Podkastlar tarixi

AQShda yirik norozilik namoyishlari - tarix

AQShda yirik norozilik namoyishlari - tarix

1967 yil 15 aprel

Ommaviy namoyishlar o'tkazildi

AQSh namoyishchilari

AQShda urushga qarshi ommaviy namoyishlar bo'lib o'tdi. Nyu -York markaziy bog'ida namoyishchilar 200 ta kartani yoqib yuborishdi.



7 Amerika tarixidagi ta'sirli namoyishlar

Amerika boshlanganidan beri odamlar o'z ovozlarini eshittirish va o'zgarishlarni qo'llab -quvvatlash uchun norozilik namoyishlaridan foydalanishgan. Mana bir nechta tarixiy misollar.

Nikol Dudenhofer tomonidan 󈧕 | 2020 yil 2 -iyul

Jorj Floyd vafotidan va qora tanlilar uchun adolat talab qilinadigan butun dunyo bo'ylab norozilik namoyishlari va politsiya bo'limini isloh qilishdan ko'p o'tmay, Minneapolis shahar kengashi 7 iyun kuni mahalliy kuchlarini tarqatib yuborish va jamoatchilik xavfsizligi dasturiga sarmoya kiritishni rejalashtirayotganini e'lon qildi.

Mamlakat bo'ylab norozilik namoyishlari davom etar ekan, AQShning Los -Anjeles, Dallas va Vashington kabi o'ndan ziyod shaharlari ham politsiya resurslari va moliyalashtirishni qisqartirish va o'z tizimlariga o'zgartirish kiritish majburiyatini oldilar.

Amerika tarixi davomida, tinch o'zgartirishlar - birinchi o'zgartirish ostida himoyalangan va vatanparvarlik harakati - o'zgarishlarni himoya qilish va olib borish uchun ishlatilgan. Hozirgi milliy noroziliklarning umumiy ta'siri hali ham davom etayotgan bo'lsa -da, ular xuddi shu harakatlar kabi ta'sirchan bo'lishi mumkin:

Boston choy partiyasi

1773 yil 16 -dekabr
Boston, Massachusets

Boston choy partiyasi amerikalik mustamlakachining inglizlarga qarshi qo'zg'olonining birinchi muhim harakati edi. Bir necha yillar mobaynida mustamlakachilar Britaniya hukumati tomonidan parlamentda vakolatlanmagan holda adolatsiz soliq to'lashdi va 1773 yildagi Choy to'g'risidagi qonun, Britaniya Sharqiy Hind kompaniyasiga monopoliya va soliqdan ozod qilish, Amerika muxolifatini keltirib chiqargan oxirgi somon edi.

Ozodlik o'g'illari boshchiligidagi oltmish kishi 1773 yil 16 -dekabrda o'zlarini tubjoy amerikaliklar niqobida kiyib, Boston portiga 342 ta sandiq - 92000 funt choy tashladilar. Namoyish inglizlarning jazosi bilan kutib olindi, chunki parlament Boston portini Boston choy partiyasidan qarz to'lanmaguncha yopib qo'yish va ingliz qo'shinlarini Amerika uylariga joylashtirish, Massachusetsni nishonga olish va bo'linishni maqsad qilgan. boshqa koloniyalar. Buning o'rniga, u 1774 yilda Birinchi Kontinental Kongressni qo'zg'atdi va Amerika inqilobiga olib keldi, u 1775 yilda Massachusetsda boshlanib, 1783 yilda inglizlar AQSh mustaqilligini rasman tan olgach tugadi.

Ayollar saylov huquqi paradi

1913 yil 3 mart
Vashington, Kolumbiya okrugi

Saylov huquqi uchun kurashgan 60 yillik ayollardan so'ng, prezident Vudro Vilsonning inauguratsiyasi arafasida bo'lib o'tgan paradda bu maqsad uchun birinchi yirik namoyishlar bo'lib o'tdi. Amerikalik ayollarning saylov huquqlari milliy assotsiatsiyasi va faol Elis Pol tomonidan uyushtirilgan parad 5000 dan ortiq saylovchilar, to'rtta o'rnatilgan brigada, to'qqiz bant va 20 ta paradli suzuvchilardan iborat edi. Pensilvaniya shoh ko'chasida yurish paytida, qarama -qarshi tomoshabinlar namoyishchilarga hujum qilishdi va politsiya aralashmadi, natijada 100 dan ortiq ayol jarohatlandi.

Paradning strategik vaqti harakatga e'tiborni tiklashga yordam berdi, lekin ayollarga ovoz berish huquqini beruvchi 19 -tuzatish 1920 yil 18 -avgustda ratifikatsiya qilinmaguncha, yana etti yil norozilik namoyishlari, namoyishlar va boshqa taktikalar kerak bo'ladi.

Ayollarga Konstitutsiya bo'yicha ovoz berish huquqi kafolatlangan bo'lsa -da, ular baribir teng huquqlar to'g'risidagi tuzatish ostida himoya qilish uchun kurashmoqdalar, bu qonun 1923 yilda taklif qilingan va hali qabul qilinmagan, lekin yaqinda qayta tiklandi, bu oxir -oqibat uni o'tishiga olib kelishi mumkin. .

Vashingtonda ish va erkinlik uchun yurish

1963 yil 28 -avgust
Vashington, Kolumbiya okrugi

Alabama shtatining Birmingem shahridagi irqiy tengsizlik va fuqarolik huquqlari namoyishchilarining zo'ravonlik hujumlariga qarshi noroziliklarini bildirish uchun Linkoln memoriali yonida 250 mingga yaqin odam to'planishdi. Aynan shu yurishda Martin Lyuter King kichik "Mening orzum bor" nomli ma'ruza qildi, uni 3000 ommaviy axborot vositalari xodimlari qo'lga olishdi.

Marsh g'oyasi, aslida, 22 yil oldin, 1941 yilda fuqarolik huquqlari yetakchisi va kasaba uyushmasi a'zosi A. Filipp Randolf qora tanlilar va Ikkinchi Jahon urushi va Prezident Franklin D. Ruzvelt yaratgan ishlardan chetlatishga chaqirgan yurish uyushtirishga uringanda tug'ilgan. Yangi shartnoma dasturlari. Yurish rejalashtirilganidan bir kun oldin Ruzvelt Randolf bilan uchrashdi va hukumat va mudofaa ishlarida ishchilarni kamsitishni taqiqlovchi buyruq chiqardi. U, shuningdek, ishga qabul qilish va ish joylarida irqiy kamsitishlarni tekshirish uchun Adolatli Bandlik Amaliyot Qo'mitasini tuzdi. Besh yil o'tgach, qo'mita tarqatib yuborildi va Randolf yurish g'oyasini qayta tikladi.

Yillar o'tib, King va uning janubiy xristian etakchilik konferentsiyasi ozodlik uchun yurishni, Randolf va NAACP rahbarlari esa ish o'rinlari uchun yurishni rejalashtirdilar. Ikki guruh 1963 yilgi yurish uchun birlashdilar, shundan so'ng King va boshqa fuqarolik huquqlari rahbarlari prezident Jon F. Kennedi va vitse -prezident Lindon B. Jonson bilan fuqarolik huquqlari to'g'risida kuchli qonun loyihasini ishlab chiqish zarurligini muhokama qilishdi. Bu 1964 yildagi Fuqarolik huquqlari to'g'risidagi qonunning kuchga kirishiga olib keldi va Alabama shtati Selma-Montgomeri yurishlari bilan birga 1965 yildagi Ovoz berish huquqlari to'g'risidagi qonunga ham olib keldi.

Stonewall g'alayonlari

1969 yil 28 iyundan 3 iyulgacha
Nyu York

60 -yillarda mahalliy gey -barlarga reydlar va Nyu -York politsiya boshqarmasi tomonidan homiylarni ta'qib qilish odatiy hol edi. 1969 yil 28 -iyun kuni ertalab ofitserlar Grinvich qishlog'idagi Stonewall Inn -ga bostirib kirganlarida, LGBTQ jamoasining a'zolari etarli edi va qarshilik ko'rsatishdi. Namoyishlar o'sha kuni ertalab boshlandi va olti kun davom etdi, bu LGBTQ+ hamjamiyatida o'nlab yillar faollikni ilhomlantirgan ulkan lahzani belgilab berdi.

Stounuolldan oldin LGBTQ hamjamiyati uchun qonuniy himoya yo'q edi va 1952 yildan boshlab gey bo'lish Amerika psixiatriya assotsiatsiyasining diagnostika va statistik qo'llanmasida ruhiy kasallik sifatida qayd etilgan.

Stonewall qo'zg'olonlari etakchilari, shu jumladan gey-ozodlik faollari va qirolicha Marsha P. Jonson va Silviya Rivera, LGBTQ hamjamiyati uchun siyosatni o'zgartirish va ijtimoiy inklyuzivlikni talab qilgan voqeadan so'ng, Geylarni ozod qilish fronti kabi tashkilotlar. Tarixiy g'alayonlardan bir yil o'tib, Stonewall Inn joylashgan joy nomi bilan atalgan Kristofer ko'chasini ozod qilish kunining birinchi yurishi Nyu -York va AQShning boshqa shaharlarida uyushtirildi. Bu yurish butun dunyoda har yili o'tkaziladigan Pride tadbirlarining ko'payishiga olib keladi. 1973 yilda psixiatriya uyushmasi gomoseksualizmni diagnostika qo'llanmasidan olib tashladi.

