Kech ishlab chiqarilgan Supermarine Spitfire IX
Kech ishlab chiqarilgan Spitfire Mk IX rasm. Ajratib turadigan xususiyatlarga pufakchali kanop, to'rtta pichoqli pervanel va qirqilgan qanotlar kiradi.
“E va#8221 ni saralash
Ommaviy ishlab chiqarilgan Spitfire Mk. XVIE amerikalik ikkita muhim mahsulotni o'z ichiga olgan va Packard tomonidan ishlab chiqarilgan Merlin 266 dvigateli va .50 va#8243 kalibrli Brauning qanotli qurollari. 1944 yil boshiga kelib, har ikkalasi ham Atlantika okeanining tobora ishonchli yo'llari orqali Qo'shma Shtatlardan ko'p miqdorda sotila boshladi. Ularning eng ko'p sonli ingliz qiruvchi samolyotlarini ishlab chiqarishga qo'shilishi ushbu ta'minot holatining mantiqiy natijasi edi.
Browning .50 va#8243 kalibrli avtomat uzoq tarixga ega edi. Hatto bugungi kunda ham u ishlab chiqarilgan eng muvaffaqiyatli pulemyotlardan biri hisoblanadi. U 1920 -yillardan boshlab Ikkinchi Jahon urushi paytida Koreya va Vetnamgacha AQSh tomonidan avtomobil quroli va samolyot qurollanishi uchun keng ishlatilgan. Ajablanarlisi shundaki, u bugungi kunda ham AQSh harbiylari va NATO mamlakatlarining asosiy og'ir avtomatlari sifatida ishlatilmoqda, faqat bir nechta zamonaviy yaxshilanishlar uni Ikkinchi Jahon Urushi davridan oldingi davridan farq qiladi.
Asosiy M2 AQSh xizmatida bir nechta variantda joylashtirilgan. Ruxsat etilgan yoki moslashuvchan samolyot quroli sifatida ishlatishga mo'ljallangan variantning to'liq nomi Browning Machine Gun, Aircraft, Cal. .50, AN/M2 (Ruxsat etilgan) yoki (Moslashuvchan).
AN/M2 (sobit) minutiga 750-850 tsiklli aylanish tezligiga ega bo'lib, elektr bilan boshqariladigan masofadan o'rnatilgan solenoid tetikidan o'qqa tutilishi mumkin edi. Havo sovutgichli AN/M2 samolyot slipstreami tomonidan sovutilgan bo'lsa, uning armiyasiga qaraganda ancha engilroq bochka o'rnatilishi mumkin edi, bu esa yong'in tezligini oshirdi.
Shuni ta'kidlash kerakki, o'sha paytdagi boshqa samolyot qurollari bilan taqqoslaganda, Brauningning ishlashi, ayniqsa, boshqa jangovar davlatlar tomonidan keng qo'llaniladigan samolyot to'plariga qaraganda ancha farq qilardi. Amerikalik qurol ham juda og'ir edi. Boshqa tomondan, USAAF buni havodan jangda juda ishonchli va shunchaki "etarli darajada yaxshi" deb topdi. Shu tariqa, Brauning amerikalik jangchilarning P-51 Mustang, P-47 Thunderbolt yoki F6F Hellcat va boshqa jangchilar uchun standart qurollanishiga aylandi.
Xuddi shu qurol Spitfire uchun ko'rib chiqilganda, Supermarinada kamida ikkita aniq tanlov bor edi, ularning ikkalasi ham C qanotining universal tuzilishiga mos keladi, keyin ishlab chiqarishda.
- C-qanotli to'p xonalariga to'rtta .50 va#8243 ta Braunnlarni joylashtirish, shu bilan birga tashqi va#8220.303 Braunlarni olib tashlash. Bu Spitfirega P-51B Mustangga o'xshash .50 kalibrli to'rtta qurolni to'ldiradi.
- Har bir qanotning .50 va#8243 Brauningni ishlatilmaydigan to'plar ko'rfaziga qo'yib, tashqi va#8220.303 qurollarini olib tashlang. Bu Spitfire -ga ikkita 20 mmli Ispaniya va ikkita .50 ” pulemyotlarini to'ldiradi.
Ma'lumki, oxirgi kombinatsiya 1944 yil va 1945 yil oxirida Merlin bilan ishlaydigan Spitfires-da keng tarqalgan standartga aylandi. Buning asosiy sababi, ehtimol, RAF doktrinasi to'pni, uning zarba kuchiga ko'ra, jangovar qurollanishning zarur tarkibiy qismi deb hisoblagan. havoda ham, yerdagi nishonlarga ham (Spitfire Mk. IXC bilan solishtirganda, P-51B engil qurollangan edi, haqiqatan ham bu sohadagi obro'si, ehtimol, uning muxolifati asosan jangchilarni o'z ichiga olgani tufayli saqlanib qolgan edi).
Boshqa tomondan, miltiq kalibrli pulemyotlarning og'ir pulemyotga almashtirilishi avtomat o'q otishining jangovar samaradorligini qaytardi. Bu, hech bo'lmaganda, Evropaga bostirib kirganidan so'ng, 2 -taktik havo kuchlarining operatsiyalarida muhim bo'lishi kerak bo'lgan erdagi nishonlarga qarshi muhim edi.
Armourers M2 Brownings -ni ish stolida tekshiradi
Browning va#8217s og'irligi tufayli, yangi o'rnatish oldingi tartibga qaraganda og'irroq bo'lib, Spitfire -dagi qurollanish og'irligini 235 dan 276 kg gacha oshirdi. M2-ni qanotga o'rnatish nisbatan sodda modifikatsiyadir va qurol-yarog 'qanot ichida to'liq yashiringan "C" tipli qanotning to'plar bo'lagiga joylashtirilgan. kontur
Shunday qilib, E qanoti tuzilish jihatidan C tipiga o'xshash edi, faqat qurol -aslaha o'rnatishda farq qilardi. Bromvich qal'asining zavod rekordlari qanotlarning ishlab chiqarishga kirganligini ham ko'rsatmaydi. Ularning qanotlari Merlin Spitfire uchun hammasi bir xil universal edi. Shuning uchun “E ” belgisi qanday paydo bo'lganligi noma'lum. Ehtimol, u keyinchalik, pastki orqa Mk kiritilganda qabul qilingan bo'lishi mumkin. XVI kislorod va siqilgan havo idishlarini bo'sh joyga ko'chirishga olib keldi .303 ″ Qanotlarda qovurilgan bo'linmalar.
Spitfire -da to'p va .5 ″ M2 Browning o'rnatilishini ko'rsatadigan diagramma
[Crown mualliflik huquqi]
Bu saytda ilgari nashr etilgan ushbu rasmda Spitfire LF Mk qurollanish ko'rfazining joylashuvi ko'rsatilgan. IXE, Hispano Mk bilan. Chapda II to'p, o'ngda M2 Browning. E'tibor bering, butun ko'rfaz ikkita ispanni joylashtirish uchun qanday yaratilgan. Brauning o'zining katta maydoniga osongina mos keladi. Uning o'q -dorixonasi (eng yuqori qismi) oddiy o'lchamlari bo'yicha oldingi o'lchamlari bo'ylab ajratgichni oddiy qo'shilishi orqali oddiy tarzda kamaytirildi.
Yangi qurolni olgan birinchi Spitfire MK197, LF Mk. Castle Bromwich ishlab chiqarish liniyasidan IX. U 1944 yil 11 fevralda qurollanish sinovlari uchun Boscombe Downda AAEEga topshirildi.
Ishlab chiqarish etkazib berishlari Mk. IXElar o'sha oyda boshlangan, taxmin qilinishicha, aprel oyining boshigacha yakunlangan dastlabki ishlab chiqarish partiyasi 66 ta va 504 otryadga kirgan 60 ta mashinadan iborat.
Bir vaqtning o'zida mavjud Spitfires Mk-ni konvertatsiya qilish bo'yicha o'zgartirish ko'rsatmasi berildi. IXC yangi qurol bilan. Buni birlik darajasida amalga oshirish mumkin emas edi, chunki modifikatsiyaga qanot va#8220 santexnika va#8221 –, ehtimol qurolni isitish va siqilgan havo qurilmalarini o'zgartirish kiritilgan. Buning o'rniga, Vickers Supermarine samolyotni konvertatsiya qilish uchun ishchi guruhlar berdi.
M2 Brauning ichki to'pi ko'rfaziga o'rnatildi, uning bochkasi qanotning asosiy qismi ichida yashiringan edi. Taniqli yoqa bu o'rnatish bilan birlashtirilmagan, lekin bu xususiyat "Hispano" ikkinchi to'pi uchun oldinga mustahkamlangan tokni ta'minlagan "8220C" va "8221" qanotlaridan olingan.
Konvertatsiya ishlarining tezligini baholash juda qiyin. Konvertatsiya qilingan samolyotlarning turi yozuvlarda o'zgarmaganligi sababli, D-Day vaqtida qancha Spitfire konvertatsiya qilinganligini aniqlab bo'lmaydi. Biroq, CBAF LF Mk -ni chiqarishni davom ettirgani aniq. Xuddi shu davrda “old ” qurollangan IXC samolyotlari.
Qizig'i shundaki, 485 -sonli (Yangi Zelandiya) eskadroni bir nechta Spitfires LF Mk -ni aylantirdi. IX. Super Bo'ron ko'rsatmalariga murojaat qilmasdan .50 ta Brauningni olib yurish.
Birinchi Spitfire LF Mk. XVI, MJ556, 1943 yil dekabrda uchib, "8220C" va "8221" tipidagi qurollarni olib yurgan. Eskadronlar 1944 yil oktyabr oyining boshiga qadar, Bromvich saroyida bu variantni ommaviy ishlab chiqarish boshlangunga qadar yangi belgini olishni boshlamadilar. 1944-1945 yil qishda LF Mk. XVIE LF Mk o'rnini egalladi. IX qit'adagi 2 -TAFda eng keng tarqalgan qiruvchi turi sifatida.
