Eng mashhur DDoS hujumlari ro'yxati - yil va oy bo'yicha
Eng katta DDoS hujumlarini rekord darajada ushlab turish uchun beixtiyor raqobatlashgan boshqalarni ko'rishni xohlaysizmi? So'nggi olti yil ichida sodir bo'lgan eng katta va eng mashhur tarqatilgan rad etish hujumlarining rivojlanishini ko'rish uchun bizning vaqt jadvalimizni tekshiring (ham trafik, ham paketli hujumlar):
Fevral - Amazon Web Services (AWS) 2020 yilning 1 -choragi uchun TLR hisobotida 2,3 Tbps UDP aks ettirish DDoS vektor hujumini kuzatgani va yumshatgani haqida xabar berdi. Bu nafaqat AWS xabar bergan eng katta DDoS hujumi, balki bit tezligi bo'yicha ham tarixdagi eng katta DDoS hujumi hisoblanadi.
Aprel - Imperva xabar berishicha, ularning mijozlaridan biri sekundiga 580 million paketga etgan DDoS hujumini to'xtatishga muvaffaq bo'lgan. Bugungi kunga kelib, bu paket hajmi bo'yicha DDoS -ning eng katta hujumi hisoblanadi.
Yanvar - Imperva -ning yana bir mijozi sekundiga 500 million paket DDoS hujumiga duch keldi.
Mart-NETSCOUT xabar berishicha, uning Arbor ATLAS global trafigi va DDoS tahdidlarni aniqlash tizimi AQShda noma'lum bo'lgan xizmat ko'rsatuvchi provayderga 1,7 Tbit/s tezlikdagi xotirani aks ettirish/kuchaytirish hujumini tasdiqlagan.
Fevral - GitHub DDoS hujumi kompaniyani 1,35 Tbit / s (129,6 mln. PPS) ma'lumot bilan to'ldirdi - bu o'sha paytdagi rekord darajadagi eng katta DDoS hujumi - memcaching orqali. Bu shuni anglatadiki, tajovuzkorlar GitHub -ning IP -manzilini soxtalashtirib, bir nechta Memcached serverlariga 50x ma'lumotli javob shaklida katta javob berish uchun so'rov yuborishgan.
Oktyabr - Chexiya parlament saylovlariga taalluqli Chexiya statistika idorasining veb -saytlari - volby.cz va volbyhned.cz - ovozlarni sanash paytida DDoS hujumlari tufayli vaqtincha ishlamay qoldi.
Avgust - Nazi Daily Stormer veb -saytini o'zining yangi "Jazolangan bo'ron" nomi bilan boshqaradigan DreamHost veb -xost kompaniyasi DDoS hujumini e'lon qilinmagan darajada boshdan kechirdi. Bu hujum Adliya vazirligining bo'ron joyiga tegishli tashrif buyuruvchilar ma'lumotlarini so'rashidan keyin sodir bo'ldi.
Iyun-yilning ikkinchi yarmida Square Enix video-dasturiy ta'minot ishlab chiqaruvchisi Final Fantasy XIV onlayn rolli o'yin (RPG) botnetlar orqali uzluksiz DDoS hujumlarini davom ettirdi. Hujumlar yozni qamrab oldi va yana bir qator hujumlar kuzda sodir bo'ldi.
Oktyabr - Dyn DDoS hujumi, uning o'lchami 1,2 Tbit / s bo'lgan va o'sha paytdagi eng katta DDoS hujumi hisoblangan, AQSh va Evropada Internetning katta qismini buzgan. Mirai botnetidan foydalanib, hujum Internetning ko'pgina domen nomlari tizimi (DNS) infratuzilmasini boshqaruvchi Dyn kompaniyasiga qaratildi.
Sentyabr - frantsuz OVH veb -xosti taxminan 1 Tbit / s tezlikda DDoS hujumini boshdan kechirdi. Tajovuzkorlar hujumni boshlash uchun buzilgan IoT qurilmalari (CCTV kameralari va shaxsiy video yozuvchilar) botnetidan foydalanishgan.
Mart - GitHub DDoS hujumini uyushtirdi, chunki u siyosiy maqsadli deb taxmin qilingan, chunki u Xitoy fuqarolariga Xitoy davlat veb -tsenzurasini chetlab o'tishga yordam beradigan ikkita GitHub loyihasiga qaratilgan.
Gonkongdagi Occupy Central veb -sayti, demokratikroq ovoz berish tizimi uchun kampaniya o'tkazgan, beshta botnet orqali amalga oshirilgan 500 Gbit / s tezlikdagi DDoS hujumini boshdan kechirdi. Bundan tashqari, Apple Daily va Internetdagi yangiliklar veb -sayti, shuningdek, OC xabarini qo'llab -quvvatlaydigan soxta saylov sayti.
Savollaringiz bormi yoki DDoS hujumlari haqida o'z fikrlaringiz bilan bo'lishishni xohlaysizmi? Quyida buni qilishdan o'zingizni tiying.