90 -yillardan boshlab, Oliy sud LGBTQ jamoasiga nisbatan kamsituvchi qonunlarni himoya qilgan va olib tashlagan bir qancha muhim qarorlarni qabul qildi. Bularga gomoseksual xatti -harakatlarni jinoyatchilikdan ozod qilish, gomoseksual nikohni qonuniylashtirish va 15 -iyun kuni xodimlarni jinsiy yo'nalishi yoki jinsiga qarab ishdan bo'shatish taqiqlangan.

Alkatrazning kasbi

1969 yil 20 -noyabr, 1971 yil 11 -iyun
San -Fransisko ko'rfazi, Kaliforniya

1934 yilda AQSh hukumati 1963 yilda orol qamoqxonasini yopishdan oldin Alkatraz orolidan mahbuslarni saqlash uchun foydalana boshladi. Ertasi yili u federal ortiqcha mulk deb e'lon qilindi va ko'p o'tmay mahalliy amerikalik faollar 1868 yil Fort -Laramie shartnomasiga asoslanib orolni ishg'ol qila boshladilar. , tubjoy amerikaliklar ishlatilmagan federal erlarni da'vo qilishi mumkin bo'lgan shartnoma.

1969 yil noyabr oyida barcha qabilalar hindularidan 89 a'zo orolda yashay boshladilar va 19 oy davomida noroziliklarini davom ettirdilar. Ularning dastlabki talablari orolda hinducha institutlarni qurish edi, qisman San -Frantsisko hind markazini vayron qilgan yong'in tufayli ish joylari, sog'liqni saqlash, yuridik yordam va boshqa imkoniyatlar. Alkatrazda bo'lganida, balandligi 400 kishini tashkil qilgan namoyishchilar suvsiz, telefonsiz va bir muncha vaqt elektrsiz yashagan. Ba'zi tubjoy amerikaliklar o'z so'zlarini aytishdi va bundan ham yomoni, rezervasyonlarda shartlar allaqachon mavjud edi.

AQSh hukumati 1971 yil iyun oyida politsiya va federal agentlar qolgan 15 namoyishchini olib tashlagach, bosib olishni majburan tugatdi. Dastlabki talablar bajarilmasa ham, norozilik 1940-yillarning o'rtalarida boshlangan Hindistonni tugatish siyosatiga e'tibor qaratdi. Bu mahalliy amerikalik qabilalari va madaniyatini yo'q qilishga, ularni Amerika jamiyatiga majburan singdirishga, ularni soliq to'lovchi fuqarolarga aylantirishga va federal va shtat imtiyozlarini olib tashlashga qaratilgan qator qonunlar va siyosatlar edi. Alkatraz ishg'oli paytida, prezident Richard Nikson 1970 yilda siyosatni tugatdi va voqea atrofidagi ommaviylik tubjoy amerikaliklar uchun o'z taqdirini o'zi belgilashning yangi siyosatiga olib keldi.

Bizning hayotimiz uchun mart

2018 yil 24 -mart
Vashington, butun dunyo bo'ylab boshqa norozilik namoyishlari bilan.

2018 yil 14-fevralda, Florida shtatining Parklend shahridagi Marjori Stoneman Duglas o'rta maktabida 17 kishi yarim avtomatdan o'q uzgan sobiq o'quvchi tomonidan o'ldirilgan. Bu fojia yillar davomida qurol-yarog 'nazorati to'g'risidagi qonunlarni qabul qilishda burilish nuqtasini ko'rsatdi va keyingi oyda "Bizning hayotimiz uchun mart" ga olib keldi.

Vashingtondagi yurishni otishmadan omon qolgan va 800 ming kishini to'plagan talabalar uyushtirgan. Qo'shma Shtatlar bo'ylab uyushtirilgan norozilik namoyishlari, milliy saylovchilarning umumiy sonini 1,2 milliondan 2 millionga etkazdi. Butun dunyoda boshqa norozilik namoyishlari ham bo'lib o'tdi.

Stoneman Duglas otishidan oldin, Floridadagi qurol qonunlari Amerikadagi eng zaif qonunlar edi. Ammo 2018 yil mart oyida Marjori Stoneman Duglas o'rta maktabining jamoat xavfsizligi to'g'risidagi qonuni shtat qonun chiqaruvchi organi tomonidan qabul qilindi va qurol sotib olish uchun minimal yoshni 18 dan 21 gacha ko'tarish, fon tekshiruvi aniq bo'lguncha yoki uch kungacha kutish muddatlarini ko'paytirish kabi o'zgarishlarni amalga oshirdi. boshqa choralar qatorida uzoqroq. Floridaning 16 shtati va Vashington bilan bir qatorda, kimdir o'ziga yoki boshqalarga xavf tug'dirsa, o'qotar qurolni vaqtincha olib tashlashga ruxsat beruvchi qizil bayroq qonunlarini qabul qildi. Yarim avtomatik qurollarning o'q otish kuchini oshiruvchi zaxiralar ham milliy miqyosda taqiqlangan.

Telegramgate noroziliklari

2019 yil 14 iyuldan 24 iyulgacha
Puerto -Riko

"Mariya" bo'ronidan qutulish uchun ko'p yillar davom etgan sust harakatlardan va Puerto -Riko hukumati korruptsiyasida gumon qilingan yana bir necha yillardan so'ng, orol gubernatori va uning xodimlari bilan bog'liq janjal milliy norozilikka sabab bo'ldi va iste'foga chiqishga chaqirdi.

2019 yil 13 -iyulda Puerto -Riko gubernatori Rikardo Rossello va uning xodimlari o'rtasida siyosatchilar, jurnalistlar va taniqli odamlarni masxara qilish uchun irqchi, gomofobik va qo'pol so'zlar yozilgan yuzlab sahifalar xabarlari oshkor qilindi. Telegram messenjeri orqali yuborilgan xabarlar, shuningdek, siyosiy raqiblarini nishonga olish uchun ommaviy axborot vositalaridan foydalanishi aytilgan. Sızıntıdan bir necha kun oldin, orolning ta'lim kotibi va sog'liqni saqlash boshlig'i FBR tomonidan korruptsiyada ayblanib hibsga olingan.

Rossello ko'p o'tmay omma oldida kechirim so'radi va uning iste'fosini bermasligini aytdi. 2019 yil 14 -iyulda norozilik namoyishlari uning uyi tashqarisida boshlandi va bir necha hafta davom etdi, chunki politsiya uyni qo'riqladi va tez -tez ko'zdan yosh oqizuvchi gaz ishlatdi. Namoyishlar tarqaldi va kuchaydi, hatto katta magistralning yopilishi va orol bo'ylab ish tashlashga olib keldi.

2019 yil 24 -iyulda Rossello o'sha yilning 2 -avgustidan boshlab iste'foga chiqishini e'lon qildi. 2019 yil 7 -avgustda Vanda Vaskes Garsed Puerto -Riko gubernatori bo'ldi.


1. Boston choy partiyasi, 1773 yil

Boston choy partiyasi Amerikadagi eng erta hujjatlashtirilgan namoyishlardan biri edi. Amerika 13 ta Britaniya koloniyalaridan iborat bo'lganida, qog'oz, choy va bo'yoq kabi import qilinadigan tovarlarga soliq juda yuqori edi. Bu soliqqa norozilik bildirish uchun bir necha mustamlakachilar tunda ingliz kemasiga o'tirdilar va portga 340 quti choy tashladilar. Bu norozilik harakati Amerika inqilobini qo'zg'atdi, u oxir -oqibat Amerikaning Britaniya hukmronligidan ozod bo'lishi bilan yakunlandi.


Bu erda AQSh tarixidagi 8 ta eng yirik norozilik namoyishi bo'lib o'tdi

Qanday qilib bu hafta oxiri namoyishlar o'tmish yurishlariga qarshi turadi?

Vashington shahridagi Milliy savdo markazi, 1995 yil 16 oktyabrda million odam yurishi paytida. Larri Dauning/Getty Images

21 -yanvar, shanba kuni, Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlarining shahar markazlari bir maqsadda safarbar bo'lgan fuqarolarni qabul qilganidan uzoq bo'ladi.

1960 -yillardagi fuqarolik huquqlari yurishlaridan tortib 2003 -yilgi Iroq urushiga qarshi norozilik namoyishlariga qadar, bizning mamlakatimizda uzoq vaqtdan buyon jamoatchilik va ovozli fuqarolik itoatsizligi mavjud. Xo'sh, bo'lajak namoyishlar o'tmish yurishlariga qarshi qanday kurashadi? Buni bilish uchun biz mamlakatning sakkizta eng yirik norozilik namoyishlari bo'lgan shahar va joylarni yig'dik.

Eslatma: Ommaviy norozilikda qancha odam ishtirok etishini hisoblash - bu mashaqqatli ish. Rassomlar sonini oshirib yuborishi mumkin bo'lgan tashkilotchilardan tortib, ularni past baholaydigan hokimiyatlargacha, o'zboshimchalik bilan bog'liq. Quyidagi ro'yxatda mashhur bashoratlardan foydalaniladi va agar mavjud bo'lsa, taxminlar uchun diapazon va manbalar taqdim etiladi.