Umuman olganda, Mkning barcha ishlab chiqarish misollari. XVI “Amerikalik ” qurollarini olib yurdi. Biroq, buni aniqlik bilan tasdiqlash qiyin. Achinarli tarzda, belgilash “LF. XVIE ” birinchi marta 1945 yil may-iyun oylarida CBAF rekordlarida paydo bo'lgan. Birinchi kam belli Mk. XVI, SM410, CBAFni 1945 yil 30 martda sinovlar uchun tark etdi, shuning uchun u kiritilganda “E ” qo'shimchasi past orqa Spitfire va/yoki ilgari aytib o'tilgan o'zgarishlarni nazarda tutgan bo'lishi mumkin. qanotli sanitariya -tesisat ushbu variantga kiritilgan. Ehtimol, biz hech qachon bilmaymiz.
Topning tashqi ko'rfaziga ko'chirilishi va chiqish kanallarining turlicha joylashuvi tufayli konvertatsiya paytida yuqori pastki qurolli ko'rfaz qopqoqlari almashtirildi.
Kompaniya bosh direktori - asoschi Mayk O'Sallivan, u ham Cisco munitsipal aeroporti menejeri.  Seminar menejeri-Chad Faykus va ofis menejeri Keti Redford-Uolton.  
2012 yilda kompaniyada sakkiz kishi ishlagan. 
Avstraliyalik uchuvchi va aviatsiya muhandisi Mayk O'Sallivan, Kvinslenddagi chorvachilik stantsiyasida o'sgan, har doim Spitfire -ni xohlagan va 1991 yilda o'zi uchun nusxasini yaratgan. Buning ortidan 1994 yilda butun metall ishlab chiqarish prototipi paydo bo'ldi.    
1995 yilda O'Sallivan biznes sherigi Jon Makkarron bilan birgalikda Avstraliyaning Brisben shahrida Supermarine Aircraft kompaniyasini tashkil etib, butun avstraliyalik uy qurilishi samolyotlarini ishlab chiqarish g'oyasini ishlab chiqdi. Bunday holda, doimiy tezlikli, to'rt pichoqli vintni Yangi Zelandiyadagi ixtisoslashgan firmalardan olish mumkin edi. 
Kompaniyaning asl Spitfire qiruvchi samolyotini ishlab chiqargan Britaniyaning Supermarine kompaniyasi bilan to'g'ridan -to'g'ri aloqasi yo'q, lekin unga bu nomdan foydalanishga ruxsat berilgan. The Telegraph gazetasining jurnalisti Charlz Lorens quyidagicha tushuntiradi: "Shunday qilib, Sautgemptonda joylashgan sobiq aviatsiya kompaniyasi bo'lgan Supermarinaning muqaddas nomi (Spitfiresning yarmi G'arbiy Bromvichda, Sautgempton fabrikalari Luftwaffe tomonidan tekislanganidan keyin qurilgan) qanday tugadi? O'Sallivan Supermarine nomini sotib olmadi: unga 1950 -yillarning boshidan beri ishlamay qolgan G'arbiy Midlend samolyotlari egalarining avlodlari berishdi. 
Taxminan 2010 yilda kompaniya AQShning Texas shtatidagi Cisco aeroportiga ko'chib o'tdi va hozirda Amerika mas'uliyati cheklangan jamiyati hisoblanadi.  
Samolyotlar hozirda ko'plab mamlakatlarda tasdiqlangan va uchib ketgan, 92 dan ortig'i sotilgan. 
Supermarine Aircraft Spitfire-bu alyuminiydan ishlab chiqarilgan yagona alyuminiy nusxasi. Hamma kichik o'lchovli uchta model ishlab chiqarilgan:
Kech ishlab chiqarilgan Supermarine Spitfire IX - Tarix
Supermarin Spitfire / Seafire
(Variantlar/boshqa ismlar: Qarang Tarix pastda)
Supermarin Spitfire Mk IX G-CTIX (PT462), 2003 yilda Buyuk Britaniyaning Duxford shahrida ko'rilgan.
Surat Rob Boyes tomonidan kiritilgan.
Tarix: Shubhasiz, Ikkinchi jahon urushidagi Britaniyaning eng mashhur jangovar samolyoti, Spitfire ko'plab britaniyaliklarning ruhiyatiga singib ketgan, P-51 Mustang ko'pchilik amerikaliklarda bo'lgani kabi. Birinchi marta 1936 yil 5 martda Spitfire R.J.ning dizayn stolidan uchib ketdi. Mitchell, ilgari shunga o'xshash 224 tipidagi qiruvchi samolyotning muvaffaqiyatsiz dizaynini topshirgan edi. Bir paytlar havo vazirligining qat'iy spetsifikatsiyasidan tashqarida samolyotni loyihalashtirish erkinligi berildi. 300 yozing aniq g'olib sifatida paydo bo'ldi, shuning uchun yangi dizaynga mos keladigan Havo vazirligining yangi spetsifikatsiyasi yozildi.
The Spitfire Mk I 1938 yil iyulda Kembrijeshirning Duxford shahrida ishga tushdi va vaqt o'tishi bilan Spitfire qanotlarining turli xil konstruktsiyalari, qurol-yarog'larining o'zgarishi va dvigatellarining o'zgarishi bilan ko'p qirrali va o'zgaruvchan samolyotlardan biriga aylanishi kerak edi. .
Ikkinchi jahon urushi 1939 yil sentyabr oyida boshlanganda, Spitsning to'qqiz otryadi RAF bilan ish olib bordi va Spitfire tezda nemis He 111ni Buyuk Britaniyada urib, o'z obro'sini oqladi. 1940 yilning kuziga kelib, Britaniya jangi xalqning qat'iyatliligi va harbiy resurslarini sinab ko'rganda, yana o'nta Spitfire eskadroni kuchga kirdi. Ko'p o'tmay Spitfires chet elda, Malta, Yaqin Sharq va Tinch okeanida operatsiyalarni boshladi.
Spitfire Ikkinchi Jahon Urushi davomida xizmat qilgan va qurilishda davom etgan. U ko'plab teatrlarda va ko'plab ittifoqchi davlatlarda, shu jumladan AQSh va Sovet Ittifoqida xizmat qilgan.
Qirollik dengiz floti Spitfire-ning quruqlikdagi xizmatdagi muvaffaqiyatini, shuningdek, o'zlarining dengiz bo'ronlarining muvaffaqiyatini qayd etib, samolyot ishlab chiqarishni buyurdi. Dengiz olovi, Spitfire-ning tashuvchiga asoslangan versiyasi. Yetkazib berish 1942 yil yanvar oyida boshlandi va Seafire urushning qolgan qismida sonlar va variantlarning ko'payishida ishlatilgan.
Spitfire/Seafire-ning eng muhim variantlarining ro'yxati, albatta, hamma narsani o'z ichiga olmaydi va to'liq bo'lmasa ham, samolyot tarixining murakkabligi haqida tasavvur beradi.
* Mk IB: To'rtta 7,7 mm (0,303 dyuym) qurol va ikkita 20 mm to'p
* Mk VA/B/C.: Kuchliroq Merlin dvigateli, tanklar yoki bombalar, qanotlar va qurol-yarog'larni o'zgartirish qoidalari
* Mk VII: Bosimli kokpit va orqaga tortiladigan dumaloq g'ildirakli baland balandlikdagi tutqich
* Mk VIII: Bosimsiz kokpitli toza qiruvchi
* Mk IX: Ikki bosqichli Merlin dvigateli Mk V samolyotiga ulangan
* Maktab XIV: Griffon 65/66 dvigateli beshta pichoqli pervaneli, mustahkamlangan korpusli, keng dumli, kech modellarda pufakchali kanopi bo'lgan
* Mk XVI: Packard Merlin dvigateli, ko'pchiligida pufakchali kanop bor edi
* Seafire Mk IIC: Katapult kancalari va mustahkamlangan shassi, Merlin dvigateli, 4 pichoqli pervanel
* Seafire Mk III: Ikkita katlanadigan qanot va 1,585 ot kuchiga ega Merlin 55 dvigateli.
Spitfire-ning so'nggi operatsion missiyasi 1954 yil 1-aprelda, Spitfire PR.Mk 19 Malayya ustidan foto-razvedka missiyasini uchirganda amalga oshdi. Seafire -ning yakuniy missiyasi 1967 yilda, Harbiy -havo kuchlari va turli xil mashg'ulot otryadlarida ko'p yillar sodiq xizmat qilganidan so'ng amalga oshirildi.
Spitfire, hozirgacha ishlab chiqarilgan eng muhim va hurmatli qiruvchi samolyotlardan biri bo'lib, samolyot ko'rgazmalarida va parvozlarida sherning e'tiborini o'g'irlashni davom ettirmoqda. Qolgan misollar juda ehtiyotkorlik bilan olib boriladi va Spitfire -ning davom etayotgan tiklanishi, bu go'zal samolyot yaqin kelajakda ham uchuvchilarni, ham tomoshabinlarni xursand qilishni davom ettiradi.
Taxalluslar: Tupur Spitter Bomba olovi (Tiqinli olovlar qiruvchi-bombardimonchi sifatida ishlatilgan)
Xususiyatlar (Mk VA):
Dvigatel: 1,478 ot kuchiga ega Rolls-Royce Merlin 45 V-12 pistonli dvigatel
Og'irligi: 4,998 funt bo'sh, maksimal uchish 6,417 funt.
Qanot oralig'i: 36 fut. 10in.
Uzunligi: 29 fut. 11in.
Balandligi: 9 fut. 11in.