Bu maqola dastlab Patrik Nohe tomonidan 2018 yilda yozilgan, uni Keysi Kren 2019 va oxirgi marta 2020 yil uchun yangilagan.
Qanday qilib Ispaniya Barselonadan oldin terrorizmdan saqlangan?
2004 yilda Evropaning istalgan nuqtasida eng yomon jihodchilar hujumini boshdan kechirganidan so'ng, mamlakat asosan payshanbagacha immunitetga ega emasdek tuyuldi.
2004 yilda Madridning poyezd tizimiga bir vaqtning o'zida qilingan hujumlar 192 kishining hayotiga zomin bo'ldi va 2000 dan ortiq odamni yaraladi. "Al-Qoida" ayblangan bu hujumlar Evropa hududida sodir bo'lgan eng halokatli bo'lib qolmoqda. Ular Ispaniya hukumatini ichki xavfsizlik holatini qayta ko'rib chiqishga undashdi, bu jarayon boshqa hujumni to'xtatish bo'lgan minglab odamlarni yollashni o'z ichiga oladi.
Keyingi 13 yil ichida, islomiy terrorchilar Evropaning turli shaharlarida-London, Parij, Bryussel, Nitsa va Manchesterda-bir necha marotaba nishonga olishganda, Ispaniya 700 kishini hibsga oldi, o'nlab odamlarni hukm qildi, 120 kishini terrorizmga aloqadorlikda aybladi. jinoyatlar sodir etib, ko'plab fitnalarga barham berdi. Ispaniyaning strategiyasi payshanbagacha ishlaganga o'xshardi. O'shanda Marokashda tug'ilgan erkak Barselonadagi piyodalarni mikroavtobus bilan urib, 14 kishini o'ldirgan va o'nlab odamlarni jarohatlagan. Alohida -alohida, politsiya Barselona yaqinidagi dengiz bo'yidagi Cambrils kurortida besh gumondorni o'ldirdi, ular mashina bilan etti kishini urib yubordi. Rasmiylarning aytishicha, hujumlar bir-biriga bog'liq va jinoyatchilar keng miqyosli hujumlarni rejalashtirgan, biroq Alkanar shahridagi bomba ishlab chiqarishda gumon qilinayotgan zavod portlashi bilan ular barbod bo'lgan. IShID payshanba kungi hujumlar uchun javobgarlikni o'z zimmasiga oldi. Lekin asosiy savol, ehtimol, Ispaniya hukumati nima uchun ularga to'sqinlik qila olmagani emas, balki Ispaniya uzoq vaqtdan beri nishon bo'lishdan qanday qutuldi.
El Pais, Ispaniya gazetasi, iyun oyida 1000 dan ortiq odam Ispaniya politsiyasining radarida bo'lgani, 259 kishi tergov qilinayotgani va butun mamlakat bo'ylab terrorizmga qarshi o'nlab tergovlarda 500 ta telefon tinglangani haqida xabar berdi. Gazeta, yana bir hujumning oldini olish uchun 3000 dan ortiq ofitserlardan iborat jim "armiya" ishlayotganini xabar qildi. Ular ijtimoiy tarmoqlardagi akkauntlarni saralab olishdi, masjidlarni tergov qilishdi va terrorchilar tarmog'i haqida ma'lumot olish uchun informatorlar bilan ishlashdi. Ularning xulosasi: yangi hujum muqarrar edi. Aslini olib qaraganda, El Pais "Madrid", "Barselona", "Ceuta" va "Melilya" ayniqsa himoyasiz deb topildi va razvedka agentliklari "Madrid va Barselonadagi gavjum joylar" hujumga uchrashi haqida ogohlantirgani haqida xabar berishdi. Payshanba kuni Barselonadagi hujum nishoni bo'lgan Las Ramblas, ehtimol, sayyohlar va mahalliy aholi orasida mashhur bo'lgan shahardagi eng gavjum piyodalar yo'li.
2004 yildagi Madrid hujumlaridan oldin, islomiy terrorizm bilan bog'liq muammo haqida juda kam ma'lumot bor edi. Kecha xabar berganimdek, Ispaniya terrorchilik bilan uzoq tarixga ega edi, lekin zo'ravonliklarning ko'pini 2011 yilda sulh e'lon qilgan bask bo'lg'inchilar guruhi ETA amalga oshirdi. 2004 yil "Al-Qoida" hujumidan oldin, rasmiylar o'z ko'zlarida edi. Shimoliy Afrikada faoliyat yuritayotgan kichikroq islomiy guruhlar, shuningdek, asta -sekin izdoshlar orttirayotgan va qishloq va qirg'oq bo'yidagi Kataloniyada nufuzli bo'lgan salafiylar guruhlari (bu zo'ravonlik emas).