1. 1982 yil 12-iyun: Nyu-York markaziy bog'ida yadro yadrosiga qarshi yurish

Nyu -York shahridagi Markaziy Park, 1982 yil 12 -iyunda atom energiyasiga qarshi norozilik va qurolsizlanishga chaqiruv paytida suratga olingan. Yvonne Xemsi/Getty Images

Hajmi: Taxminan 1 million kishi

Amerika tarixidagi eng yirik siyosiy noroziliklardan biri sifatida tanilgan, taxminan bir million odam Nyu -York shahrining Markaziy bog'ida to'planib, yadroviy qurolsizlanish va Sovuq Urush davrida davom etgan qurollanish poygasini to'xtatishga chaqirgan. Park odamlar bilan yelkama-elka edi va yana o'n minglab odamlar Birlashgan Millatlar Tashkiloti va Dag Hammarskjold Plazalar 47-ko'chasi va Birinchi prospektdagi parad yo'nalishidagi ko'chalarni to'ldirishdi.

Ga ko'ra New York Times, ba'zi namoyishchilar tadbir oldidan Markaziy bog'da qarorgoh qurdilar, Kvinsda o'nlab avtobuslar yurish qilganlarga metro orqali parkga borishga ruxsat berishdi. Parkdagi "Katta maysazor" da katta sahna bo'lib, unda Bryus Springstin, Jekson Braun va Jeyms Teylor chiqish qilgan.

2. 1995 yil 16 oktyabr: Vashingtonda million odam yurishi.

Million odam yurishi paytida Vashington shahridagi Milliy savdo markazi. Larri Dauning/Getty Images

Hajmi: 850 ming kishi

"Millat islomi" etakchisi Lui Farraxan tomonidan uyushtirilgan "Million odam yurishi" Vashingtondagi Milliy savdo markazida Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlaridan taxminan 850 ming kishini yig'di.

Linkoln memoriali va Vashington yodgorligi fonida ishtirokchilar Rosa Parks, Mayya Anjelu va aziz Jessi L. Jekson kabi taniqli ma'ruzachilarni tinglashdi.

Yurish, bunday yig'ilishlarga qancha odam tashrif buyurishini bilish qiyinligining yaqqol namunasidir: Milliy bog'lar xizmati 400 mingga yaqin hisobotni e'lon qildi, tashkilotchilar esa bu tadbirga 1,5-2 million kishi tashrif buyurgan deb hisoblaydilar. Boston universiteti 837 ming kishini 20 foizlik xato xato bilan baholadi. "Million odam yurishi" dan so'ng, Vashingtondagi Park Politsiyasi olomon sonini rasmiy hisoblashni to'xtatdi.

3. 2004 yil 25 aprel: Vashingtonda ayollar hayoti uchun marsh.

Namoyishchilar Vashingtondagi savdo markazida "Ayollar hayoti uchun yurish" da qatnashmoqda. Stiven J. Boitano/Getty Images

Hajmi: Hisob -kitoblar 500,000 dan 1,15 milliongacha

Ayollar hayoti uchun marsh reproduktiv huquqlar va ayollar huquqlarini qo'llab -quvvatlash namoyishi bo'lib, Vashington shahri bo'ylab va Pensilvaniya prospekti bo'ylab sayohat qildi. Tashkilotchilarning ta'kidlashicha, 1,15 million kishi qatnashgan, bu AQSh tarixidagi eng yirik norozilik namoyishi bo'ladi. Associated Press ma'lumotlariga ko'ra, tadbirda 500-800 ming kishi qatnashgan.

Bu yurish 1992 yildan beri Vashingtondagi abort huquqlari bo'yicha birinchi keng ko'lamli namoyish bo'ldi, shuningdek, Vuopi Goldberg, Madlen Olbrayt va Gloriya Shtaynem kabi taniqli shaxslar ishtirok etdi.

4. 2003 yil 15-16 fevral: Amerikaning eng yirik shaharlarida urushga qarshi namoyishlar

Namoyishchilar 2003 yil 15 fevralda Nyu-Yorkda bo'lib o'tgan urushga qarshi namoyishda puflanadigan globusni ko'tarib yurishdi. Mario Tama/Getty Images

Hajmi: kamida 500,000 kishi

Dunyo tarixidagi eng yirik norozilik sifatida tanilgan, taxminan 10 milliondan 15 milliongacha odam Iroqdagi urushga qarshi 600 dan ortiq shaharda yurish qilgan. Qo'shma Shtatlarda, taxminan, 300-400,000 odamlar Nyu-York shahrida yig'ilish o'tkazib, Birlashgan Millatlar Tashkiloti qarorgohining shimolidagi ko'chalarni yig'ib, 20 dan ortiq bloklar uchun politsiya to'siqlari bilan namoyish qilingan hududlarni to'ldirishdi.

Boshqa joylarda, AQShning 150 shahrida, Texasning Ostin singari kichik shaharlaridan 10 ming namoyishchi shtat poytaxti binosidan Kongress prospekti bo'ylab yurgan-San-Frantsiskoda 200 mingdan ortiq odam qatnashgan.

5. 1997 yil 25 oktyabr: Pensilvaniya shtatining Filadelfiya shahrida million ayol yurishi

Taxminan 300,000 afro-amerikalik ayollar 1997 yil 25 oktyabrda Filadelfiyada Benjamin Franklin Parkveyda "Million ayol" yurishiga yig'ilishadi. TOM MIHALEK/AFP/Getty Images

Hajmi: Taxminlarga ko'ra, 300 mingdan 1 milliongacha odam

Hisob -kitoblar 1997 yildagi "Million ayollar" marshida qancha odam qatnashganiga qarab har xil bo'ladi, lekin ularning hammasi Filadelfiya, Pensilvaniya ko'chalari gavjum bo'lganiga qo'shiladilar. Marsh qatnashchilari "Ozodlik qo'ng'irog'i" da quyosh chiqishidan boshladilar, keyin Benjamin Franklin Parkvay bo'ylab Filadelfiya san'at muzeyida joylashgan ma'ruzachi chodiriga va podiumiga yo'l oldilar.

Yurish Filadelfiyadagi ikki oddiy faol tomonidan uyushtirilgan - File Chionesu va Osiyo Koni - qisqa vaqt ichida va ob -havo yomg'irli bo'lishiga qaramay, ko'pchilik ishtirok etdi. Hisob -kitoblarga ko'ra, Filadelfiyaga yurish uchun Chikago va Nyu -Yorkdan 125 ming ayol kelgan.

6. 1969 yil 15-noyabr: Vashingtonda Vetnamga qarshi norozilik namoyishi.

1969 yil 15-noyabrda Vetnamga qarshi moratoriy paytida minglab odamlar Pensilvaniya shoh ko'chasi bo'ylab ketayotgan paytda AQSh Kapitoliyi orqada qolmoqda. Bettman/Getty Images

Hajmi: Hisob -kitoblar 500,000 dan 600,000 gacha

15 oktyabrda o'tkazilgan umumiy ish tashlashdan so'ng, Vyetnam Moratoriy qo'mitasi 1969 yil 15 noyabrda ikkinchi tadbirni uyushtirdi. Endi Amerika tarixidagi urushga qarshi eng yirik norozilik namoyishlaridan biri sifatida qaraldi, 500 ming kishi Oq uydan yig'ilib, prezident Richard Niksondan talab qilishdi. urushni tugatish.

Namoyishchilar, shuningdek, 15 -noyabr yurishidan oldin o'limga qarshi yurish uyushtirdilar. Bu tadbirda 40 ming kishi Pensilvaniya shoh ko'chasi bo'ylab jimgina yurishdi, qo'llarida o'lik amerikalik askar yozilgan yozuv yoki Vetnam shahrini vayron qilishdi. Namoyishchilar o'z belgilarini Kapitoliy binosi oldiga qo'yilgan tobutlarga qo'yishdi.

Noyabrdagi norozilik namoyishlari butun dunyo bo'ylab 1969 yildagi bir qator norozilik namoyishlari va yurishlarning bir qismi edi. Ammo Vetnam urushi yana olti yil davom etdi va 1975 yil 30 aprelda Saygon qulashi bilan tugadi.

7. 1993 yil 25 aprel: Vashingtonda Lesbi, Gey va Bi teng huquqlar va ozodlik uchun mart.

Missuri shtatidan kelganlar, Vashington shahar ko'chalarida, Lesbi, Gey va Bi teng huquqlar va ozodlik uchun yurish paytida. Mark Reynshteyn/Getty Images

Hajmi: Taxminlarga ko'ra, 300 mingdan 1 milliongacha odam

Vashingtondagi 1993 yildagi yurish kamsitilishdan ozod bo'lishni va LGBT odamlarining harbiy xizmatga qo'ygan taqiqini to'xtatishni talab qilgan yuz minglab amerikaliklarni birlashtirdi. Marshrut 52-gektarlik Ellips parkidan Oq uy yonidan o'tib, savdo markazida tugadi.

Tashkilotchilarning aytishicha, tadbirda bir million odam qatnashgan, biroq Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari Park politsiyasi u erda atigi 300 ming namoyishchi bo'lganini aytgan. Tadbirning eng esda qolarli voqealaridan biri Nyu -Yorkdagi Gey Erkaklar salomatligi inqirozi bayrog'i ostida yuzlab erkaklar va ayollar Oq uy oldida yotganda yuz berdi. Bu harakat Amerikada OITSdan o'lganlar sonini ramziy qildi.