Maksimal tezlik: 369 mil / soat
Shift balandligi: 36 500 fut.
Balandligi: 1,135 mil
Qurol-yarog ': sakkizta 7,7 mm (0,303 dyuym) Brauning avtomatlari. (Boshqa variantlarda ikkita to'p va to'rtta pulemyot to'rt to'p yoki ikkita to'p, ikkita 12,7 mm pulemyot va 1000 funtli bomba bor edi.)
Qurilgan raqam: 20,334 gumbaz 2556 dengiz kemasi
Hali ham havoga mos keladigan raqam:
[Spitfire Pilot hisoboti Jeyms Feuilherad tomonidan]
Kech ishlab chiqarilgan Supermarine Spitfire IX - Tarix
Supermarin Spitfire va Seafire
Supermarin Spitfire II. Surat NASA ruxsati bilan.
British Spitfire, ehtimol, ishlab chiqarilgan eng mashhur qiruvchi samolyotdir. Kichkina, norasmiy so'rovda shuni aniqladimki, hatto aviatsiya va tarixga qiziqmagan odamlar ham Spitfire haqida hech bo'lmaganda eshitgan. Ko'pincha bu ular tan oladigan yagona qiruvchi samolyot.
Spitfire Ikkinchi Jahon Urushining eng yaxshi va bardoshli jangchilaridan biri bo'lganiga shubha yo'q. Spitfire, xuddi dushman Bf 109 kabi, juda moslashuvchan samolyot ekanligini isbotladi va har xil versiyalarda u urush davomida xizmat qilgan.
Ikkinchi jahon urushidagi britaniyalik mashhur aktslarning ko'pchiligi Spitfire -da uchishdi, shu jumladan eng yaxshi to'purar britaniyalik jangchi guruhi kapitani "Jonni" Jonson (38 ta g'alaba) va Britaniya jangining oyoqsiz askari va qahramoni Duglas Bader. ikkita sun'iy oyoqlari bilan), Spitfire kokpitidan 20 ta o'ldirilishining 9 tasini olgan.
Deyarli barcha ittifoqchilarning eng yaxshi jangchilarining suratlarini sinovdan o'tkazgan nemis askari Gyunter Rall (275 g'alaba) Spitfire -ni afzal ko'rganini aytdi. Bu Spitfire -ni o'zlarining eng xavfli dushmani deb hisoblagan nemis qiruvchi uchuvchilarining umumiy tuyg'usi edi.
Spitfire 1920 -yillarning oxiri va 1930 -yillarning boshlarida Shnayder Trophy (dengiz samolyotlari) poygachilarining Supermarinlar qatoridan paydo bo'ldi, bu 1931 yilgi S.6B kubogi bilan yakunlandi. O'sha yilning sentyabr oyida S.6B kubokni yuqori qismi bilan qo'lga kiritdi. tezligi 340,8 mil / soatni tashkil etdi va soatiga 407 mil tezlikda jahon rekordini o'rnatdi
Spitfire prototipi 1936 yilda qurilgan. Bf 109 singari, Spitfire ham teridan ishlangan, metalldan yasalgan monoplan edi. Bu o'sha paytda yangi texnologiya edi va ko'plab ishlab chiqarish muammolarini hal qilish kerak edi, buning natijasida yangi qiruvchi RAF eskadronlariga etib borguncha ancha kechikishlarga olib keldi.
Spitfire - bu past darajadagi dizayn bo'lib, uni xorijiy rivojlanishlarga mos ravishda bosqichma -bosqich takomillashtirish mumkin edi. Va, umuman olganda, bu haqiqiy uchuvchining samolyoti edi. U uchishni oson va kechirimli, yomonliksiz jangchi ekanligini isbotladi. Uning kabinasi nisbatan keng va yaxshi ko'rish maydonini taklif qilgan.
Bu uning eng katta raqibi ME 109dan keskin farq qilar edi, u ham quruqlikda, ham havoda boshqariladigan murakkab samolyot edi. Bu muhim ahamiyatga ega edi, urush paytida, uchuvchilar tayyorgarligi yuqori tezlikda o'tkazilganda va "tayoq vaqti" qisqarganda. 109 -yil kabinasi tor edi va ko'rish nuqtai nazaridan past edi.
Birinchi ishlab chiqarish versiyasi Mk edi. Men 1938 yil o'rtalarida eskadron xizmatiga kirganman. 1939 yilda urush boshlanganda, RAF Buyuk Britaniyada zamonaviy monoplanli jangchilarining asosiy qismini ushlab turishni talab qildi va Fritishga Spitfires bo'lmagan zamonaviy bo'ronlarning bir nechtasini yubordi. Bu yaxshi qaror bo'ldi, chunki Frantsiya qulaganidan so'ng, RAF qiruvchi qo'mondonligi Luftwaffe -ning 800 Bf 109 samolyotlarini kutib olish uchun taxminan 620 ta bo'ron va Spitfiresni ishga solishi mumkin edi. Luftwaffe -da 275 ta Bf 110 ikkita dvigatelli "Destroyer" qiruvchi samolyotlari bor edi, biroq ular bitta dvigatelli ingliz jangchilariga teng kelmasligini isbotladilar.
Spitfire Mk -ning asosiy varianti. IA mashhur Rolls Royce V-12 Merlin II dvigateli bilan jihozlangan. Bu 1230 ot kuchiga ega edi. va ikkita pichoqli yog'och vintni boshqarib, Spitfire -ga dastlabki tezlikni soatiga 360 m/s va eng yaxshi ko'tarilish tezligini 2530 fut/min berdi. Britaniya urushi paytida toqqa chiqishni va tezlanishni sezilarli darajada yaxshilagan uch pichoqli doimiy tezlikli pervanel o'rnatildi.
Bu davrdagi "Spitfires" va "Hurricanes" ning odatiy qurollanishi har bir qanotda 4 tadan 8 -303 kalonli Browning pulemyotlari edi. Ba'zi Spitfiresga 2-20 millimetrli qurol va bir nechta pulemyotlar o'rnatilgan va ular Mk deb nomlangan. IB ning.
Qanday bo'lmasin, ularning ishlashi Bf 109E -ga juda o'xshash edi, bunda Spitfire -ni manevr qilish osonroq va biroz tezroq, Messerschmitt esa sho'ng'ishda tezroq va aylanma tezligi bilan tezroq edi.
1940 yilda Mk. II paydo bo'la boshladi va Mk o'rnini egalladi. Men 1941 yil boshida. Mk. II 1240 ot kuchiga ega edi. Merlin XII, bu unga Mk bilan deyarli bir xil tezlikni berdi. Men (354 m.h. soat 17.550 fut), lekin toqqa chiqish tezligi (3.025 fut/min).
Shuni aytib o'tish joizki, Spitfiresda yonilg'i quyish emas, balki karbüratör bor edi va agar samolyot ag'darilib tashlansa, dvigatellar yoqilg'ining etishmasligidan to'xtab qolardi. Kech ishlab chiqarilgan Mk uchun yaxshilangan uglevodlar qabul qilinmaguncha, bu muammo hal qilinmadi. V va undan keyingi modellar. Mk. II -lar sakkizta pulemyot yoki avtomat va to'plarning aralashmasi bilan qurollangan edi. Bu davrdagi barcha Spitfire qanotlari elliptik rejaga ega edi va (menimcha) barcha qiruvchi samolyotlarning eng nafislaridan biri edi.
Tarixda qayd etilishicha, bu Spitfires (va bo'ronlar) Britaniya jangida ustun kelgan. Ularning asosiy kamchiligi, yana Bf 109 kabi, ularning qisqa masofasi edi. Ular Britaniya jangi paytida to'siq vazifasini bajarayotgan paytda bu muammo emas edi, lekin RAF hujumga o'tganida bu juda katta xato bo'ldi.
Quyida Spitfire Mk uchun asosiy texnik xususiyatlar keltirilgan. IIA 1940 yil sentyabr.
R.R. Merlin XII, 12 silindrli. Vee, 1,236 ot kuchi
10.000 fut, 3.4 min 20.000 fut, 7 min.
Merlin 45 dvigatelining (1,185 ot kuchi 1,470 ot kuchi 9,250 fut balandlikda) joriy qilinishi asosiy Mk -ga o'rnatilganda Spit V. ga olib keldi. Men samolyot ramkasi. Mk. VA konfiguratsiyasi 8-.303 pulemyotlari bilan qurollangan va odatiy dumaloq qanot uchlarini saqlab qolgan. Mk -dan oldin faqat 94 ta VK ishlab chiqarilgan. VB 1941 yil boshida ishlab chiqarila boshlandi. VB birinchi marta siljish tezligini oshirish uchun "qirqilgan" qanot uchlarini kiritdi. Shuningdek, u 2-20 mm to'p va 4-.303 pulemyotlarning takomillashtirilgan qurollanishiga ega edi. Taxminan 3,911 mln. Qurol-yarog 'yana 4-20 mm to'pga almashtirilgunga qadar ishlab chiqarilgan. VC. Yana 2,467 mln. VC ishlab chiqarildi. O'sha paytga kelib Merlin 45, 46, 50, 50A, 55 va 56 dvigatellari o'rta balandlikdagi va Merlin 45M, 50M va 55M dvigatellari past balandlikdagi variantlarga o'rnatildi.
Mk. VC tezligi soatiga 374 milgacha, tezligi 13000 futga, xizmat ko'rsatish balandligi 37000 futga va eng yuqori tezlik - 2,900 fut/min. Ammo Spitfire umumiy ko'rsatkichlari bo'yicha Bf 109Fdan orqada qola boshladi. Nemislar FW 190A qiruvchi samolyotini ishlab chiqarganlarida, ishdagi farq oshdi. Hech qachon kam emas, Mk. V eng ko'p Spitfire modellaridan biri edi.