Salafizmning "turli oqimlari" bor, dedi Jorj Vashington universiteti ekstremizm dasturi direktori Lorentso Vidino. Himoyachi. "U erda juda konservativ oqimlar bor, lekin zo'ravonlikni qo'llab -quvvatlamaydi. Aytgancha, o'sha muhit keyingi radikallashuv uchun qulay muhit yaratganini inkor etib bo'lmaydi. Bu nima uchun materik Ispaniyaning boshqa qismlariga qaraganda ko'proq radikallashuv borligini tushuntiradi. ”
Mamlakatning bu qismidan kelgan ko'plab ispanlar oxir -oqibat jihodchi janglarda qatnashishgan. Kabi El Pais ishora:
Imad Eddin Barakat, Abu Dahdah nomi bilan tanilgan va Ispaniyadagi "Al -Qoida" asoschilaridan biri, jangchilarni Madridning Barajas aeroportidan chiqarib yuborib, ularni Bosniya, Checheniston yoki Afg'onistondagi jihodga yuborgan. U yaradorlarni kutib olar va ularni Ispaniyadagi davlat byudjetli shifoxonalarda davolanishga yuborar edi. Suriyalik ispan o'z immunitetiga ega bo'lgan suruvini cho'pon qilar edi. Hech kim jang maydonlaridan qaytgan soqolli jangchilar qurol va portlovchi moddalarga o'rgatilganini va bu bizning xavfsizligimizga xavf tug'dirishi mumkinligini oldindan bilmas edi.
So'nggi yillarda G'arb xavfsizlik tashkilotlarining diqqat -e'tibori Afg'oniston, Bosniya va Chechenistondan qaytayotgan jangarilarni kuzatishdan, Suriya va Iroqdan qaytayotgan jangchilarga o'tdi. Ispaniyada o'sha mamlakatlarda IShID tarafida jang qilmoqchi bo'lgan bir xil fuqarolar yo'q edi va Ispaniyada hibsga olingan gumonlanuvchilarning hech biri terrorizm bilan aloqasi yo'qligini aytgan. Rasmiylar o'ldirilgan jangarilar haqida bilishganmi yoki yo'qmi aniq emas. Bu bir nechta mumkin bo'lgan xulosalarga ishora qiladi: Xavfsizlik xodimlari o'nlab terrorchilik rejalarini buzishi mumkin, lekin ular tinch aholiga hujum qilishni niyat qilgan odamni, ayniqsa, u past texnologiyali qurol ishlatayotganini to'xtatishning iloji bo'lmaganda, muvaffaqiyatsiz bo'lishi kerak. van va terror hujumlariga eng yaxshi javoblar faqat keyingi hujumga qadar yaxshi.
Hujumdan keyin - TARIX
Raqamli tarix ID 3775
1. Yaponiya Pearl -Harborga hujum qilishdan oldin to'rt yil davomida qaysi davlat bilan urushda bo'lgan?
2. Yaponiyaning Pearl -Harborga uyushtirgan havo hujumidan so'ng, prezident Franklin Delano Ruzvelt 1941 yil 7 -dekabrni "yashaydigan sana" deb e'lon qildi:
3. Pearl -Harborga hujum qaysi kuni sodir bo'lgan?
4. Hujum qancha davom etdi?
5. Pearl -Harbor qaysi Gavayi orolida?
6. Ikkinchi jahon urushi paytida Yaponiya imperatori edi
7. Bu so'z ertalabki soat 7: 53da yapon uchuvchilariga hujum qilib, ular kutilmagan hujumda muvaffaqiyat qozonganliklarini e'lon qilib, uch marta takrorlandi:
8. Pearl -Harborga qilingan hujumda halok bo'lgan amerikaliklar soni:
9. Hujumda qatnashgan yapon qiruvchi va bombardimonchilar soni
10. Quyidagi davlatlardan qaysi biri Axis vakolatlari tarkibiga kirgan?
11. Bu shaharlardan qaysi biri Ikkinchi jahon urushi paytida bombardimon qilinmagan?
12. Frantsiya fashistlar qo'liga o'tdi
13. Quyidagilardan qaysi biri natsistlarni yo'q qilish lageri edi?
14. Avraam Linkoln brigadasi
15. AQShning Yaponiyaga qarshi dengiz ustunligini bergan Tinch okeanidagi asosiy jang:
16. Bu ittifoqchilardan qaysi biri Ikkinchi jahon urushida eng ko'p harbiy halok bo'lgan?
17. Bu uchta fashist rahbarlaridan qaysi biri Germaniyada tug'ilmagan?
18. Bu Xitoy shaharlaridan qaysi biri yapon qo'shinlariga bostirib kirib, yuz minglab aholisini zo'rlash va o'ldirishdan aziyat chekdi?