8. 1987 yil 11 oktyabr: Vashingtonda lesbiyan va geylar huquqlari bo'yicha ikkinchi milliy marsh

1987 yilda Milliy savdo markazida namoyish etilgan "OITSga qarshi yodgorlik kviling" loyiha jamg'armasi.

Hajmi: Hisob -kitoblar 200,000 dan 750,000 gacha

Ba'zida "Buyuk yurish" deb nomlangan, 1987 yildagi yurish yuz minglab odamlarni OITSga qarshi tadqiqotlar o'tkazish va kamsitishni to'xtatish uchun ko'proq federal pul talab qilishni talab qilgan.


AQShda bo'lib o'tgan prezidentlik saylovlaridan keyingi keng ko'lamli noroziliklarga oldingi misollar?

Saylovdan so'ng, AQSh bo'ylab keng ko'lamli, ommaviy noroziliklar haqida ko'plab yangiliklar paydo bo'ldi, masalan:

Ko'proq narsalarni Google -da topish mumkin.

Biroq, men Obama yoki Bushning oldingi saylovlaridan keyin ommaviy noroziliklar haqidagi yangiliklarni topa olmayapman.

Bu shunchaki ommaviy axborot vositalarining yangiliklarni namoyish qilishiga misolmi yoki aslida saylovdan so'ng darhol yangi prezidentga qarshi ommaviy norozilik uyushtirilgani yaqin tarixda birinchi marta sodir bo'ldimi?

Javoblaringiz uchun tashakkur va menga Timotining Avraam Linkoln saylovi haqidagi javobi yoqadi (agar men bundan yaxshiroq javob bo'lmasa, men to'g'ri javobni tanlayman), lekin men so'nggi paytlarda sodir bo'layotgan bunday noroziliklar haqida bilishni umid qilgandim (aytaylik) 1950 -yillardan keyin yoki bo'lmasa, 1900 -yillardan keyin, agar biz vaqtni belgilashimiz kerak bo'lsa), g'olib nomzodning mashhur emasligi sabablari. Men Jon bergan javobdan boshqa narsani qidirardim, chunki Bushga qarshi noroziliklar saylovning o'zi firibgarlikka aloqadorligi haqidagi ayblovlar bilan bog'liq edi, hozirgi noroziliklar esa uning o'zi bo'lgan saylangan odam tufayli. Men shunga o'xshash holatlarni qidiryapman.


Tarkibi

Tashkilotchilar tahrirlash

2016 yil 9 -noyabrda, Donald Trump AQSh Prezidenti etib saylanganidan keyingi birinchi kun [36], Trumpning saylovoldi kampaniyasi va siyosiy qarashlariga [c] [38] va prezidentlikka nomzod Hillari Klintonni mag'lubiyatiga, Tereza. Shook of Hawaii Facebookda tadbir yaratdi va do'stlarini norozilik sifatida Vashingtonga yurishga taklif qildi. [4] [39] [40] Facebookdagi Evvi Xarmon, Fonteyn Pirson, Bob Bland (Nyu -Yorklik dizayner), Breanna Butler va boshqalar yaratgan shunga o'xshash sahifalar tezda minglab ayollarning marshga yozilishlariga sabab bo'ldi. [41] [42] [43] [44] Harmon, Pirson va Butler Vashingtondagi rasmiy ayollar yurishini boshlab, o'z harakatlarini birlashtirishga va o'z sahifalarini mustahkamlashga qaror qilishdi. [41] Yurish turli millat va millatdagi ayollar tomonidan olib borilishini ta'minlash uchun, Okayafrica kompaniyasining asoschisi va hamraisi Vanessa Wruble kampaniya boshlig'i bo'lib ishlagan va Tamika D. Mallori, Karmen Peres va Linda. Sarsour Bland bilan birga milliy hamraislar vazifasini bajaradi. [41] [45] [5] AQShning Nyu -Jersi shtatining sobiq Missisi Janaye Ingram logistika bo'limi boshlig'i bo'lib ishlagan. [46] Kinorejissyor Paola Mendoza badiiy rahbar va milliy tashkilotchi bo'lib ishlagan. [47] [48]

Ayollar yurishi bo'ladigan "birinchi uchrashuvning birinchi soatlarida" Mallori va Peres go'yoki yahudiylar va qul savdosi bilan bog'liq antisemitik fitna nazariyasini ilgari surdilar. Taxminan ikki yil davomida xonada bo'lgan hech kim bu haqda gapirmadi. Mallori va Bland suhbatdagi haqoratli kontent sodir bo'lganligini inkor qiladilar, ammo, ko'ra Planshet jurnali, "nima bo'lganini bilgan bir nechta manbalar bu voqeani tasdiqladi." [49] [50] [51] Hikoyani baham ko'rgan bir qancha jurnalistlarga PR agentligi elektron maktub yubordi, ular maqolani rad etishga qodirligini da'vo qilishdi, lekin o'z ma'lumotlarini faqat jurnalistlar qayd qilmaslik sharti bilan bo'lishishdi. Refinery29 jurnalisti Andrea Gonsales-Ramirez PR-firmaning talabiga rozi bo'lganini da'vo qildi, lekin PR-firmaning tekshiruvi Tablet Magazines da'vosini rad etdi. [52] [53] [54]

Ga binoan The New York Times, Trampga qarshilik ko'rsatish va unga qarshi chiqish noroziliklarni [55] qo'zg'atdi, ularni ba'zida to'g'ridan-to'g'ri Trampga qarshi namoyishlar deb atashdi. [56] Tashkilotchilar "Trumpni aniq nishonga olmaganliklarini" va bu tadbir "ko'proq ayollar huquqlarini himoya qilishda" bo'lganini aytishdi. Sarsour buni "irq, etnik, jins, din, immigratsiya va sog'liqni saqlashdan tortib, ijtimoiy adolat va inson huquqlari masalalari bo'yicha pozitsiya" deb atadi. [6] [57] Wruble "bu feminizm haqida [...] lekin bundan ham ko'proq: hamma odamlar uchun asosiy tenglik haqida" dedi. [58]

Rejalashtirilgan ota-ona tashkiloti keng ko'lamli tadbirni rejalashtirish bilan bog'liq xodimlarni taqdim etish va taklif qilish orqali yurish bilan hamkorlik qildi. [59] Rejalashtirilgan ota -onalar prezidenti Sesil Richardsning aytishicha, yurish "kelgan ma'muriyatga butun mamlakat bo'ylab millionlab odamlar reproduktiv salomatlik, abort qilish xizmatlari va rejalashtirilgan ota -ona huquqlariga qarshi hujumlarga qarshi kurashishga tayyor ekanligi to'g'risida kuchli xabar yuboradi". [kelajakda] Trump va Kongress respublikachilari millionlab tashkilotlarni federal moliyalashtirishdan voz kechishga urinishganda, ko'plab namoyishchilar uni himoya qilish uchun safarbar bo'lishadi ". Milliy tashkilotchi direktor tadbirni mahalliy darajada davom ettirish va tadbirdan so'ng faol bo'lish muhimligini ta'kidladi. [6]

Milliy hamraislar Tartibga solish

Vanessa Wruble, asoschilaridan biri, Bob Bland bilan birgalikda Milliy hamraislar sifatida Tamika D. Mallori, Karmen Peres va Linda Sarsourni taklif qildi. [41] [45] [60] To'rtta hamraisi Linda Sarsour, Nyu-Yorkdagi Arab-Amerika assotsiatsiyasi ijrochi direktori Tamika Mallori, siyosiy tashkilotchi va Milliy harakatlar tarmog'ining sobiq ijrochi direktori Karmen Peres, ijrochi direktor. "Adolat uchun yig'ilish" siyosiy harakat guruhi va axloqiy ishlab chiqarishga e'tibor qaratadigan dizayner Bob Bland. [6] [7] Gloriya Shtaynem, Garri Belafonte, LaDonna Xarris, Anjela Devis va Dolores Huerta faxriy hamraislar sifatida xizmat qilishgan. [8] [61]

Xalqaro tahrir

Etti ayol AQSh tashqarisidagi yurishlarni muvofiqlashtirdi. Ayollar: Brit-Agnes Svaeri, Oslo, Norvegiya [62] [63] Marissa MakTasni, Toronto, Kanada [64] Karen Olson, Jeneva, Shveytsariya [65] Kerri Xeggerti, London, Buyuk Britaniya [66] Rebecca Turnbow, Sidney, Avstraliya [67] va Breanne Butler va Evvie Xarmon AQShda. [68] [69] Ayollar xalqaro yurishlarni ijtimoiy tarmoqlar orqali uyushtirishdi va strategiya tuzish uchun har hafta Skype uchrashuvlarini o'tkazishdi. [68] [66] [69]