Taxminan 1940 yil yanvar oyidan boshlab Qirollik dengiz floti Spitfire -ning samolyot tashuvchisidan foydalanish uchun dengizlashtirilgan versiyasini talab qilmoqda, ammo RAF qiruvchi qo'mondonligining ehtiyojlari birinchi o'ringa qo'yilgan. Nihoyat, 1942 yil boshida Qirollik dengiz floti 166 Spitfire Mk birinchi qabul qila boshladi. VB quyruq kancasi va mustahkamlangan orqa korpus qo'shilishi bilan o'zgartirilgan. Bu Seafire Mk. IB. 1942 yil iyun oyida takomillashtirilgan Seafire Mk. IIC, Spitfire Mk -ga asoslangan. VC paydo bo'ldi. Bu katapult g'altaklari, kuchliroq qo'nish moslamasi va Merlin 45 yoki 46 dvigateliga ega. Seafire L Mk. IIC Merlin 32 dvigateli va past pog'onali ishlashi uchun 4 pichoqli pervanel bilan birga kelgan.
1943 yil iyun oyida RN Seafire Mk -ni qabul qila boshladi. III. Bu Melin 55 dvigateli bilan jihozlangan va nihoyat, qanotlari bukilgan. Seafire LF Mk uchun asosiy texnik xususiyatlar. III tezligi soatiga 6000 futda 348 milya, 1.9 daqiqada 5000 futga ko'tarilish, xizmat ko'rsatish tavanining balandligi 24000 fut va tashqi yonilg'i bakida 513 mil masofani o'z ichiga oladi.
MK. VI yuqori balandlikdagi qiruvchi sifatida ishlab chiqilgan bo'lib, u qanotlarning kengligi va bosimli kokpit bilan jihozlangan. U VB havo ramkasidan foydalangan. Yetkazib berish 1942 yil boshida boshlangan, lekin faqat 100 tasi ishlab chiqarilgan.
Keyingi yirik ishlab chiqarish modeli Mk edi. IX, Spitfire modellarining eng ko'pi. Mk. IX Mk edi. V samolyotlari ikki bosqichli, ikki tezlikli, super zaryadlangan Merlin 70 dvigateli bilan birlashtirilgan, u 1655 ot kuchiga ega, 10 000 fut balandlikda ishlab chiqarilgan.
Bu yangi dvigatel haqiqatan ham yangi Spitfire Mk uchun mo'ljallangan edi. VIII samolyot, lekin voqealar matbuoti uni eski samolyotda qabul qilishga majbur qildi. Ammo natija juda qoniqarli edi. Maksimal tezlik soatiga 415 milga ko'tarildi va balandligi 27800 fut edi. Eng yaxshi ko'tarilish tezligi minutiga 4530 futga ko'tarildi. Mk. IX 1942 yil o'rtalarida xizmatga kira boshladi va nemis jangchilari bilan deyarli teng darajada uchrashdi. Eliptik qanot rejasi Mkda standart edi. BX 109G uchun taxminan zamonaviy bo'lgan IX. Xuddi o'sha jangchi singari, Mk. IX urushning qolgan qismida turli rollarda xizmat qildi.
Mk VIII nihoyat, 1942 yil sentyabr oyida, ko'plab yaxshilanishlarni o'z ichiga olgan, shu jumladan, yaxshiroq tartibga solish va to'liq tortib olinadigan quyruq g'ildiragi. Odatda 1710 ot kuchiga ega Merlin 64 dvigateli bilan jihozlangan. Maksimal tezlik soatiga 2500 futda 408 milni, xizmat ko'rsatish balandligi 43000 futni, eng yaxshi ko'tarilish tezligi esa 3790 fut/min edi. Bu versiya asosan Uzoq Sharqda, urushning nisbatan kech davrida ishlatilgan. Maxsus balandlikdagi versiya Mk edi. VII, avvalgilariga o'xshab uzunroq qanotli va bosimli kabinaga ega edi.
Bu vaqtga kelib Merlin dvigateli maksimal potentsialga erishdi va Supermarine yanada kuchli Rolls Royce Griffon dvigatelini Spitfire -ga moslashtirish bo'yicha tajriba o'tkazdi. Mk -ni almashtirish uchun mo'ljallangan Griffon dvigatelli dengiz yong'inlari. III, shuningdek, ishlab chiqish bosqichida edi.
Avval Griffon dvigatelli dengiz dengizlari bilan kurashish uchun, birinchi model Mk edi. XV. Bu Seafire Mk ga asoslangan. Rulda kattalashtiruvchi III dvigatel, 1,750 ot kuchiga ega Griffon VI dvigateli bilan jihozlangan. Yetkazib berish 1944 yilning kuzida boshlangan. Maksimal tezligi soatiga 383 m, 13,500 fut, 20000 futgacha - 7,0 daqiqa, xizmat ko'rsatish tavanining balandligi - 35 500 fut.
Keyingi Seafire Mk. XVII -da ko'z yosh tomi, kiyinish uchun tagliklar va takomillashtirilgan taglik bor edi. Unda Griffon dvigatelining past balandlikdagi versiyasi ishlatilgan, to'rt qanotli pervanel, kattalashtirilgan rul va 4-20 mm to'plar bilan qurollangan.
Spitfire Mk. 1944 yil 14 -chi mk. Rolls Royce Griffon 65 dvigateli bilan cho'zilgan burunli VIII samolyot. Bu 2,035 ot kuchiga ega, 448 mil / soat balandlikda eng yuqori tezlik uchun yaxshi. Yangi dvigatel beshta pichoqli pervanelni boshqarib, Mk. XIV xizmat ko'rsatish chegarasi yaxshilandi va balandlik ko'rsatkichlari yaxshilandi. Eng yaxshi toqqa chiqish tezligi 5000 fut/min. Keyinchalik Mk. XIV-ning ko'rinishini yaxshilash uchun "ko'z yoshi" uslubidagi soyabon bor edi. Mk. XIV ishlab chiqarish 957 tani tashkil etdi, bundan tashqari 300 ta shunga o'xshash Mk. XVIII asrlar.
Oxirgi Spitfires ishlab chiqarish Mk edi. 21, 22 va 24. Teng Dengiz kuchlari modellari Seafire F Mk edi. 45, 46 va 47. Seafire Mks. 46 va 47 samolyotlarning uchish tendentsiyasini bekor qilish uchun aylanuvchi pervanel bilan keldi. Bu Spitfire va Seafire modellarining hech biri ko'p miqdorda ishlab chiqarilmagan. Hammasi ko'z yosh tomi bilan keldi va qanot birinchi marta qayta ishlandi. Yangi qanot rejada o'xshash edi, lekin kuchliroq edi, ko'proq yoqilg'ini tashdi, uzunroq qo'nish moslamasi bor edi (bu diametri katta pervanaga ruxsat berdi) va to'rtta 20 millimetrli to'pni olib yurdi. Seafire Mks. 46 va 47 -ning katlanadigan qanotlari yaxshilandi, Mk. 45 ta qanotlari qattiq edi. Seafire 47 Koreya urushida xizmat qilgan. Spitfire Mk -ning eng yuqori tezligi. 22 - 450 mil/soat va eng yaxshi ko'tarilish tezligi - 4900 fut/min.
Ushbu modellar yordamida Spitfire o'zining uzoq umrini yakunladi. Birinchi Mk. 21 -yillar 1945 yil aprelda oxirgi Mk. 1948 yil mart oyida 24 -lar etkazib berildi. Urush tugadi va jet davri boshlandi. Hammasi bo'lib 22,800 ga yaqin har xil turdagi tupurish va dengiz suvlari ishlab chiqarilgan.
Spitfire-ning uzluksiz rivojlanishiga imkon beradigan asosiy omil Rolls-Royce Merlin-dan tortib to katta va kuchliroq Rolls-Royce Griffonga o'tadigan tobora kuchliroq va takomillashtirilgan dvigatellarni ishlab chiqish edi. Yuqori oktanli aviatsiya yoqilg'isi va takomillashtirilgan supercharger konstruktsiyalari evolyutsiyasi Rolls-Royce-ga bir xil asosiy dizaynlardan ko'proq quvvat olish imkonini berdi. Masalan, Spitfire I -ni quvvatlaydigan Merlin II va III, 1938 yildan 1941 yilgacha 1940 yil boshidan beri mavjud bo'lgan 87 oktanli aviatsiya yoqilg'isi yordamida maksimal 1,030 va 160 ot kuchiga ega (770 va 160 kVt) ishlab chiqargan. maksimal quvvat 5 minut bo'lsa ham, super zaryadlovchi kuchaytiruvchi bosimi bilan maksimal quvvatni 1310 ot kuchiga (977 va 160 kVt) oshirishga ruxsat berdi. ΐ ] 1944 yilda 100/150 turdagi yoqilg'ilar Merlin 66 ga F.S viteslarida past balandlikda 1860 va 160 ot kuchiga (1387 va 160 kVt) ishlab chiqarishga imkon berdi.
Bir bosqichli super zaryadlovchilar [tahrir | manbani tahrirlash]
Superchargerga qarab, o'rnatilgan dvigatellar past balandlikda baholandi (masalan, Merlin 66, Griffon III), bu erda dvigatel maksimal quvvatini 10 000 futdan (3000 va 160 m) pastda, o'rta balandlikda (Merlin 45) ishlab chiqargan. Maksimal quvvati taxminan 20000 futgacha (6100 va 160 m) va balandlikda (Merlin 70), bu erda dvigatel maksimal quvvatini 25000 futdan (7600 va 160 m) yuqoriroq ishlab chiqargan. Natijada, Spitfire -ning keyingi variantlarida ishlatilgan prefikslar L.F. Mark. F. Mark .. va H.F Mark o'rnatilgan dvigatellar past, o'rta yoki baland balandlikka mos kelishini ko'rsatdi. Qanotlarga ko'ra, bu prefikslarning ishlatilishi o'zgarmadi, ular "qirqilgan" uchlari bilan o'rnatilishi mumkin edi, bu esa qanotlarning kengligini 9,9 m (taxminan bir oz farq qilishi mumkin) yoki 32 dyuymgacha qisqartirishi mumkin edi. bu qanotlarning kengligini 12,29 metrga 40 va 160 futga oshirdi.