Milliy bog' xizmatini abadiy o'zgartirib yuborgan halokatli ayiq hujumlari
Muzliklar milliy bog'ining eng gavjum mavsumi 1967 yilning yozida keskin to'xtadi. Bir necha soat ichida ikkita grizli ayiq bog'ning 57 yillik tarixida hech qachon bo'lmaganidek harakat qilishdi. Bir-biridan bir necha mil narida, har bir ayiq o'sha kuni, qorong'ida, 13 avgust kuni erta tongda yosh ayolni bo'g'ib o'ldirgan edi. 19 yoshli ikkita yigit, Minnesota shtatidan Julie Helgeson va Kaliforniyalik Mishel Koons uyquda edilar. g'arbiy Montana shimolidagi katta osmon, ayiq ayiqlar ularni topib olib ketishganida.
Milliy Park xizmati hisobotlari va Jek Olsenning 1969 yildagi kitobida batafsil Grizzlies kechasi, Bu hodisalar Glacier ’s birinchi halokatli ayiq maulings belgilangan. Dahshatli hujumlar Milliy Park xizmati va ayiqlarni boshqarish uchun yangi davrni boshlab berdi. Muzliklar bog'ida va butun mamlakat bo'ylab boshqa bog'larda o'sha yoz darslari 50 yil oldin fojiaga olib kelgan xatolarni takrorlamaslik uchun yaratilgan ogohlantirish belgilarida, qoidalarda va siyosatda davom etadi.
Bundan oldin, park xizmati ayiqlar tez -tez uchraydigan yo'llarni yopishni e'tiborsiz qoldirdi. Chiqindilar keng tarqalgan edi va lagerlar axlatga to'lib, hayvonlarni o'ziga tortdi. Va 1967 yilning yozida o'rmon yong'inlari ayiqlarni aholi yashaydigan joylarga olib borar ekan, ba'zi qo'riqchilarga ayiqlar odamlarga juda yaqin yashashi aniq edi. Jon Uoller, hozirgi bog'ning yovvoyi tabiatining biologi, biologning aytishicha, park xizmati ayiqlarni boqish xavfli ekanligini uzoq vaqt bilgan. Ammo 1967 yilning yozidan keyin agentlik rasmiy park siyosatida keskin o'zgarishlarga ehtiyoj borligini tan oldi. Bog 'o'z amaliyotini tezda o'zgartirdi va bugungi kunda ham qo'llanilayotgan ehtiyot choralarini ko'rdi.
"Grizzlies kechasi", "voqealar ma'lum bo'lganidek," haqiqatan ham uyg'onish qo'ng'irog'i edi ", deydi u.
1967 yil 12 -avgustda Helgelson va Koons 19 -chi vaqtda — tegishli tungi sayohatga chiqishdi. Ikkalasi ham yozni istirohat bog'larida, Sharqiy Glacier Lodge -dagi Helgesonda, G'arbiy Muzlikdagi Koonsda va McDonald Lodge Leykida ishlagan.
Helgeson yo'li muzlik vodiylari va tog 'cho'qqilari manzaralari bilan o'ralgan edi. Uning ekskursiyasi uni Logan dovonidan, mashhur Highline Trail -dan sakkiz mil narida, Granit Park Chaletiga olib bordi. U do'sti Roy Dukat bilan kechki soat 7 larda etib keldi, kechki ovqatdan oldin to'rlarini yeb, quyosh botishini tomosha qildi.
Helgeson va Dukat uyqu oralab sumkalarini tashqarida, chalet yonida, yozning qizg'in mavsumida mehmonlar bilan to'ldirishdi.
Yarim tundan ko'p o'tmay, kulrang ayiq oromgohga qarab yurdi.
Ducat keyinroq tergovchilarga Helgelson ayiqni ko'rganini aytdi va Dyukatni o'lik o'ynashini aytib uyg'otdi. Qo'rqinchli juftlikni uxlab yotgan sumkasidan yiqitdi va bir necha daqiqada ayiq ularning har biriga tishlarini cho'ktirdi. U Helgesonga e'tibor qaratdi va uni taxminan 100 yardga sudrab ketdi.
“Bizga kimdir yordam beradi! ” Ducat, qo'li qattiq bo'g'ilib, yaqin atrofdagi boshqa lagerlarni uyg'otish uchun yugurdi.
Ducat uchun tibbiy asboblar bilan jihozlangan vertolyot shaklida yordam keldi, lekin o'ta ehtiyotkor qo'riqchi ko'proq tashrif buyuruvchilarni xavf ostiga qo'yishdan qo'rqib, qidiruv guruhini ushlab turdi. Taxminan ikki soat o'tgach, guruh Helgesonni qutqarish missiyasini bajarishga jo'nab ketdi. Ducat kasalxonaga yotqizilganidan so'ng, miltiq bilan qurollangan qo'riqchi kelganidan so'ng, guruh lagerdan pastga qarab qon izini kuzatdi.
Granite Park Chaletning zamonaviy ko'rinishi. (Bert Gildart ruxsati bilan)
Ko'p o'tmay, ular shovqinni eshitdilar va Xeljesonni pastda, pastga qaradilar. Chaletda qolgan shifokor unga qaradi.
U og'riyapti, ” u bir necha bor aytdi.