Siyosat platformasi tahrirlash

12-yanvar kuni yurish tashkilotchilari reproduktiv huquqlar, immigratsiya islohotlari, sog'liqni saqlash sohasidagi islohotlar, diniy kamsitishlar (birinchi navbatda amerikalik musulmonlarga nisbatan), [70] LGBTQ huquqlari, gender va irqiy tengsizliklarga (birinchi navbatda erkaklar va nodavlatlarga ma'qul keladigan) siyosat platformasini chiqardi. Ispaniyalik oq tanlilar), ishchilar huquqlari va boshqa masalalar. [1] [2] "Devorlarni emas, ko'priklarni qurish" (Trumpning chegara devori haqidagi takliflariga havola) Trumpning inauguratsion nutqidan so'ng [71] [72] butun dunyoda mashhur bo'lib ketdi va bu yurish davomida keng tarqalgan tiyilish edi. [73]

Tashkilotchilar, shuningdek, ekologik muammolarni hal qilishdi: "Bizning fikrimizcha, xalqimizning har bir fuqarosi va har bir jamoat toza suv, toza havo, jamoat joylariga kirish va ulardan foydalanish huquqiga ega. Biz atrof -muhit va iqlim himoyalangan bo'lishi kerak, deb hisoblaymiz. bizning erimiz va tabiiy boyliklarimiz korporativ foyda yoki ochko'zlik uchun ishlatilmasligi, ayniqsa aholi xavfsizligi va salomatligi xavfi ostida. " [2]

Ismning kelib chiqishi Tahrirlash

Dastlab "Million Ayollar Yurishi" deb nomlangan Wruble, Vashingtondagi Ish va Erkinlik Martini aks ettirish uchun tadbirni [74] nomini o'zgartirdi, bu Martin Lyuter Kingning savdo markazidagi fuqarolik huquqlari bo'yicha tarixiy yig'ilish "Menda bir orzu bor" nutq [47] [75] Mitingda, shuningdek, Filadelfiyadagi 1997 -yilgi million ayol ayoliga hurmat ko'rsatildi, unda yuz minglab afroamerikalik ayollar qatnashgani aytilmoqda. [76]

Logistika rejalashtirish tahrir

Linkoln memorialidagi to'qnashuvlarni rejalashtirgani uchun [77] 9 -dekabrda Kapitoliy binosining janubi -g'arbiy burchagidagi Mustaqillik prospektida yurishni boshlash va Milliy savdo markazi bo'ylab davom etish uchun ruxsatnoma olindi. [78]

2017 yil 20 yanvarga kelib, 222,000 kishi Vashingtonga, martga borishni xohlagan bo'lsa, 251,000 kishi qiziqish bildirgan. [79] [80] 2017 yil 16 -yanvarda Fox News hukumati "qariyb 500 ming odamni kutayotganini" aytdi, [81] va Milliy bog'lar xizmati tomonidan berilgan yurish ruxsatnomasi shahar rahbari tomonidan qayta ko'rib chiqilgan. Ichki xavfsizlik bo'limi yarim million kishini qamrab oladi [82] - bu o'tgan kuni prezident Donald Trampning inauguratsiya marosimiga tashrif buyurganidan ancha ko'p. [83] [84]

Hamkorlikni tahrirlash

Dekabr oyi oxirida tashkilotchilar 100 dan ortiq tashkilot yurish paytida yordam berishini va tadbirni ijtimoiy media platformalarida qo'llab -quvvatlashini e'lon qilishdi. [85] 18 -yanvarga qadar 400 dan ortiq tashkilot mart oyining rasmiy saytida "sheriklar" ro'yxatiga kiritilgan. [86] [87]

13 yanvar kuni tadbir tashkilotchilari abortga qarshi feministik guruhga "Yangi to'lqin feministlari" sheriklik maqomini berishdi. Ammo tashkilotning ishtiroki e'lon qilinganidan keyin Atlantika okeani, u yurish saytidagi hamkorlar sahifasidan olib tashlandi. [91] Hamkorlik maqomi berilgan boshqa abortga qarshi guruhlar, jumladan, Abbi Jonsonning "Va keyin u erda yo'q edi" va Stanton Healthcare ham sheriklar ro'yxatiga kiritilmagan. Yangi to'lqinli feministlar va Jonson hali ham rasmiy yurishda qatnashdilar, boshqa abortga qarshi guruhlar qatorida ATTWN, Student for America hayoti va Hayot masalalari jurnali. [d]

Tashkilotchilar dastlab 200,000 dan ortiq odamni kutishgan bo'lsa, [93] yurish Vashingtonda 440,000 [94] dan 500,000gacha bo'lgan odamlarni yig'ish bilan yakunlandi [95] Vashington metrosi tizimida ikkinchi marta eng gavjum kun bo'lib, milliondan ortiq sayohatlar amalga oshirildi. Bu inauguratsiya kunidagi haydovchiga qaraganda va Barak Obamaning birinchi inauguratsiyasidan keyin ikkinchi o'rinda turadi. [96] The New York Times xabar berishicha, olomon-olimlar Ayollar yurishi Tramp inauguratsiyasidan uch barobar katta, deb hisoblaydilar, ular taxmin qilishicha, 160 ming ishtirokchi. [93] Biroq, Vashington Post va The New York Times odamlar sonini aniq hisoblash qiyinligini aytishdi [97] [98] va Tramp inauguratsiyasining boshqa hisob -kitoblari 250 000 dan 600 000 gacha. [99] [100]

Taxminan 3,300,000 - 4,600,000 odamlar Qo'shma Shtatlarda [10] ishtirok etishdi va butun dunyo bo'ylab 5 milliongacha. [11] [12] [27]

To'plangan mashinalar, avtobuslar, samolyotlar va poyezdlar namoyishchilarni yurishga olib keldi. Katta olomon Vashington metrosiga o'z tarixida ikkinchi marta 1.000.000 yo'lovchini tashlab ketish imkoniyatini berdi. 1.001.613 ta sayohat-bu ikkinchi eng gavjum kun, eng ko'p hisoblangan jami (Obamaning birinchi inauguratsiyasidan eng yuqori baho) va bir kunlik sayohatning eng ko'pi-bu oldingi rekordni yangilagan 825 437 ta sayohat. Aql va/yoki qo'rquvni tiklang. Shuningdek, nogironlik bo'yicha adolat faoli Mia Ives-Rubli boshchiligidagi 45000 dan ortiq nogironlar qatnashgani ma'lum qilindi. [101]

Vashington, DC tahrir

Dinamiklar tahrirlash

Shtaynem "Bizning konstitutsiyamiz" men, prezident "deb boshlanmaydi. U "Biz, Odamlar" bilan boshlanadi. Men Vashingtonga kelgan, minglab odamlardan biri ekanligimdan faxrlanaman, biz irq, jins, sinf yoki boshqa belgilar bo'yicha emas, balki inson sifatida bog'langan demokratiya uchun ishlashda davom etishimizni tushuntirish uchun. " [6]

Ferrera shunday dedi: "Agar biz - umumiy odob -axloqqa, katta yaxshilikka, hamma uchun adolatga ishonadigan millionlab amerikaliklar - agar biz o'z sabablarimiz va belgilarimiz bilan ajralib tuzoqqa tushib qolsak, biz kurashimizni susaytiramiz. Biz mag'lub bo'lamiz, lekin agar biz o'zimizni moslashtiradigan narsaga sodiq qolsak, qat'iyatli va qat'iyatli bo'lsak, mamlakatimiz ruhini qutqarish imkoniyatiga ega bo'lamiz ". [108]

Johansson called for long-term change: "Once the heaviness [of the election] began to subside, an opportunity has presented itself to make real long-term change, not just for future Americans, but in the way we view our responsibility to get involved with and stay active in our communities. Let this weight not drag you down, but help to get your heels stuck in." [108]

The youngest presenter at the Washington D.C. march, 6-year-old Sophie Cruz, said, "Let us fight with love, faith, and courage so that our families will not be destroyed," and ended her speech saying, "I also want to tell the children not to be afraid, because we are not alone. There are still many people that have their hearts filled with love. Let's keep together and fight for the rights. God is with us." Cruz repeated her speech in Spanish. [109]

Alicia Keys performed at the rally saying, "We are mothers. We are caregivers. We are artists. We are activists. We are entrepreneurs, doctors, leaders of industry and technology. Our potential is unlimited. We rise." [110] Angela Davis said, "We recognize that we are collective agents of history and that history cannot be deleted like web pages." Maryum Ali also spoke, saying, "Don't get frustrated, get involved. Don't complain, organize." [108]

Other U.S. locations Edit

Across the United States, there were a total of 408 planned marches. [11]

International Edit

Marches occurred worldwide, with 198 in 84 other countries. [11] [28] Organisers of the event reported 673 marches worldwide, including 20 in Mexico and 29 in Canada. [13] Women in India also organized a nationwide march on January 21, 2017, called I Will Go Out to demand access to safe public spaces. It was held in small countries such as Belgium, Costa Rica, Latvia. [111] The movement also took place in countries in Africa, including Kenya, Nigeria, and Tanzania all held marches calling for women to have equal rights, and specifically demanding an end to violence against women. [111]

Participation by well-known people Edit

Political figures Edit

U.S. Senator Cory Booker, former U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, and civil rights activist Jesse Jackson attended the Washington march. [112] [113] [114] Anne-Marie Slaughter, president of New America and former Director of Policy Planning at the U.S. State Department, attended the New York City march. [115] John Lewis attended the Atlanta rally, which saw more than 60,000 march to the Georgia State Capitol. [116]

Senator Bernie Sanders of Vermont delivered a speech at the march in Montpelier in front of the Vermont State House, as did other Vermont political figures, such as former Governor Madeleine Kunin and current Lieutenant Governor David Zuckerman. [117] Both Massachusetts Senators Elizabeth Warren and Ed Markey participated in the Boston Women's March, [118] along with Mayor Marty Walsh.