Spitfire F Mk XIIs 41 kvadrat metr. Griffon II yoki VI-larda past balandliklarda maksimal quvvat ishlab chiqaradigan bir bosqichli super zaryadlovchi ishlatilgan.
Merlin va Griffon dvigatellarining original dizaynida bir bosqichli super zaryadlovchilar ishlatilgan. Bir bosqichli zaryadlovchi bilan jihozlangan dvigatellar uchun supero'tkazgichning havo o'tkazgichi orqali o'tkaziladigan havo super zaryadlovchining pervanesi orqali siqilgan. Merlin II/III, XII va 40 seriyali bo'lsa, havo siqilayotganda u dvigatel tsilindrlariga quyilishidan oldin SU karbüratori orqali yuborilgan yoqilg'i bilan aralashtirilgan. Merlin III 1.030 va#160 ot kuchiga ega (770 va 160kVt) +6¼lb/in² (43 kPa) "kuchaytirgich" da ishlab chiqarildi ("kuchaytirgich" - bu havo/yonilg'i aralashmasi tsilindrlarga berilishidan oldin siqilgan bosim) . Α ] Bir bosqichli super zaryadlovchining cheklovi shundaki, havo bosimi va havo zichligi balandlik bilan pasayganda pistonli dvigatelning samaradorligi pasayadi, chunki havo og'irligi kamayadi. Dvigatelga tortilishi mumkin bo'lgan 91nb 1 va#93, masalan, havo zichligi, 30 000 fut (9,100 va 160 m), dengiz sathining 1/3 qismi, shuning uchun havo miqdorining atigi 1/3 qismi tortilishi mumkin. tsilindrga va yonilg'ining faqat 1/3 qismini yoqish mumkin.
Supero'tkazgichni havo zichligini sun'iy ravishda siqish orqali oshirish yoki har safar piston pastga tushganda silindrga odatdagidan ko'proq havo kiritish deb o'ylash mumkin. Β ]
Ikki bosqichli, ikki tezlikli super zaryadlovchilar [tahrir | manbani tahrirlash]
Keyinchalik Merlin (60, 70, 80 va 100 seriyali) va Griffon dvigatellariga (60 va 80 seriyali) kiritilgan eng asosiy o'zgarish ikki bosqichli, ikki tezlikli super zaryadlovchining o'rnatilishi bo'lib, bu quvvatni sezilarli darajada oshirishni ta'minladi. ayniqsa yuqori balandliklarda. Ikki bosqichli, umumiy haydovchi milida ikkita 91 va 2-sonli pervanellarning ishlatilishini anglatadi, ular ketma-ket ikkita super zaryadlovchini tashkil qiladi, chunki havo qabul qilish yoqilg'isi karbüratör orqali havo oqimiga quyiladi. Γ ] Birinchi bosqichli pervanel havoni-yonilg'i aralashmasini siqib chiqardi, so'ngra uni ikkinchi darajali kichikroq pervanelga berib, aralashmani yanada siqib qo'ydi.
G'ildiraklar gidravlik boshqariladigan ikki tezlikli vites qutisi bilan boshqariladi. Δ ] Past va o'rta balandliklarda super zaryadlovchi bor edi O'rtacha zaryadlovchi yoki XONIM. tishli (bu tishli qutilar va shuning uchun pervanellar ishlaydigan tezlikni nazarda tutadi). Bir marta samolyot to'plamga etib bordi tanqidiy balandlik (Merlin 61 va 70 seriyali va#917 va#93) 20000 fut (6100 va 160m) atmosfera bosimi (havo zichligi) pasayishi bilan quvvat pasaya boshlaydi. Tanqidiy balandlikdan o'tib ketganda, bosim o'tkazadigan aneroid kapsulasi tezlikni o'zgartirgan To'liq zaryadlovchi (F.S.) pervanellarni tezroq harakatga keltiradigan vites, shuning uchun havo-yoqilg'i aralashmasining katta hajmini siqib chiqaradi. Ζ ] [nb 3 ]
Siqilgan aralashmaning haddan tashqari qizib ketishini va silindrlarga etib borguncha yonishini (olovdan oldin taqillatish) yoki taqillatish yoki portlash deb ataladigan holatni yaratishni to'xtatish uchun sovutgich kerak edi. Dvigatel sovutish tizimidan alohida bo'lgan glikol va suv sovutish suvi bilan ta'minlangan sovutgich, indüksiyon tizimiga, ikkinchi bosqichli super zaryadlovchining chiqishi va silindr bloklari ortiga o'rnatildi. The hot air—fuel mixture from the supercharger was circulated though and around the coolant tubes and was then passed on to the main induction manifold through which it was fed into the cylinders. The intercooler also circulated coolant through passages in the supercharger casing and between the impellers. Η] Finally, an extra radiator (mounted in the starboard radiator duct under the wing of the Spitfire) was used to dissipate the intercooler's excess charge temperature. Η ]
With the two-stage, two-speed supercharger two sets of power ratings can be quoted. As an example, the maximum power generated by the Merlin 61 was 1,565 hp (1,167 kW) at 12,250 feet (3,730 m) (critical altitude) at M.S. speed, using + 15 lb/in² "boost". Ε] The F.S. gear required approximately 200 hp (149 kW) to drive it. As a result the maximum power generated by the Merlin 61 in F.S. was 1,390 hp (1,036 kW) at 25,900 feet (7,900 m) using + 15 lb/in² of boost. Ε] ⎖]
Spitfire Mk VIII. Merlin 63, 66 or 70 engine with a two-stage, two—speed supercharger.
The Merlin 66 used in the L.F. Mk IX produced slightly more power but because of the use of slightly different gear ratios driving smaller impellors, the critical altitude ratings of the supercharger stages were lower, 7,000 feet (2,100 m) and 18,000 feet (5,500 m) respectively. By contrast the Merlin 70, which was optimised for high altitude flight, had critical altitudes of 14,000 feet (4,300 m) (M.S) and 25,400 feet (7,700 m) (F.S). ⎗ va#93
Unlike the Merlin engines the Griffons used superchargers which were designed to achieve maximum performance over a wider altitude band as such there were no Griffon engined L.F. or H.F. Spitfire variants.
Carburettors [ edit | manbani tahrirlash]
The original production variants of the Merlin used an SU manufactured carburettor in which the fuel flow was metered through a float. In most circumstances this proved to be sufficient but during the air battles over Dunkirk and during the Battle of Britain it was found that whenever the Merlin was subjected to negative "g" forces, such as a quick "bunt" into a dive, the engine would briefly lose power through petrol starvation. This was because the petrol in the float was being thrown away from the feed pipe to the supercharger. The fuel injected Daimler-Benz DB 601 engine gave the Bf 109 especially an advantage over the carburettor-equipped engine no Spitfire could simply "bunt" and dive away from an opponent as the 109 could. ⎘] The remedy, invented by Beatrice "Tilly" Shilling, was to fit a metal diaphragm with a hole in it, across the float chambers. It partly cured the problem of fuel starvation in a dive.
The full remedy was to use the Bendix-Stromberg pressure carburettor, which allowed more precise metering of the amount of fuel used by the engine and prevented the problem of fuel starvation. This new carburettor was used from the Merlin 66 series and on all Griffon engines. In these engines the carburettor injected fuel at 5 psi through a nozzle direct into the supercharger and the compressed air—fuel mixture was then directed to the cylinders. The final development was the SU injection carburettor which injected fuel into the supercharger using a fuel pump driven as a function of crankshaft speed and engine pressures although this was fitted to the 100 series Merlins, which were not used in production Spitfires, it was used in the Griffon 60 and 80 series.
Spitfire F.24 of 80 Squadron. This was the final mark of Spitfire powered by a Griffon 85 driving a five bladed Rotol propeller.
Boost pressure measurements [ edit | manbani tahrirlash]
The British measured boost pressure as lbs./sq.inch (or psi). The normal atmospheric pressure at sea level is 14.6959 psi, although this can vary from day to day: a reading of +6 meant that the air/fuel mix was being compressed by a supercharger blower to 20.7 (rounded figure) psi before entering the engine +25 meant that the air/fuel mix was being compressed to 39.7 psi. However, there was a problem with the British system of measuring boost, in that in an aircraft the pressure gauges should measure absolute pressure within the engine's supercharger, rather than showing atmospheric pressure at sea level, plus the supercharger's pressure at sea level this was a reasonable measure but, in engines that were used through different altitudes this method becomes completely arbitrary. Because the Americans measured their boost ratings using inches of Mercury (" Hg), their boost gauges more accurately recorded the absolute pressures being generated by the superchargers at all altitudes. ⎙]
|Inches of Mercury (" Hg)||Pounds of Boost ⎙]|
|80.9" of mercury=||+25 lb boost|
|66.6" of mercury=||+18 lb boost|
|60.5" of mercury=||+15 lb boost|
|48.3" of mercury=||+9 lb boost|
|42.2" of mercury=||+6 lb boost|
Supermarine Spiteful and Seafang Fighters
In 1942, the British Royal Aircraft Establishment at Farnborough and Supermarine Aviation were working on ways to improve the Spitfire fighter. One of the main limiting factors of the aircraft was with its wing encountering compressibility at high speed. The investigation led to interest in designing a laminar flow airfoil and adapting it to an existing Spitfire airframe. In late 1942, the British National Physics Laboratory joined the effort, and Supermarine issued Specification No 470 for the new Spitfire wing in November. As designed, the new wing was 200 lb (91 kg) lighter, would increase the aircraft’s roll rate, and was expected to increase the aircraft’s speed.