Guruh uni chaletga olib ketishdi, u erda uni kasalxonaga olib borish uchun vertolyot keladi. U ertalab soat 3:45 da chaletga etib keldi, lekin tez orada, samolyot qo'nishdan bir necha daqiqa oldin vafot etdi.
Helgelson taqdirli sayohatga jo'nab ketganda, Koons bog'ning to'rt nafar xodimiga qo'shilib, Trout ko'li bo'ylab sakkiz millik yo'l bo'ylab sayohat qildi. Taxminan kechki 8 larda grizli ularning lagerini qulab tushdi. ular hotdog va yangi baliq pishirganidek. Lagerlar yugurishdi va kutishdi, ayiq kechki ovqatni yutib yubordi va sumkasidan birini olib qochib ketdi. Partiya asbob-uskunalarini ko'chirib, pichoq va Cheez-Itni olib, plyajga olib keldi. Gulxan atrofidagi halqada ular uxlab yotgan sumkalariga joylashdilar.
Taxminan ertalab soat 4:30 da, kulrang Koons lagerida yana paydo bo'ldi. Atrofdan hidlanib, yigitlarning uxlash sumkalarini tishlab oldi va ko'ylagini yopdi. Lagerchilar birin -ketin sakrab, daraxtlarga ko'tarilishdi. Tepaliklaridan ular Koonlarga baqirishdi, ularga qo'shiling. Ammo u bunga ulgurmay, ayiq uxlab yotgan sumkasini yirtib tashladi va uni sudrab keta boshladi.
“U mening qo'limni tortib oldi, va boshqalar uning gapini eshitdilar. "Xudo, men o'ldim", dedi u.
Partiya daraxtlar atrofida bir yarim soat turdi va yo'l bo'ylab eng yaqin qo'riqchi stansiyasiga yugurdi.
Mavsumiy qo'riqchilar Leonard Landa va Bert Gildart Granite Park Chalet -ni tozalash haqida ma'lumotga ega bo'lib uxlashdi. Gildart radio orqali yordam chaqiruvlarini eshitgan va favqulodda yordamchilarni yuborishga yordam bergan. Landa hushyor turdi, radio trafikni tinglardi. Ertalab ikkalasi ham alabalık ko'lini tozalash haqida eshitganlarida, chalkashib ketishdi.
Qo'riqchilar Qunlarni qidirishga yuborilgan. Landa birinchi bo'lib Koons ’ sayohatchilari bilan ketdi. Adrenalin bilan to'lgan Gildart ularga qo'shilish uchun yo'ldan oshdi.
“Bu vaqt biz hammamiz biroz qo'rqib ketdik, ” Gildart, 50 yil oldingi voqealar haqida o'ylab. “ Mana ’lar uyqu sumkasidan bir qizni olib chiqqan ayiq. Bu qanday maxluq? ”
Ular lagerga etib kelishganidan bir necha daqiqa o'tgach, Gildart Landaning pichirlaganini eslaydi: "Bert, mana u.
Rangerlar tungi va#8217 yillardagi parallel voqealardan hayratda qolishdi, lekin muammo ayiqlari emas. Landa ayiq Trout ko'li va boshqa yaqin lagerdagi lagerlarni ta'qib qilganini bilardi. Va Gildart va mavsumiy yovvoyi tabiatshunos biolog Devid Shea to'rt kun oldin Granit Park Chaletiga sayohat qilishdi va ular eshitgan yana bir mish -mishlarni tasdiqlashdi: Ayiqlar kechasi chaletdagi yotoqxonalarning stol qoldiqlari bilan boqishardi.
“Biz o'sha erda turdik va odamlar ayiqlarga ovqat tashlab turganlarida juda hayron bo'ldik, - eslaydi Gildart.
Bu tartib tashrif buyuruvchilar uchun tomoshaga aylandi.
“Bu asosan sodir bo'lishni kutayotgan voqea edi, ” deydi Shea, 36 mavsumni parkda ishlagan.
Axlat muammosi Granit Parkga ajratilmagan. Muzlik atrofidagi lagerlar yaxshi ta'mirlanmagan. Tashrif buyuruvchilar, axlatlari bilan beparvo, tez -tez uni tashlab ketishardi. Keyinchalik Gildart Trout -Leyk maydonidan 17 ta qop axlat yig'di.
Dahshatli hujumlardan bir kun o'tib, Gildart va Landa Trout -Leykda gumonlangan ayiqni qidirishga ketishdi. Gildart buni ertalab soat 4 da, erkaklar tunab qolgan patrul kabinasidan tashqariga chiqqanda payqadi. U Landani qurol olib kelishga chaqirdi. Bir necha daqiqadan so'ng, ayiq ularga qarata o'q uzdi va ikkalasi ham o'q uzib, uni o'ldirishdi.