Jacinda Ardern, Prime Minister of New Zealand since October 2017, gave a speech after marching in Auckland New Zealand was chronologically the first country in the world to participate in the march. [119] [120]

Additional celebrity participation Edit

In San Francisco, performer and activist Joan Baez serenaded the crowd with "We Shall Overcome" in Spanish. [143] Comedian Colin Mochrie and Actress Eliza Dushku attended Boston's march. [137] Singer Carole King was among 30 residents rallying in Stanley, Idaho. [144] Author Stephen King participated in a march in Sarasota, Florida. [145] Singer Kacey Musgraves [124] and comedian Chris Rock [146] were both present in Nashville, Tennessee. Seth Rogen tweeted video from New Orleans. [147] Actor Rami Malek was present in Paris, France. [148]

Pussyhat Project Edit

The Pussyhat Project was a nationwide effort initiated by Krista Suh and Jayna Zweiman, a screenwriter and architect located in Los Angeles, to create pussyhats, pink hats to be worn at the march for visual impact. [149] In response to this call, crafters all over the United States began making these hats using patterns provided on the project website for use with either a knitting method, crocheting and even sewing with fabrics. [150] [151] The project's goal was to have one million hats handed out at the Washington March. [151] The hats are made using pink yarns or fabrics and were originally designed to be a positive form of protest for Trump's inauguration by Krista Suh. Suh, from Los Angeles, wanted a hat for the cooler climate in Washington, D. C. and made herself a hat for the protest, realizing the potential: "we could all wear them, make a unified statement". [152] One of the project founders, Jayna Zweiman, stated "I think it's resonating a lot because we're really saying that no matter who you are or where you are, you can be politically active." [151] Suh and Zwieman worked with Kat Coyle, the owner of a local knitting supply shop called The Little Knittery, to come up with the original design. The project launched in November 2016 and quickly became popular on social media with over 100,000 downloads of the pattern to make the hat. [153] [149]

The name refers to the resemblance of the top corners of the hats to cat ears and attempts to reclaim the derogatory term "pussy", a play on Trump's widely reported 2005 remarks that women would let him "grab them by the pussy". [154] [155] Many of the hats worn by marchers in Washington, D.C., were created by crafters who were unable to attend and wished them to be worn by those who could, to represent their presence. Those hats optionally contained notes from the crafters to the wearers, expressing support. They were distributed by the crafters themselves, by yarn stores at the points of origin, carried to the event by marchers, and also distributed at the destination. [156] The production of the hats caused reported shortages of pink knitting yarn across the United States. [157] [158] [159] [160] On the day of the march, NPR compared the hats to the "Make America Great Again" hats worn by Trump supporters, in that both represented groups that had at one point been politically marginalized both sent "simultaneously unifying and antagonistic" messages and both were simple in their messages. [161] Pussyhats were featured later on the fashion runway, [162] and on the covers of Vaqt va Nyu -Yorker.

Signage Edit

In Richmond, Virginia, attendees of the March on Washington participated in an "Art of Activism" series of workshops at Studio Two Three, a printmaking studio for artists in Scott's Addition. [163]

In Los Angeles, actor Amir Talai was carrying the sign "I'll see you nice white ladies at the next #blacklivesmatter march right?" to express frustration at the lack of participation by white Americans in the Black Lives Matter movement, and simultaneously hopeful of encouraging them to do so. The photo of Talai with the sign went viral over the internet. [164]

In January 2020, the National Archives acknowledged that it altered photographs of the Women's March on Washington, blurring the word Tramp in a sign that reads, "God Hates Trump" and another that reads, "Trump & GOP — Hands Off Women" as well as other placards that referenced parts of a woman's anatomy. A spokesperson for the National Archives explained that the censorship was designed to avoid politicizing the event and to protect children and young people who might see the signs. [165]

Academics Edit

While the march aims to create a social movement, Marcia Chatelain of Georgetown University's Center for Social Justice commented that its success will depend on the marchers' ability to maintain momentum in the following weeks. "One of the goals of any type of march or any type of visible sign of solidarity is to get inspired, to inspire people to do more. And the question is, at the march, what kind of organizational structures or movements will also be present to help people know how to channel their energy for the next day and for the long haul?" [166] Historian Michael Kazin also commented on the importance of a long-term strategy: "All successful movements in American history have both inside and outside strategy. If you're just protesting, and it just stops there, you're not going to get anything done." [166]

In the aftermath of the protest, museum curators around the world sought to gather signs and other cultural artifacts of the marches. [167]

Politicians Edit

Many members of the U.S. House of Representatives announced that they would not attend Trump's inauguration ceremony, with the numbers growing after he made disparaging remarks about veteran House member and civil rights leader John Lewis. Some of them said they would attend the Women's March. [168]

Maine Representative Chellie Pingree said she would instead visit a Planned Parenthood center and a business owned by immigrants on Inauguration Day before going to Washington to appear on stage with other politicians who refused to attend. "We need to do everything we can to let the incoming administration know we are not happy about their agenda. I've had unprecedented numbers of my constituents calling me worried about healthcare, the environment, public education, and they feel disrespected," she said. [169]

On January 22, 2017, Trump wrote on his personal Twitter account: "Watched protests yesterday but was under the impression that we just had an election! Why didn't these people vote? Celebs hurt cause badly." Two hours later, he sent a more placatory tweet: "Peaceful protests are a hallmark of our democracy. Even if I don't always agree, I recognize the rights of people to express their views." [170] [171] A White House official criticized the March for not welcoming abortion rights opponents, and then criticized Madonna's comment that she "thought an awful lot about blowing up the White House". [172]

Senator Bernie Sanders, who attended the March in Montpelier, Vermont, said Trump should listen to the protesters: "Listen to the needs of women. Listen to the needs of the immigrant community. Listen to the needs of workers. Listen to what's going on with regards to climate change . Modify your positions. Let's work together to try to save this planet and protect the middle class." [173] [174]

Hillary Clinton, the 2016 Democratic presidential candidate, offered her support on Twitter, calling the march "awe-inspiring" and stated "[I] hope it brought joy to others as it did to me". [175]

Following a tweet that offended other lawmakers and the public, Bill Kintner resigned from his position as Nebraska State Senator. [176]

John Carman, a Republican official in South Jersey mocked the Women's March, asking if the protest would "be over in time for them to cook dinner". He lost the next election on November 7, 2017, against a political newcomer, Ashley Bennett. [177]

The Friedrich Ebert Foundation, which is associated with the Social Democratic Party of Germany, had planned to give their human rights award to the 2017 Women's March. After a German Jewish organization, however, protested in an open letter, [178] accusing the organizers of antisemitic statements and ties to antisemites, the foundation put the award on ice. [179] [180]

Celebrities Edit

Apart from the celebrities present at the march, others such as Beyoncé and Bruce Springsteen made statements of support for it. [181] The latter, who endorsed Hillary Clinton and is a friend to Barack Obama, gave a speech during a concert in Australia, saying, "The E Street Band is glad to be here in Western Australia. But we're a long way from home, and our hearts and spirits are with the hundreds of thousands of women and men that marched yesterday in every city in America and in Melbourne who rallied against hate and division and in support of tolerance, inclusion, reproductive rights, civil rights, racial justice, LGBTQ rights, the environment, wage equality, gender equality, healthcare, and immigrant rights. We stand with you. We are the new American resistance." [182] [183]

Cyndi Lauper commented on Madonna's controversial speech at the Washington march, saying, "Anger is not better than clarity and humanity. That is what opens people's minds. When you want to change people's mind, you have to share your real story." [184]

Jon Voight called the march "destructive" and said it was "against the president and against the government". He was particularly critical of Shia LaBeouf and march participant Miley Cyrus, saying "they have a lot of followers" and felt their stances were "teaching treason". [185]

Piers Morgan, a friend of Trump's, stated the march was a reaction by women that "a man won" and that "At its core, it was about Trump-hating and resentment that he won and Hillary lost". He also felt that it was democratic to protest, but not due to the result of a democratic election. In response to Morgan's comments about the march, Ewan McGregor canceled his appearance on Good Morning Britain, which Morgan was hosting. [186]

Following the march, the organizers of the Women's March on Washington posted the "10 Actions for the first 100 Days" campaign to keep up the momentum from the march. [34] The first action included contacting senators about concerns, with an option of using "Hear Our Voice" postcards. [187] A new action was provided every 10 days. [188]

Filmmaker Michael Moore called for 100 days of resistance, for Trump's first 100 days of his presidency. [189]

In July 2017, the Women's March official Twitter feed celebrated the birthday of Assata Shakur, an African-American on the FBI most wanted terrorists list who was convicted of murder, leading to criticism from conservative media outlets. [190] [191] [192] [193] In an August 1, 2017, editorial, Bari Weiss criticized three co-chairs for their association with Louis Farrakhan, and for failing to reject anti-Semitism. [194] In a reply letter, co-Chair Bob Bland dismissed critics as "apologists for the status quo, racist ideology and the white nationalist patriarchy". [195]

In October 2017, leaders of the decentralized Women's Marches across the country formed a new organization, March On, and launched a Super PAC called March On's Fight Back PAC. [196] Led by Vanessa Wruble, one of the co-founders and chief architects of the Women's March on Washington, March On announced the goal of creating political change through their "March on the Polls" campaign, including marching people to voting booths for the November 2018 midterms for a "March on the Midterms". [197] "March on aims to coordinate actions at the federal, state, and local level. [198]

On January 21, 2018, a second Women's March was held, taking place in cities around the world. [199] [200] Demonstrations were also held in 2019 and 2020.