The first Supermarine Spiteful prototype (NN660) consisted of new laminar flow wings mounted to a Spitfire XIV fuselage. Note the wide and shallow radiator housings under the wings and the standard canopy
A proposal was submitted to the British Air Ministry and gathered enough interest for Specification F.1/43 to be issued in February 1943, calling for a single-seat fighter with a laminar flow wing for Air Force service and provisions for a folding wing to meet Fleet Air Arm (FAA) requirements. Supermarine proceeded with the design under the designation Type 371. Originally, the aircraft was to be named Victor or Valiant, names that were previously (but temporarily) applied to advanced Spitfire models. However, the Type 371 eventually had its name changed to Spiteful. Three prototypes were ordered, and a fourth was added later.
The design of the Supermarine Spiteful was overseen by Joseph Smith. The laminar flow wing was much thinner than the wing used on the Spitfire and necessitated a complete redesign. The all-metal wing had two spars and a straight taper on the leading and trailing edges, which simplified its manufacture. The skin used was relatively thick to add rigidity and improve aileron control. Unlike with the Spitfire, the landing gear retracted inward with the main wheels being housed in the comparatively thick wing roots. The landing gear struts compressed as the gear retracted to minimize the space needed within the wing. Wide and shallow radiators for engine cooling were housed behind the main gear wells. The oil cooler was positioned behind the coolant radiator in the left wing, and the intercooler radiator was positioned in front of the coolant radiator in the right wing. The radiator housings had adjustable inlets and exit flaps. Each wing had two 20 mm cannons with 167 rounds for each inner gun and 145 rounds for each outer gun. The underside of each wing could accommodate two 300 lb (136 kg) rockets or a hardpoint for a drop tank or a bomb up to 1,000 lb (454 kg).
The all-metal, monocoque fuselage of the Spiteful was similar to that of the Spitfire. The cockpit was raised to improve the pilot’s view over the aircraft’s nose. A new, sliding bubble canopy covered the cockpit. Four fuel tanks in the fuselage, forward of the cockpit, held a total of 120 gal (100 Imp gal / 455 L), and a tank in each wing root held 10 gal (8 Imp gal / 36 L). Starting with the third prototype, a 74 gal (62 Imp gal / 282 L) fuel tank was added behind the cockpit, bringing the total internal capacity to 214 gal (178 Imp gal / 809 L). Two 108 gal (90 Imp gal / 409 L) drop tanks could be carried under the wings, or a single 204 gal (170 Imp gal / 773 L) drop tank could be mounted to the aircraft’s centerline.
The Spiteful prototype (NN664) is considered the first true Spiteful because it incorporated the new fuselage. The aircraft was never painted. Note the standard, Spitfire F.21 tail.
The Spiteful’s Mark numbers were a continuation of those used on the Spitfire. The Spiteful F.XIV (F.14) was powered by a 2,375 hp (1,771 kW) Rolls-Royce Griffon 69 with a five-blade, single-rotation propeller. The Spiteful F.XV (F.15) was powered by the 2,350 hp (1,752 kW) Griffon 89 or 90 with a six-blade, contra-rotating propeller. Both Griffon engines had a two-stage, two-speed supercharger, and both the five- and six-blade propellers were 11 ft (3.35 m) in diameter and built by Rotol. Originally, a Rolls-Royce Merlin engine could be substituted for the Griffon if Griffon engine production was found to be lacking, but the Merlin option was dropped in mid-1944.
The Spiteful had a 35 ft (10.67 m) wingspan, was 32 ft 11 in (9.76 m) long, and was 13 ft 5 in (4.10 m) tall. The aircraft had a maximum speed of 409 mph (658 km/h) at sea level, 437 mph (703 km/h) at 5,500 ft (1,676 m), and 483 mph (777 km/h) at 21,000 ft (6,401 m). Cruising speed for maximum range was 250 mph (402 km/h) at 20,000 ft (6,096 m). The Spiteful’s stalling speed was 95 mph (153 km/h). The aircraft’s range was 564 mi (908 km) on internal fuel and 1,315 mi (2,116 km) with drop tanks. The Spiteful had an empty weight of 7,350 lb (3,334 kg), a normal weight of 9,950 lb (4,513 kg), and a maximum weight of 11,400 lb (5,171 kg). The aircraft had an initial rate of climb of 4,890 fpm (24.8 m/s) and a ceiling of 42,000 ft (12,802 m).
A comparison of the third Spiteful prototype (NN667) and the ninth F.XIV production aircraft (RB523). Both have the elongated intake scoop mounted under the engine and just behind the spinner. Note the larger tail compared to the first two Spiteful prototypes.
With other war work taking priority, it was some time before Supermarine had anything related to the Spiteful to test. A mockup was inspected in March 1944, and the aircraft’s name was changed to Spiteful around this time. A set of wings was fitted to a Spitfire XIV (serial number NN660), which became the first Spiteful prototype. The aircraft was first flown on 30 June 1944, with Jeffrey Quill as the pilot. The aircraft used the same 2,035 hp (1,518 kW) Griffon 61 engine as installed in a standard Spitfire XIV, but its performance was superior to that of a standard Spitfire XIV. However, the Spiteful also exhibited rather violent stalling characteristics compared to the fairly docile stall of the Spitfire. This was attributed to the outer wing with the aileron stalling first, which was the opposite of how the Spitfire’s elliptical wing stalled. With the Spitfire, the outer wing stalled last and enabled the ailerons to remain effective deep into the stall. On 13 September 1944, NN660 crashed while engaged in a dog-fight test with a standard Spitfire XIV. The pilot, Frank Furlong, was killed in the crash. A definitive cause was never determined, but it was believed that the aileron control rods became jammed during moderate G maneuvers.
On 8 January 1945, the second Spiteful prototype (NN664) took to the air, piloted by Quill. The aircraft incorporated updated aileron controls and the new Spiteful fuselage. However, NN664 had a tail similar to that used on the Spitfire F.21. Extensive handling tests were undertaken on NN664 that resulted in a few changes. The most significant change was a redesigned tail with its vertical stabilizer and rudder area increased by 28 percent and its horizontal stabilizer and elevator area increased by 27 percent. NN664 first flew with the new tail on 24 June 1945, and the aircraft was sent to the Aeroplane and Armament Experimental Establishment (A&AEE) at RAF Boscombe Down for flight trials.
The underside of Spiteful RB515, the first production aircraft, illustrates the wings’ straight leading and trailing edges. Note the standard, short intake scoop. Outlines of the radiator housing doors are visible.
Shortly after NN664’s first flight, the Air Ministry ordered 650 Spiteful aircraft. The order went through a number of reductions, including the cancellation of 150 Spitefuls around 5 May 1945 so that a comparable number of Seafangs (see below) could be ordered. The fourth prototype was included in these cancellations.
The third Spiteful prototype (NN667) was sent to the A&AEE for service evaluations on 1 February 1946. It was found that the aircraft exhibited several areas of poor build quality, and there were numerous concerns with its ease of serviceability. A multitude of fasteners needed to be undone in order to remove the engine cowling, and rearming the aircraft was a time-consuming process that involved disconnecting the controls to the ailerons. A number of modifications and improvements were suggested, but it is not clear just how many were implemented. For at least part of its existence, NN667 had an elongated air intake that would be featured on the Seafang (see below). Other Spitefuls also had the longer scoop (at least RB517, RB518, RB522 and RB523).
The first production Spiteful F.XIV (RB515) made its first flight on 2 April 1945, with Quill in the pilot’s seat. The aircraft originally had an F.21 tail, but a larger Spiteful tail was installed after RB515’s third flight, which ended in a forced landing. The aircraft’s first flight with the new tail was on 21 May 1945. On 27 September 1945, RB515 suffered an engine failure and made another forced landing at Farnborough. The damaged aircraft was subsequently written off.
Another view of RB515 illustrates the larger Spiteful tail that was later applied to the Spitfire F.22 and F.24. The tail improved the Spiteful’s handling, but the aircraft’s stall was still violent compared to the Spitfire’s.
Spiteful RB518 was fitted with a rounded Seafang (see below) windscreen and a 2,420 hp (1,805 kW) Griffon 101 engine to become the sole Spiteful F.XVI (F.16). The Griffon 101 had a two-stage, three-speed supercharger and turned a five-blade, single rotation propeller. In 1947, RB518 achieved 494 mph (795 km/h) at 27,800 ft (8,473 m), the highest level-flight speed recorded by a British piston-powered aircraft. Testing of this aircraft with not-fully-developed engines resulted in seven forced landings—the last was at Chilbolton in March 1949 and resulted in the landing gear being pushed through the wings. The aircraft was then dropped by the recovery crane, ending any hope of repair.
By February 1946, the Spiteful order had been reduced to 80 aircraft. This was again reduced on 22 May 1946 to 22 aircraft, and the Spiteful order finally dropped to 16 aircraft on 16 December 1946. The production order basically covered the aircraft that had been built, although some of the last aircraft may not have flown. A 17th Spiteful, RB520 (the sixth production aircraft), was handed over to the FAA for Seafang (see below) development on 22 September 1945. The aircraft was modified for carrier feasibility trials with a “stinger” arrestor hook incorporated into a special housing below the rudder. RB520 retained the standard, non-folding Spiteful wings.
Powered with a two-stage, three-speed Griffon 101 engine, Spiteful RB518 achieved a level-flight speed of 494 mph (795 km/h), the highest recorded by a British piston-powered aircraft. RB518 was the only F.XVI Spiteful and was subsequently written off after its seventh forced landing.