Ayiqni yig'ish uchun sud tergovchisi keldi. “Ularda katta pichoq bor edi, ” Gildart eslaydi. “Ular bu ayiqning qornini kesib tashlashdi va katta sochli sariq sochlar chiqdi. ”
Shea, shuningdek, Granite Park Chaletda gumon qilingan ayiqni ovlagan. Umuman olganda, park xodimlari uchta ayiqni otishgan, shu jumladan Helgesonni o'ldirgan.
Jek Olsen o'z kitobida park xizmatiga ayiqlarga mas'uliyatsiz munosabatda bo'lganlikda ayblov qo'ygan.
Jurnalist va haqiqiy jinoyatchilik kitoblarining muallifi Olsen da chop etilgan uch qismli serial uchun qotilliklarni tergov qildi.Sport tasvirlangan. Uning hisoboti deb qayta nashr etildiGrizzlies kechasi. Eng ko'p sotilgan sotuvchi 1996 yilda qayta nashr etilgan va tashrif buyuruvchilar hali ham Glacier Park uylarining foyesida kitob o'qiyotgan odamlarni ko'rishlari mumkin.
Haqiqatan ham, ikkita grizzl bir -biriga o'xshash bo'lgan ikki qurbonni bir kecha -kunduzda tanlashi tasodifdir, va u shunday yozgan edi: 1967 yil edi va Glacier Parkni joylashtiring. ”
“Bu butun mamlakat bo'ylab Milliy Park xizmatining asosiy qismiga to'g'ri kelgan chaqmoq edi, ”, deydi Glacierning hozirgi xodimi Uoller.
Bugun Glacier milliy bog'iga tashrif grizli ayiqlar haqida ogohlantiradi. (Emili E. Smit)
Hujumlardan so'ng, park qattiq “pack, yig'ish va#8221 siyosatini boshladi. Chiqindilar yo'q qilindi. Reynjers ayiqlarni boqadigan va lagerlarni tartibsiz lagerlari bilan haydab chiqargan mehmonlarga chipta berdi. Qo'rqinchli yo'llar tez -tez uchrab turganda, joylar ayiqlar harakatlanmaguncha yopilgan edi. Park bo'ylab ayiqlarning xavfsizligi bo'yicha ogohlantirishlar va maslahatlar joylashtirildi. Bog'da oziq-ovqat mahsulotlarini saqlash qoidalari, ayiqqa chidamli axlat qutilari o'rnatilgan va qishloqda yashovchilar uchun joydan tashqarida saqlash joylari o'rnatilgan. Yangi ruxsatnomalar tizimi qishloqdagi lagerlar sonini cheklab qo'ydi va ularni pishirish joylaridan uzoqda joylashgan lagerlarda uxlashni talab qildi.
13 avgustdagi voqealar hal qiluvchi ahamiyatga ega edi, deydi Uoller, ochiq havoda "hech qanday iz qoldirmaslik" va "8221" axloqini yaratdi. Uning so'zlariga ko'ra, odamlar va ayiqlarning xavfsizligi oshgan.
Yangi amaliyotlar tez orada ayiqlar yashaydigan boshqa milliy bog'larga ham tarqaldi. 1970 yilga kelib, pastda joylashgan 48 -chi odamlarning ayanchli joyiga duch keladigan boshqa park Yellouston xuddi shunday siyosatni qabul qildi.
“ [o'sha kecha] fojiasi, ” Landa aytadi, “ - bu ikki kishining hayoti qurbon bo'lgan. ” Lekin Shea qo'shib qo'yadiki, sayohatchilar bugun kuzatadigan "umumiy tuyg'u va ehtiyot choralari - bu yaxshilik" dahshat
Pearl -Harborga kim va nima uchun hujum qilganini qidirish
26 -dekabr kuni Xiroxito bilan bo'lgan auditoriyada, Mitsuo Fuchida, admiral Nagumo, kapitan Osami Nagano va Pearl -Harbor hujumchilarining ikkinchi to'lqini rahbari Shigekazu Shimazaki imperatorga Tinch okean flotining halokatli halokati fotosuratlarini taqdim etishdi. Tomoshabinlar o'ttiz daqiqa turishi kerak edi, lekin Xiroxito fotosuratlarga shunchalik qiziqib qolganki, uni deyarli ikki soatga uzaytirdi.
- Boshqa savollar bormi, janobi oliylari? - so'radi Nagano.
"Ayniqsa emas. . . - javob berdi imperator. Keyin, bir necha daqiqadan so'ng, u so'radi: "Siz borganingizda bu suratlarni siz bilan birga olib ketasizmi?"
"Biz uning qopqog'ini yopamiz va keyin uni janobi oliylariga taqdim etamiz", dedi Nagano.