The 2017 Women's Marches took place in many cities around the world since January 21, 2017.


This march was organized to protest the Reagan administration. Organized by the the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO), the largest US union federation, the protest gathered 260,000 people critical of the government policies, particularly planned cuts to social programs.

Eight years after the first LGBT rights march, a crowd double the size gathered in DC. The march sought to end discrimination against gay citizens. The march also demanded funding for AIDS research and therapy. With an epidemic that seemed relentless, the disease had already killed nearly 20,000 people, and the Reagan administration’s response seemed inadequate. According to the organizers’ estimates, the attendance was at least 500,000 people.


Large Protetests Held In US - History

By NIKKI WENTLING | Stars and Stripes | Published: August 15, 2019

WASHINGTON — While hundreds of thousands of demonstrators converged on Washington in November 1969 to show their growing disdain for America’s involvement in Vietnam, Sgt. Grant Coates was bunkered in the Commerce Department with his fellow soldiers, peeking out windows to catch glimpses at the activity outside.

Coates was a squad leader with the 6th Armored Cavalry Regiment out of Fort Meade, Md., one of the units assigned to riot duty during the weekend of Nov. 15, 1969, when about 500,000 people gathered in the capitol for what’s believed to be the largest antiwar protest in U.S. history, called the Moratorium March.

The protests in Washington, and around the country, were building as the Vietnam War ground on. Students for a Democratic Society staged the first major anti-war rally in Washington on April 17, 1965, with about 20,000 people attending the orderly event.

Fast-forward to 1969, and the historic November rallies were part of a string of demonstrations that took place around the world, with groups from San Francisco to Boston and London petitioning for peace. Thousands of others involved in the antiwar movement joined affiliated protests in cities and on college campuses across the country, including a march through San Francisco that attracted 30,000.

The weekend of the march, Coates was one of the only service members on riot duty who had served in Vietnam.

Coates volunteered for the Army, having felt an obligation to the country. When he returned to the U.S. from Vietnam in September 1969, he was reassigned to Fort Meade.

Fifty years later, Coates, now 70 and living in upstate New York, recalls that Moratorium March weekend in detail. His squad remained inside the Commerce Department, adjacent to the National Mall, waiting to be called to help local police if the protest got violent.

“We had observers on the tops of the buildings reporting in on what they were seeing,” Coates said. “Those of us not on the roof were stretched out in the hallways, sleeping in our combat boots with our gear next to us so we could be ready to get into formation.”

A security force of 40,000 police and troops guarded Washington that weekend, and almost all of them — like Coates — were hidden from public view, United Press International reported.

Police were expecting a crowd of 100,000 for the demonstration. It was planned by the Vietnam Moratorium Committee, which had held other massive demonstrations against America’s involvement in Vietnam. Afterward, police conservatively estimated 250,000 had joined the protest. Based on that number, newspapers dubbed it the “biggest peace demonstration in the nation’s history.”

Later, the estimate would climb to 500,000. The Washington protest was the focal point of the weekend.

About 1,000 protesters an hour moved from Arlington National Cemetery to the White House and then onto the Capitol “in a march against death,” The Associated Press reported at the time. Many of them carried placards with the names of service members who were killed in action in Vietnam, or the names of Vietnamese villages that had been destroyed.

Demonstrators heard speeches from antiwar politicians and performances by Arlo Guthrie, Pete Seeger and the group Peter, Paul and Mary.

Throughout it all, President Richard Nixon remained in the White House.

“The Nixon administration reaffirmed that its Vietnam policy would not be determined by marchers on the streets and asserted its course continues to have the support of most Americans,” the AP reported.

Coates also remained inside — his squad was never called into action. The demonstration was mostly peaceful except for a small section of the crowd that violently protested near the Justice Department on the evening of Nov. 15.

Demonstrators threw rocks, bottles and paint bombs, smashing windows and splattering the building with red paint. UPI described the protesters as “Yippies” and “shouting, paint-throwing extremists.” The clash resulted in police using tear gas on the crowd.

From the windows of the Commerce Department, Coates intermittently spotted clouds of tear gas. His squad slept in their masks because gas had filtered into the building through the air-conditioning system, he said.

Early Nov. 16, when most of the crowd had dispersed, his squad left the Commerce Department.

“I remember it was a clear day the morning we left,” Coates said. “We could still feel the tear gas. Anytime there was a breeze, the crystals would blow off buildings and streets, burning our eyes.”

Coates was 20 at the time, fresh off a combat tour in Vietnam, where he was part of the 76th Infantry Detach Combat Tracker Team. With a dog in tow, the team was tasked with establishing contact with enemy combatants.

Other service members on riot duty did not have combat experience. Some were part of Special Services, the entertainment branch of the military that included bands and baseball teams.

In their off-time, many wore peace paraphernalia and aligned themselves with the antiwar movement, Coates said. Before rolling into Washington, they had to be trained not to break ranks.

“I remember a lot of them saying, ‘I agree with the demonstrators. I’m not for the war, and I don’t want to go to Vietnam,’ ” Coates said.

“On the ride down, I told my squad, ‘You got to remember what you’re doing and protect yourself. These people don’t care that you like them. They see you as the government.’ ”

Coates witnessed the change in his squad as they traveled past protesters, some of whom shouted at them and threw things at their vehicles.

“They got hit abruptly with counterculture in their face, and they didn’t have much patience after that,” Coates recalled. “After about an hour on the road, these guys were yelling stuff out the window back at them.”

Reflecting on the attitudes at the time, Coates said people hadn’t yet separated individual service members from the government.

“Service members represented the government, and the agitation, the irritation — it was taken out on the service member,” Coates said. “My feeling was, carry your sign. Yell what you want, but don’t yell it at me. I’m not the one making the decisions.”


Over 1,000 Just Gathered for the Largest Felony Civil Disobedience Rally in US History

Olympia, WA — Over the weekend the largest felony civil disobedience rally ever held in American history took place. It is estimated that anywhere from 1,000 to 3,000 well armed gun owners showed up to the state capital in Olympia to openly violate the unconstitutional gun law, i594.

The event’s organizer, who frequently appears on the Free Thought Project, Gavin Seim, made the extraordinary nature of the rally very clear,

“This isn’t just a protest. We are here to openly violate the law.”

On his website Seim explains the ominous nature of the legislation:

On Nov 4th 2014 a piece of legislation called i594 passed in Washington State (read text). It will make so much as handing a gun to a friend a felony. While this started here in Washington, it was funded by big out of State money and you are next.

Seim goes on to emphasize the importance of this day of resistance:

This stand is about all of America. It’s about public officials deciding if they will keep their oath, or support tyranny. It’s about us deciding if we will stand or allow liberty to be lost.

On Dec 13th we gather for the largest Felony civil disobedience rally in American history. Thousands are coming to stand at the capital in Olympia. This is not simply a protest. We will openly exchange, buy and sell and trade guns and start a plan to break apart this legislation and violate i594 in every possible way. Because ALL law that violates the Constitution is not law, it is VOID!

We the people will not tolerate this law. We will not bow down and lick the boots of tyrants, we will stand for the liberty of our children? We’re not waiting for politicians, judges or lawyers. Our birthright is NOT to be touched. We gather and we will affirm that liberty.

Original RSVP’s grew to over 6,000, so police decided that it would be in their best interests emas to enforce the law. The Washington State Patrol announced there would be no arrests for exchanging guns – not even for selling guns.

Like the professional liberty flexing guru that he is, Seim refused to even obtain a permit to hold the rally, citing the right of people to peaceably assemble.

The sheer number of people that showed up, along with the attendance of lawmakers and even law enforcement, made this event hard to dismiss as a fringe group of people, “clinging to their guns.”

Despite there being over a thousand loaded weapons, the protest went off without incident. Washington State Trooper Guy Gill predicted beforehand, “Most of these folks are responsible gun owners. We probably will not have an issue.”

According to Townhall.com Another rally in Olympia is planned for January 15, and another one in Spokane on December 20. The Second Amendment Foundation, headquartered in Bellevue, intends to sue the state over I-594, and will be lobbying the legislature to get the law changed or repealed.

We commend Gav Seim’s efforts to organize such an amazingly powerful and effective protest. This is how change is sought, and made.


Milwaukee Is Home To One Of The Longest Youth-Led Mass Protests In U.S. History

By Aug. 28, 1967, Black Milwaukee had grown tired and frustrated. Tired of living in substandard housing, tired of their overcrowded neighborhoods and tired of economic inequalities in their city, the young Black members of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People’s (NAACP) Youth Council, the Commandos, and their adviser, Father James E. Groppi, joined forces with Alderwoman Vel Phillips. Together, they engineered a march to demand fair housing in Milwaukee.

And for 200 consecutive nights, they kept marching.