The production aircraft were serialed RB515 to RB525, RB527 to RB531, and RB535. The final Spiteful was delivered on 17 January 1947. Of the three Spiteful prototypes and 17 production aircraft, most were sold for scrap in July 1948. It appears RB518 was the last Spiteful to fly, and no examples of the type survive. The larger “Spiteful tail” was incorporated into the last Spitfires, the F.22 and F.24.
The Spiteful’s cancellation was based on a number of realities including the more impressive performance of jet aircraft, the end of World War II, and serviceability questions about the Spiteful. While the Spiteful’s speed was impressive, it was below the 504 mph (811 km/h) that was originally estimated. Furthermore, the performance of the aircraft’s laminar wing decreased substantially if there were imperfections, including smashed bugs, on the leading edge. It was unlikely that an in-service warplane would be free of all imperfections.
Spiteful RB520 was loaned out for Seafang development and is considered by some as a Seafang prototype. Note the tail hook housed below the rudder and the “Royal Navy” stenciling on the fuselage.
Back in October 1943, Supermarine designed the Type 382, which was basically a navalized Spiteful. The design had started with mounting a Spiteful-type, laminar flow wing on a Seafire XV. Little official interest was given to the project until 21 April 1945, when the Air Ministry issued Specification N.5/45 for a single-seat fighter for the FAA. Subsequently, Supermarine was awarded a contract for two prototype Type 382 fighters, which became the Seafang. An order for 150 Seafang aircraft was placed on 7 May 1945 this order was essentially a reallocation of Spiteful aircraft that had been cancelled around two days prior.
The production Seafang closely matched the Spiteful but incorporated wings designed so that the last four feet folded vertically. The folding mechanism was hydraulically-powered. The Seafang had an elongated carburetor intake scoop, with the opening just behind the propeller. The aircraft also had a rounded front windscreen rather than the flat plate used on the Spiteful. Under the rudder was a stinger tail hook for catching the arresting cables on the carrier deck. The Seafang’s landing gear was re-enforced to handle carrier operations. The fuel tank behind the cockpit was reduced to 54 gal (45 imp gal / 205 L), resulting in a total internal capacity of 193 gal (161 Imp gal / 732 L).
The first production Supermarine Seafang F.31 (VG471) was essentially a Spiteful with arrestor gear. All F.31 aircraft had standard, non-folding wings. Note what appears to be a wide-cord propeller.
Like the Spiteful, two Seafang variants were planned. The F.31 used the 2,375 hp (1,771 kW) Griffon 69 engine with a five-blade, single-rotation propeller, while the F.32 used the 2,350 hp (1,752 kW) Griffon 89 with a six-blade, contra-rotating propeller. The F.31 was basically a Spiteful with an arrestor hook and did not incorporate folding wings. The F.31s would serve as a test aircraft while the F.32 was being developed.
The Supermarine Seafang had a 35 ft (10.67 m) wingspan, was 34 ft 1 in (10.39 m) long, and was 12 ft 7 in (3.84 m) tall. With wings folded, the span was reduced to 27 ft (8.23 m). The aircraft had a maximum speed of 397 mph (639 km/h) at sea level, 428 mph (689 km/h) at 5,500 ft (1,676 m), and 475 mph (764 km/h) at 21,000 ft (6,401 m). Cruising speed for maximum range was 250 mph (402 km/h) at 20,000 ft (6,096 m). The aircraft’s range was 393 mi (632 km) on internal fuel. The Seafang weighed 8,000 lb (3,629 kg) empty, 10,450 lb (4,740 kg) with a normal load, and 11,900 lb (53,98 kg) maximum. The aircraft had an initial rate of climb of 4,630 fpm (23.5 m/s) and a ceiling of 42,000 ft (12,802 m).
The side view of Seafang VG471 illustrates many of the aircraft’s features: long intake scoop, straight wing edges, radiator scoop doors, rounded windscreen, bubble canopy, large tail, and arrestor hook.
As previously mentioned, some Spitefuls had the long intake carburetor scoop RB518 had a Seafang windscreen and RB520 was fitted with an arrestor hook (resulting in some sources classifying it as a Seafang prototype). This was all done to lead up to Seafang F.31 production aircraft, which were basically Spitefuls with arrestor hooks. The first Seafang F.31 was VG471, which followed the fifth Spiteful off the production line. All of the F.31s had the five-blade propeller, lacked folding wings, and would end up the only production Seafangs that were completed. VG471 was first flown in early January 1946 and used in arrestor hook trials. The original hook installation proved to be weak, and a redesigned system was installed in March 1946. The aircraft passed the trials on 1 May.
The prototype Seafang F.32s were serial numbers VB893 and VB895, and both had contra-rotating propellers and folding wings. VB895 was first flown in early 1946 and was delivered to the A&AEE on 30 June. In August 1946, VB895 was demonstrated separately to the Royal Netherlands Navy, French representatives, and United States representatives in an attempt to sell the Seafang to allies. However, no orders were placed. In May 1947, test pilot Mike Lithgow successfully performed deck trials in VB895 on the HMS Illustrious. The aircraft’s wide track landing gear drastically increased its stability while on the ground, and the contra-rotating propeller eliminated the torque effect. VB895 was also tested with a single, fuselage-mounted 204 gal (170 Imp gal / 773 L) drop tank, and the aircraft was used for armament trials. During a static test firing of the cannons on 18 May 1948, a build-up of gases in the left wing resulted in an explosion that damaged the wing. Extra vents were added, and no further issues occurred.
The Seafang F.32 prototype VB895 was the first fully-navalized aircraft of the series. The contra-rotating propellers eliminated the torque effect that led to the downfall of many aviators, especially when operating from the short deck of an aircraft carrier.
While praised for its handling and responsiveness, the Seafang did not offer any real advantage over the Seafire 47, and the Seafang’s stall was certainly a disadvantage. An order was subsequently placed for the Seafire. The original interest in the Seafang was based on doubts regarding the suitability of jet aircraft for carrier operations. As those doubts faded, so did interest in the Seafang, and the aircraft was cancelled. A few Seafangs were kept active for a brief time to continue evaluating the laminar flow wing, which was used on the Supermarine Type 392 Attacker. The Attacker was often referred to as a “Jet Spiteful,” although it had Seafang folding wings with the radiators removed and additional fuel tanks installed. The Attacker first flew on 27 July 1946, and it was the first jet fighter to enter operational service with the FAA.
Eighteen production Seafangs were built, carrying serial numbers VG471 to VG490. The first 10 aircraft were F.31s, and the remaining eight were F.32s. However, only the first eight or so aircraft were completed, with the remaining units delivered disassembled. Sadly, like the Spiteful, all of the Seafang examples were scrapped.
Note: The Royal Air Force and Fleet Air Arm used Roman numerals for mark numbers up thorough 1942. From 1943 through 1948, the Roman numerals were phased out for new aircraft, and Arabic numerals were applied. From 1948 onward, Arabic numerals were used exclusively. The Spitefuls were typically referred to using Roman numerals, but the slightly later Seafang used Arabic numerals. The use of both Roman and Arabic numerals in this article refers to the most common use applied for the particular aircraft type.
The folding wings on Seafang VB895 were hydraulically operated and decreased the aircraft’s wingspan by 8 ft (2.4 m). Although, the wide tack landing gear contributed to snaking at low speeds, it enhanced the stability at higher speeds and as the aircraft slammed down on a carrier deck.
Late production Supermarine Spitfire IX - History
Two 20 mm Hispano cannon with 120 rounds per gun four 7.69 mm (0.303 in) Browning machine guns with 350 rounds per gun one 227 kg (500 lb) and two 113 kg (250 lb) bombs
Probably the most famous piston-engined fighter aircraft, the Spitfire was conceived as the Supermarine Type 300 single-seat fighter and was designed by a team led by Reginald J Mitchell. The design produced the smallest, simplest fighter that could be built around the new Rolls Royce PV-12 engine, with an armament of eight machine guns. Of light alloy monocoque construction, with a single-spar stressed-skin wing and fabric-covered control surfaces, the prototype (K5054) was flown on 5 March 1936 powered by a 739 kw (990 hp) Rolls Royce Merlin C engine. It soon thereafter attained a maximum speed of 462 km/h (349 mph).
The Spitfire, as it was named soon after the prototype had been flown, was immediately placed in production for the RAF as the Mk I. Production continued until 1947 when the last models, the Seafang and Spiteful, were delivered. Progressive development led to the installation of the Rolls Royce Griffon engine in late production models. This engine had a greater capacity than the Merlin.
The total number of Spitfires built was 20,334, of which 2,053 were Griffon-engined variants. In addition, the type was ‘navalised’ in that it was fitted with an arrester hook and associated equipment and was known as the Seafire when embarked upon aircraft carriers. About 390 Seafires were built. As mentioned, the ultimate developments were the Seafang and Spiteful. In 1947 a Seafang 32 attained 795 km/h (494 mph) at 8,687 m (28,500 ft) with a Griffon 101 engine.
The Spitfire was mainly flown in combat in the European Theatre, where many Australians flew the type with the RAF. However, a considerable number were also operated in the Pacific Theatre with the RAF and RAAF. Following the commencement of Japanese attacks on Australia in February 1942, it was thought an invasion might be imminent and the RAAF was short of suitable fighter aircraft. Plans were put in train to develop the CAC Boomerang, but this did not fly until May 1942, and it was three months before production commenced. Appeals were made to the United Kingdom and the United States for fighter aircraft to defend Australia, the US diverting 25 Curtiss P-40Es, these arriving two weeks after Darwin was first bombed. Britain indicated it would assist and allocated three Spitfire squadrons, two of these being Nos 452 and 457, Australian Empire Training Squadrons which had been operating in Britain with the RAF. The third was No 54 Squadron RAF, which had flown Spitfires in the Battle of Britain.