"Oh, keyinroq qopqoqni qo'yish mumkin edi", deb javob berdi Xiroxito. "Men buni hozir imperatorga ko'rsatmoqchiman." Imperator o'nta fotosuratni qo'liga oldi va jangchilar itoatkorlik bilan ta'zim qilishdi. Xiroxito, bu hujum uning taxtini va sulolasini hech bo'lmaganda hozircha inqilobdan qutqarib qolganini bilar edi va u Pearl -Harbor va Klark -Fild falokatlari amerikaliklarni oqilona bo'lishga ishontirdi deb umid qilgan bo'lishi mumkin. Bir necha admiralni o'ldirmoqchi bo'lgan ofitserlar qatoriga o'ralgan uchuvchi, o'z tashuvchisiga xabar berganida, qattiq tanbeh olgan edi. Yaponlar hujumni 1904 yildagi Rossiya bilan va 1914 yildagi Kayzer kuchlari bilan bo'lgan jangda bo'lgani kabi, jasurlik bilan o'tkazishni xohlashdi, shuning uchun ular tinchlik to'g'risida Nankingni zo'rlaganlar kabi emas, balki sharafli erkaklar sifatida muzokara olib borishlari mumkin edi.
Pearl-Harborga hujum uyushtirilganidan uch kun o'tgach, kichik Genri Morgentau G'arbiy qirg'og'idagi yapon va yapon-amerikalik aholini yig'ish haqida nima deb o'ylayotganini J. Edgar Xuverdan so'radi. Xuver dahshatga tushdi va Morgentauga aniq aytdi, Bosh prokuror Frensis Biddl hech qanday "tortish yoki yig'ish tartibini" ma'qullamaydi. Bu etnik yaponlarning ko'pchiligi Amerika fuqarolari edi, Guvor Morgentauga eslatdi va bunday harakat noqonuniy bo'lardi. Bundan tashqari, u bunday harakatning kerak emasligini bilardi. Sadoqatli yapon-amerikaliklar, shu jumladan Togo Tanaka va koreys dissidentlari, shu jumladan Kilso Xan ma'lumotlari hamda Los-Anjelesdagi Yaponiya konsulligi va "Qora ajdaho" jamiyati idorasini talon-taroj qilish natijasida olingan ma'lumotlarga asoslanib, Xuver o'zining keng ro'yxatiga ega edi. hibsga olmoqchi edi va u allaqachon boshlagan edi.
"Bizning fikrimizcha, Yaponiya hukumati ahmoq va u g'alaba qozonish uchun hech qanday imkoniyatga ega bo'lmagan kampaniyani boshlagan",-deb yozgan edi Togo Tanaka 8 dekabrda nashr etilgan gazetadagi maqolasida. dastur ", deb turib oldi u. Tanaka o'sha kuni hech qanday tushuntirishsiz hibsga olindi va Guvor Morgentau bilan gaplashganda va ulgurji savdoga qarshi chiqqanida hibsda edi. Tanaka o'n bir kun ushlab turildi va keyin rasmiy ayblovlarsiz yoki tushuntirishsiz qo'yib yuborildi. Harbiy bo'limning rasmiylari - FBRdan ko'ra ko'proq siyosiy va qonuniylik to'g'risida kamroq ma'lumotga ega - Tanakadan uning sodiqligi haqida so'roq qilgan edilar, agar u ikki tilli gazetasi Yaponiya bilan urush bo'lsa, nashr etishni davom ettirishini so'ragan edi.
Tanakaning taxmin qilishicha, Yaponiyada tug'ilgan aholining qariyb 5 foizi shubhali bo'lishi mumkin. U gumondorlarni teng taqsimlab oldi aka, Bilimli bo'lishga moyil bo'lgan, ammo muvaffaqiyatsiz bo'lgan "qizil" lar va o'ta millatchilar, boshi qalin va ingliz tilini o'rgana olmagan. Pearl -Harborga qilingan hujumdan uch hafta o'tgach, FTB, Dengiz razvedkasi byurosi va Armiya razvedkasi byurosi AQSh qit'asida 2192 yaponni va Gavayida yana 879 kishini hibsga oldi. Bu odamlarning ba'zilari haqiqatan ham xavfli edi, hattoki hibsda bo'lganida ham, yapon mutaassiblari amerikalik yapon amerikalik er-xotinlarni Qo'shma Shtatlarga sodiqliklari uchun o'ldirishdi, lekin boshqalari shunchaki vaziyat qurbonlari bo'lishdi.
1942 yil 18 -martda Ruzvelt 9102 -sonli farmonga imzo chekdi va senator Robert Taft o'zi eshitmagan eng nochor jinoyat qonuni deb atagan urushni ko'chirish boshqarmasini tuzdi. Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlarida tug'ilgan va o'sgan yapon-amerikaliklar, ularning ko'plari xristianlar, ko'plari amerikalik maktablar va kollejlarni bitirganlar, bir necha kun oldin alohida tog'li va cho'l joylarda joylashgan o'nta kontslagerga ko'chirilgan. Ba'zilar shoshilinch ravishda qurilgan tar-qog'oz va taxtali barakka kelishidan oldin issiqlik urishidan qulab tushishdi, bu erda bir nechta oila bitta xonada bo'lishdi.