Fair housing in Milwaukee had been a primary concern for Black Milwaukeeans long before 1967. In the 1960s, the city of Milwaukee’s Black population was concentrated on the north side, which was colloquially referred to as the “inner core.” As Milwaukee’s Black population grew following World War II, and as manufacturing jobs began leaving the city, the inner core became overcrowded, and lax enforcement of the city’s building codes led to dilapidated housing.

Moreover, white landlords and homeowners outside of the inner core refused to rent or sell to African-Americans. “What would my neighbors think if I sold my home to niggers?” said one white homeowner to a then 19-year-old Prentice McKinney when he and his older brother, a Vietnam Vet, went to purchase a home for their mother.

Black people were essentially stuck in the inner core due to racist housing practices.

In 1962, Alderwoman Phillips, who made history in 1956 when she became the city’s first African-American ― and first woman ― to be elected to the Common Council, introduced a fair housing ordinance that would make it illegal to deny housing to African-Americans because of their race. Phillips hoped to put an end to racist housing discrimination through her fair housing ordinance.

The ordinance was voted down 17 to 1. Phillips was the sole vote in favor. The ordinance would continue to be voted down each of the three times she brought it up to the Common Council between 1962 and 1968.

By Aug. 28, 1967, Black Milwaukeeans, mobilized by their frustrations of living in a system where they lacked a political voice, took to the streets in peaceful protests. The first of 200 consecutive nights of marching began as 200 members of the NAACP Youth Council, the Commandos, Father James E. Groppi, Alderwoman Vel Phillips and at least 50 white parishioners from St. Veronica Church (on the south side, where Father Groppi had previously been an assistant pastor) marched from the predominately Black north side of Milwaukee to the predominately white south side of Milwaukee. The marchers were met by as many as 13,000 angry white counter-protesters, who hurled bottles, bricks, racial slurs and feces at participants. Archival footage from the marches capture how chilling and menacing the white backlash was to the peaceful protestors.

But intimidation tactics didn’t work. The marchers continued to demonstrate from late summer through Milwaukee’s brutal winter and into spring. The 200 th march took place on March 14, 1968. The participants suspended their marches at that point but later staged the largest of their marches after the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr., who had early in the movement sent a note of support to the marchers.

On April 8, 1968, 15,000 people marched for Dr. King, continuing their approach to nonviolent protesting on which their movement had been built. On April 11, 1968, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act, which had been influenced by the demonstrations in Milwaukee. And on April 30, 1968, the marchers achieved victory when Milwaukee’s Common Council passed the Fair Housing Ordinance that made housing discrimination in the city of Milwaukee illegal.

The March on Milwaukee (Aug. 28, 1967 through April 30, 1968) remains a radical act of civic participation. Radical because the marchers exercised a dynamic principal: the sustained engagement in public and peaceful protest by the city’s most overlooked population ― the poor, Black and/or young people of Milwaukee.

Despite the radical nature of the marches, this era of the city’s history has been almost erased from the local and national consciousness. The erasure has been both physical and metaphorical, as the physical buildings most important to the struggle for open housing, such as St. Boniface Parish , were torn down. As a current local organizer and community member, Adam Carr, has stated, it is as though the city suffers from a “collective amnesia.” The marches have been collectively forgotten and with them the radical legacy of Black, poor, and youth-led organizing in our city. This collective amnesia is unsurprising when one remembers that Milwaukee continues to be the nation’s most segregated metropolitan area.

Fifty years later, the anniversary of the March on Milwaukee provides a time for the city to both recognize va reignite the spirit of the original marches ― to build the Milwaukee that we need, one that is fair, collaborative and racially just. We’re doing so through our celebration called 200 Nights of Freedom , a community-based initiative of 200 consecutive nights of free public programs inspired by the original spirit of the marches. 200 Nights of Freedom is the central program of the March on Milwaukee 50 th Anniversary Celebration, and it is fundamentally a means of recognizing the past so that we can reignite our present-day community’s commitment to justice and equity.

Recognition: The Dreams of Our Elders

As a person raised by Haitian and Yoruba elders, I have been told throughout the course of my life the importance of respecting one’s elders. Respecting elders is not just about giving deference to “old people.” It is fundamentally an act of honoring history and experiences: the accumulated lessons of those who have come before us. Indeed, honoring one’s elders puts into amaliyot the familiar and transcultural adage that in order to know where you’re going, you have to know where you come from. What better place to learn then from the feet of our elders?

When I joined the March on Milwaukee 50 th Anniversary Coordinating Committee in June of 2016, I had no idea learning at the feet of the elders meant I would become a privileged keeper of both their stories and, in some ways, their failed dreams. Over the course of learning about the history of the marches, I and the other “young” (i.e., those born after 1968) members of the coordinating committee have had a chance to experience what historian Manning Marable referred to “living Black history,” to place Black historical narratives at the center and to, consequently, see how these histories can and have shaped the course of Milwaukee’s past, present and future.

Witnessing the living Black history of the original marchers has often meant learning details about the marches from original marchers and coordinating committee members, such as NAACP Youth Commandos Prentice McKinney and Fred Reed, NAACP Youth Council member Dr. Shirley Butler and Dr. Margaret “Peggy” Rozga, who married Father Groppi after he left the priesthood. I learned some of the marchers, like current Wisconsin Congresswoman Gwen Moore, snuck out of their bedroom windows in order to participate in the movement. Or that my own husband’s grandmother, Juanita Adams , who marched for fair housing and the desegregation of Milwaukee Schools while six months pregnant, pushed her body against the pouring spout of a cement truck to prevent the building of a segregated school.

However, I have also learned that despite the fact a fair housing ordinance was passed by the city of Milwaukee, many of these original marchers look at the world 50 years later and wonder what, if anything has changed. Wisconsin leads the nation in Black male incarceration .

With regard to fair housing, as Milwaukee Habitat for Humanity Executive Director Brian Sonderman noted on a panel on housing rights in Milwaukee , Black home ownership in Milwaukee has never been more than 50 percent. Access to property means access to a political voice, says Prentice McKinney, a former leader of the NAACP Youth Commandos. But with our prisons filled with Black bodies and the tight grip of segregation and economic inequality that chokes the city’s most disenfranchised (Black and brown people), it is both understandable and heartbreaking to see that 50 years after Milwaukee’s “civil rights moment,” the city of Milwaukee still has much to learn from our past in order to build a brighter future.

Re-Ignition: 200 Nights of Freedom

In the world of 2017, where racist rhetoric has been normalized on the federal stage and where public and peaceful acts of protesting ― such as taking a knee during the national anthem ― have led to continued counter-protesting, the question remains: Is it still possible to build the Milwaukee (or, for that matter, the nation) that we all need?

The March on Milwaukee 50 th Anniversary Coordinating Committee charges: yes. However, that “yes” comes with recognizing the marches— with bringing the unknown and forgotten history to the fore so that it might reignite the spirit of activism in our city. The marchers are a testimony to what indigenous, grassroots, youth- and people of color-directed organizing can accomplish: effective change and radical humanizing of Black and brown people on the local and national level.

200 Nights of Freedom builds on the stamina of 200 consecutive nights of marching. It is a community-driven initiative of 200 nights of free public programs that are inspired by the spirit of 1967-1968 marches. 200 Nights of Freedom works to build the city that we need by challenging some of our most challenging present-day realities in Milwaukee: our hyper-segregation, our resultant “silo-ing” and the at times frustrating inability for community members to work collaboratively to achieve equity. In other words, 200 Nights of Freedom is a way for community members to see the work being produced in our city by amazing present-day organizers while daring themselves to cross the very viaducts and imagined borders that keep present-day northsiders (African-Americans) from connecting with present-day southsiders (now predominately Latinx) and area suburbs (predominately white).

Since we’ve kicked off on Aug. 28, 2017, we’ve seen an amazing mosaic of work contributed from our collaborators and partners across all areas of Milwaukee. Organizations new and old have seen the marches as a catalyst for their own work and honored the connections between activism led by youth and people of color, then and now. Organizations such as Urban Underground , an organization that works throughout Milwaukee, but especially in the Sherman Park area, to promote safe and sustainable communities through various youth-led social justice campaigns. Urban Underground has been instrumental and receptive to recognizing the marchers and using them to reignite their own causes, including arts-based activism in the form of silk screening workshops and T-shirt projects, as well as a recent publication called Youth Rise MKE . The organization Voces de La Frontera has been a vigilant leader in the fight for immigrant rights, including protesting against anti-immigrant bill AB190. Concurrently, the organization Uplifting Black Liberation and Community (UBLAC), a coalition of Black women, queer and trans people, have led Milwaukee’s own Black Lives Matter movement, promoting Black liberation through tools for self-sustainability and connection. Their efforts have spanned micro-community building events, such as potlucks, to massive efforts to organize citywide, including the Sept. 30, 2017 Black Women’s Empowerment March .

And these are just a few ways organizations in our city have been working and continue to work to realize the dreams of our elders. In their efforts to mobilize across the city’s historic boundaries and through youth-led, people of color, and women-centered paradigms, they are working to build the Milwaukee we need: not simply 200 Nights of Freedom, but freedom and equity for the generations that have yet to come — those who will inherit this city and its organizing history.

We are still at the beginning of our initiative. However, we’re excited to see how the community will continue to respond to the prompt and platform of 200 Nights of Freedom.

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