cm sFH 18/2, due to the plans not being ready.
A telex message dated February 6th, 1945, stated that the chassis without turret that Krupp required for the Schwerer Panzerhaubitze was waiting at the steel works in Hannover.
A February 20th, 1945 report on the emergency situation of the War gave a list of projects that were to be immediately terminated. On that list was a 15 cm sFH 18 auf Panther Bauteilen.


Memories of ‘A’ Squadron, 1st Australian Tank Battalion

Izohlar: History of the 1st Australian Tank Battalion – scarce.

Serving in New Guinea as the 1st Tank Battalion (Australian Imperial Force) (AIF) in 1943 and 1944, and in Balikpapan in 1945 as the 1st Armoured Regiment (AIF), this regiment arguably saw more action in the Pacific theatre than any other Australian armoured unit. Only the 2/4th Armoured Regiment’s record, with its participation in the New Guinea and Bougainville campaigns during 1945, compared. Also distinguishing the 1st Armoured Regiment was its lineage to the Royal New South Wales Lancers.

The New South Wales Lancers were formed in 1885 one of its squadrons served in South Africa during the Boer War and during the First World War many of its members volunteered for the 1st AIF. After the war the Lancers were designated as successors to the 1st Light Horse Regiment. In 1935 the regiment received the prefix “Royal”. Its traditional role of cavalry and light horse was modified the following year, when it was made a motorised machine-gun regiment, becoming the 1st Light Horse (Machine Gun) Regiment (Royal New South Wales Lancers). At the start of the Second World War, many of its members volunteered for the 2nd AIF. In December 1941 the regiment became the 1st Machine Gun Regiment and was given its first operational role – Newcastle’s northern beaches.

In 1942 the unit’s title was changed to the 1st Motor Regiment in March, and then to the 1st Army Tank Battalion in May, when it became part of the 3rd Army Tank Brigade. Tank battalions were being used to support the infantry and, after completing armoured vehicle training, the unit received their first Matilda tanks in September. At the start of 1943 the regiment was declared an AIF unit, subsequently moving from Singleton, NSW, where it had been training, to Queensland, where it joined the 4th Armoured Brigade. In June the unit became the 1st Tank Battalion (AIF) and conducted amphibious and jungle training from its base in Caboolture.

At the start of August the unit moved to Milne Bay, Papua, in preparation for its forthcoming role in the New Guinea campaign. The unit was to support the 9th Division in the capture of Lae, but the terrain, with many rivers to be crossed, was thought to be unsuitable for tanks the unit, less B Squadron, moved to Morobe in September and then to Buna. Meanwhile, the fighting in New Guinea continued, with the 9th Division landing at Scarlet Beach, on the Huon Peninsula, and, after defeating the Japanese counter-attack, advanced towards Finschhafen.

As the campaign progressed, in the middle of November C Squadron moved from Papua to Finschhafen and for the next month supported the infantry at Finschhafen, Sattelberg, and along the coast towards Lakona. This was the first time Matilda tanks were used in a jungle battlefield and they proved to be very effective – their heavy armour was impervious to most Japanese ordnance. In mid-December A Squadron replaced B Squadron, at Lakona, and continued the advance towards Fortification Point and Sio.

The unit returned to Australia in June 1944, whereupon it became the 1st Armoured Regiment and was based at Southport, Queensland. The regiment spent the next year training but the war was almost over before it went into action again. In May 1945 the regiment moved to Morotai, in the Netherlands East Indies. The Allies used Morotai as a base for the American operations in the Philippines and the Australian operations on Borneo. While the 9th Division made amphibious landings on Tarakan and in British North Borneo, the 7th Division landed at Balikpapan on Borneo’s east coast as part of the OBOE operations. The 2/9th Armoured Regiment supported the 9th Division, while the 1st Armoured Regiment supported the 7th Division.

A and B Squadrons landed at Balikpapan on 1 July, the first day of the battle. The regiment was equipped with 26 Matilda tanks, three “Frogs” – Matlildas armed with a flamethrower – three dozers, and a bridge-laying tank from the 2/1st Armoured Brigade Reconnaissance Squadron. The tanks supported the infantry in the capture of Parramatta Ridge, Balikpapan’s township, in the fighting along Vasey and Milford Highways.

The unit continued to serve Australia, first in the post-war Militia and today with the Australian Army Reserve. In 1949 the unit returned to the name 1st Royal New South Wales Lancers and in 1956 merged with the 15th Northern River Lancers to form the 1st/15th Royal New South Wales Lancers, headquartered at Parramatta. NSW.


Manbalar

The official history Australia in the War of 1939–1945, published by the Australian War Memorial, Canberra, has several volumes covering military operations in and around Bougainville, in particular during 1944–45. Army operations are in Gavin Long, The Final Campaigns (1963) air operations in George Odgers, Air War Against Japan 1943–45 (1957) and naval operations in G Hermon Gill, Royal Australian Navy 1942–1945 (1968). Medical services are in Allan S Walker, The Island Campaigns (1957) and Medical Services of the RAN and RAAF (1961).

A number of unit histories cover operations in the area. Those from which quotes were drawn include Anon., Tank Tracks: The war history of the 2/4th Australian Armoured Regimental Group (Sydney, 1953) Don Astill, Commando White Diamond: Unit history of the 2/8 Australian Commando Squadron (Loftus, 1996) including the quote of Trooper Alan Blythe George Christensen, That's the way it was: The history of the 24th Australian Infantry Battalion (AIF) 1939–1945 (Melbourne, 1982) including the quote of Corporal Max Maritz Peter J Denham, The Blue Diamonds The history of the 7th Brigade (Melbourne, 1987) Russell Mathews, Militia Battalion at War: The history of the 58th/59th Australian Infantry Battalion in the Second World War (Melbourne, 1961) Alexander 'Sandy' McNab, We Were the First: The unit history of No 1 Independent Company (Loftus, 1998) including the quote of Lance-Corporal Jack Matthews and Allan Pedder, The Seventh Battalion, 1936–1946 (Niddrie, 1989).

The coastwatching experience was described by the commanding officer, Eric Feldt, in The Coastwatchers (Melbourne, 1946). Another source quoted in this book, is AB Feuer (ed.) Coast Watching in the Solomon Islands: The Bougainville reports December 1941–July 1943 (1992).

Some memoirs of Americans, Australians and New Zealanders involved in the campaign have been published. One quoted in this book is Peter Medcalf, War in the Shadows: Bougainville, 1944–45 (Sydney, 1986). The memoir and historical summary by American war correspondent Doral Chenoweth, 54 War Correspondents KIA WWII, published on the internet, contains Technical Sergeant Ted Link's account of the death of Keith Palmer.

List of site sources >>>


Videoni tomosha qiling: Матильда против Матильды, как я ее расстрелял WoT Blitz (Dekabr 2021).