The first Spitfires to be seen in Australia were the Mk Vs of No 54 Squadron, RAF, which operated in the defence of Darwin, NT from October 1943. A total of 245 Spitfire VCs was allotted to Australia, all being taken on charge by November 1943. All, with the exception of A58-163, which was a Mk VB, were Mk VCs and nearly all had the Mk 46 Merlin engine. They were sent by the British Government following a request by the Australian Government for fighters. A further 11 aircraft failed to reach Australia as the vessel on which they were being conveyed, the Silver Beech, was sunk in April 1943 whilst another Mk VC (EE731) arrived in Australia in March 1943 but was not allocated an RAAF serial, eventually being converted to instructional airframe status after it had an undercarriage collapse at Mildura, VIC in August 1943.
The Mk VC was fitted with a 1,097 kw (1,470 hp) Rolls Royce Merlin 45 engine giving a maximum speed of 602 km/h (374 mph) at 3,962 m (13,000 ft). The armament consisted of four 20 mm Hispano cannon and four 7.69 mm (0.303 in) Browning machine guns. The Mk V series was used widely in Australia and saw operational service in New Guinea and as far across the Pacific as Morotai, where General Macarthur decided Australian Squadrons would not be further involved in the invasion of the Philippines.
The next version to be seen in Australia was the Mk VIII, some 410 examples of this model being supplied to the RAAF. Powered by the 1,276 kw (1,710 hp) Rolls Royce Merlin 63 engine, the Mk VIII had a maximum speed of 657 km/h (408 mph) at 7,620 m (15,000 ft), and an armament of four 20 mm Hispano cannon, or two cannon and four 0.303 in Browning machine guns plus bombs. The first Mk VIII arrived in October 1943, most of the aircraft received arriving in 1944 and early 1946. About 120 went straight into storage on arrival, were scrapped in 1948 and 1949, and were not flown here. The last 159 were HF.VIIIs with the high altitude Merlin 70 engine, very few of these flying in Australia as they were surplus to requirements at that stage of the war.
Spitfires in Australia were flown by Nos 79, 85, 451, 452, 453 and 457 Squadrons, RAAF. In addition, several RAF squadrons served in Australia, including Nos 54, 548 and 549. RAAF Spitfires were serialled: Spitfire F.VC A58-1 to A58-185 and A58-200 to A58-259 Spitfire LF-VIII A58-300 to A58-550 and Spitfire HF-VIII A58-600 to A58-758. Serials A58-551 to A58-599 were not allocated. Once P-51 Mustangs started to be delivered for RAAF service the Spitfires were taken out of service and scrapped. In early 1946 some 339 Spitfires were in long-term storage. A total of 13 Mk VIIIs and one Mk VC was transferred to the Royal Australian Navy in October 1948 for ground training duties, being used to taxi around dummy aircraft carrier decks at HMAS Albatross at Nowra, NSW to give crews handling experience. All eventually had met their fate on the fire dump by 1952.
The Spitfire’s main service in this region was in the defence of the ‘Top End”, and to this end it was very successful. No 1 (Churchill) Wing comprised No 54 Squadron RAF and Nos 452 and 475 Squadrons RAAF. Notable operations included: on 15 March 1943 Spitfires intercepted 22 Mitsubishi G-3M bombers and 27 Mitsubishi A6M fighters over Darwin, accounting for six bombers and two fighters. On 20 June 1943 25 Japanese bombers escorted by fighters were intercepted, with 16 enemy aircraft being shot down. Japanese aircraft thereafter sporadically continued to attack Darwin and were met by defending Spitfires.
More than 150 Spitfires survive around the world, and some 50 are airworthy. In September 2000 at a display in the United Kingdom 22 Spitfires attended and flew in formation. In Australia considerable interest has been shown in the type and a number survive, although in recent years at least three have been exported. One (A58-758 – VH-HET – ex MV239) was restored to airworthiness at Scone, NSW and is now based in a museum at Temora, NSW being regularly flown at airshows on the eastern seaboard. This aircraft, along with A58-671 (ex MV154), was obtained in the early 1950s by Bankstown, NSW aviation identity, Sidney Marshall. MV239 eventually went to Colin Pay at Scone and was restored as VH-HET and MV154 was exported to the United Kingdom where it was restored as G-BKMI.
A Mk VB VH-FVB (ex BL628) is under restoration, and registration VH-XIV has been reserved for a Mk XIX (ex RM797), an ex Royal Thai Air Force aircraft. A Mk HF VIII (A58-615 – ex MT834) is under restoration at Yunta, SA. A Mk VC EE583, recovered from Goodenough Island, is with the South Australian Aviation Museum. Others are under restoration and there is a few fibreglass replicas in museums and on poles. Static display survivors include: Mk II P7973 in the Australian War Memorial in Canberra, ACT Mk VC A58-246 (ex MA863) at the RAAF Museum at Point Cook, VIC and a Mk 22 PK481 at the Air Force Association Museum in Perth, WA.
In December 2005 a Victorian collector obtained Spitfire XVIIIe from the United Kingdom. This aircraft (SM969) was originally delivered to the Indian Air Force as HS877 in July 1949, later becoming G-BRAF with Warbirds of Great Britain Ltd, making its post restoration flight on 12 October 1985.
In New Zealand Mk XVI TE288 is at the RNZAF Museum at Wigram Mk XVI TE456 is at the Domain War Memorial Museum in Auckland but painted as TE425 and Mk XVI ZK-XUI (ex TB863) was airworthy with the Alpine Fighter Collection in Wanaka but in March 2006 was exported to the Temora Aviation Museum in Australia where it became VH-XVI on 17 July 2006 Mk XIV ZK-XIV (ex NT799) is airworthy with the Aviation Trading Co of Cambridge and a further Spitfire was imported in early 2008, being a two-seat Mk IX, which became ZK-WDQ (c/n CBAF 5487 – ex N367MH) to Lasbrook Holdings of Auckland.
In May 2008 two Supermarine Spitfire Mk V projects were placed on the Australian Civil Aircraft Register as VH-CIP (c/n 3074) and VH-CIQ (c/n 5406) to an operator in South Australia. A Spitfire was to be exchanged with the RAAF Museum at Hendon as per an agreement in 2009 which would see a Douglas Havoc restored to display standard by Precision Aerospace of Wangaratta, VIC in exchange for the Spitfire. However, after some restoration on the Havoc, the exchange did not proceed, the Havoc being exported to the Pima Air Museum in the United States.
A Spitfire Mk IX MH603 arrived in Australia in April 2009 for Pays Air Service of Scone for restoration to airworthiness. This aircraft is to be painted in the colours of No 331 (Norwegian) Squadron when completed. A second Spitfire Mk IX BS548 is also undergoing restoration at Scone and is to be completed as a TR.IX, the fuselage being completed in the United Kingdom and the wings and other parts being manufactured in Scone. This aircraft was shot down on 17 April 1943 whilst flying with No 341 Alsace Squadron. It is known some 20 Spitfire projects are underway in Australia. Spitfire A58-246 was restored in USAAF markings and is on display at the USAF Museum at Dayton, Ohio.
At one stage Aviation Australia, a company owned by the Queensland Government and based at Brisbane Airport, obtained two Supermarine Spitfires as training aids but eventually decided they had no training value and the aircraft, a Mk V LZ844 and a Mk IX TE566 (ex ZU-SPT), were sold and shipped to the United Kingdom in May 2011. In July 2011 a Supermarine Spitfire VIII was registered to Mr A Wilson of Frome Downs Station, via Yunta, SA the registration VH-ZPS (c/n 446635 – A58-467, MD338) being allotted but the aircraft is not known to have been completed and flown. Another Spitfire with an Australian connection was Mk IXc RR232, an ex-South African aircraft which spent sometime at the Fleet Air Arm Museum at HMAS Albatross, Nowra and was partially restored for display. Restoration has now been completed and it is flying in the United Kingdom as G-BRSF. In early 2020 a Spitfie LF XVI beame ZK-NLJ (c/n TB252) registered to AVspecs Ltd Beechlands, Auckland.
A replica of a Mk I Spitfire (K9789), the fourth Spitfire built, the original of which was delivered to No 19 Squadron RAF in 1938, was built by Mr Victor Weston of Cooran, QLD. A non-flying replica, it was placed on display at the Queensland Air Museum at Caloundra but in 2014 was placed in storage to make way for the display of the General Dynamics F-111C A8-129.
Let’s clear up the armament question too
Before ending this piece, I want to take a little side detour in the history of armament on the Spitfire. There are four wing types that have been used by the different Spitfire versions. They are:
- A wing – Four .303 machine guns in each wing for a total of eight.
- B wing – Two .303 machine guns in the outer wing positions and a 60 round drum fed Hispano Mark II cannon in the inner wing position.
- C wing – Provisions for two 20mm cannons in each wing (with 120 rpg belt feed for each cannon) and two .303 machine guns in the outer wing positions. In use, the four cannon loadout was rare and all production Mark VIII, IX, XII, and XIV’s were fitted with just one 20mm cannon in each wing and the two .303’s as a backup.
- E wing – Functionally identical to the C wing but with the .303’s removed and a Browning .50 cal heavy machine gun mounted in one of the cannon bays.
Many ask about the four cannon loadout and if it was ever on the Mark XIV. I can report that it is was not – at least not in any production aircraft or part of regular use. After the brief production of four cannon Mark Vc, the next Spitfire to receive a four cannon loadout was the Spitfire XVIII. This aircraft had a wholly redesigned wing and saw limited production at the end of the war. The war was over before it had a chance to be used in air combat and one squadron saw limited use strafing German ships in a single operation. Post-war Spitfire’s had all cannon armament.List of site sources >>>