7 -iyunga kelib, 112,000 amerikalik erkaklar, ayollar va bolalar tikanli simlar orqasida internirlanib, qattiq iqlim sharoitida baxtsiz ovqat eyishdi. O'nga yaqin mahbus qo'riqchilar tomonidan otib o'ldirilgan, ko'plari esa, ba'zida yiqilgan birodaridan yoki do'stidan qasos olish uchun kaltaklanishgan, ba'zida ular xavfsizlik zonasidan tashqarida adashib yurganlari uchun, tez -tez ratsionini to'ldirish uchun baliq ovlashga urinishgan. Ko'plab keksa yaponlar madaniy zarbalarga berilib, yashash irodasidan voz kechishdi. Eleanor Ruzvelt internirlanganlarga qarshi chiqdi-boshqa joyga ko'chirilgan yapon rassomi Chiura Obata unga minnatdorchilik belgisi sifatida o'z rasmlaridan birini yubordi va Bosh prokuror Biddle o'zining sodiqligini isbotlay oladigan yapon-amerikaliklar uchun ozod qilish dasturini liberallashtirish uchun parda ortiga o'tdi.
1941 yil 11 dekabrda, Pearl -Harbordan to'rt kun o'tgach, Gitler o'z -o'zidan AQShga urush e'lon qildi. Vermaxt Moskva va Leningrad darvozalarida turganida, ruslarning ruhiy holati qulab tushdi. NKVD otryadlari Qizil Armiya pozitsiyalarining orqasida, qochoqlarni otish uchun joylashtirildi. Keyin Yaponiya Qo'shma Shtatlari bilan urushdan ozod qilingan Sibir va Mo'g'ulistondan yuz minglab qo'shimchalar va mingdan ortiq tanklar keldi. Bir vaqtning o'zida qor yog'di va ruslar Vermaxtni to'xtatishdi, Moskva va Leningradni qutqarishdi va nemislarni cheklangan chekinishga majbur qilishdi.
Vitaliy Pavlovning "Old Ebbitt Grill" da Garri Dekster Uayt bilan bo'lgan tushlik sovetlarning eng muhim strategik manevri bo'lishi mumkin edi.
1942 yil 20-yanvarda SS-Obergruppenfyurer Reynxard Xeydrix Berlindagi Vannsi shahrida konferentsiya o'tkazdi va Evropadagi yahudiylarning taqdirini rejalashtirdi. Geydrix bilgan bo'lishi kerak, garchi u bu haqda gapirmasa ham, Rossiya ham, Amerika ham urushda va Germaniyaning Rossiyaga bostirib kirishi qaytarilgach, Germaniya uzoq davom etishi mumkin bo'lgan urushga duch keldi. Hozirda Uchinchi Reyx nazorati ostidagi millionlab yahudiylarni keng ko'lamli ko'chirish endi mumkin emas edi va Geydrix qirg'in dasturini taqdim etdi.
Tegishli rahbarlik ostida, yahudiylar Sharqda munosib mehnat uchun ajratilishi kerak. Ishga yaroqli yahudiylar, jinsiga qarab ajratilgan bo'lsalar, katta ishchi kolonnalarda yo'llarda ishlash uchun olib ketiladi, bu harakatlarning katta qismi tabiiy sabablarga ko'ra yo'q qilinadi. Mumkin bo'lgan oxirgi qoldiq, shubhasiz, eng chidamli qismdan iborat bo'lganligi sababli, unga to'g'ri munosabatda bo'lish kerak, chunki u tabiiy tanlanish mahsulidir va agar qo'yib yuborilsa, yahudiylarning yangi tiklanishining urug'i bo'lib xizmat qiladi. Tarix tajribasini ko'ring.
Geydrix Darvinga bosh irg'ab, irq sifatida yahudiylarning o'lim haqidagi buyrug'iga imzo chekdi. U oltmish beshdan oshganlarni vatanparvarlik sabablari tufayli Birinchi jahon urushida nogiron yoki bezakli bo'lganlarni ozod qildi. Qolganlarning hammasi o'ldirilishi kerak edi. Pearl -Harbor Stalinni qutqardi. Pearl -Harborga kim va nima uchun hujum qilganini aniqlagandan so'ng, Gitlerning manyak hamkorligi bilan Amerikaning urushga kirishi Yakuniy Qarorga ta'sir qildi.
Bu maqola Pearl -Harborga kim hujum qilgani va nima uchun Pearl -Harbor hujumi haqidagi xabarlar tanlovining katta qismi. Ko'proq ma'lumot olish uchun, Pearl -Harborga oid keng qamrovli qo'llanmamiz uchun bu erni bosing.
Bu maqola "Qor operatsiyasi: FDR va sovet mollari" Oq uyida qanday qilib Pearl -Harborni qo'zg'atdi "kitobidan. © 2012 yil - Jon Koster. Iltimos, har qanday ma'lumot olish uchun ushbu ma'lumotlardan foydalaning. Ushbu kitobga buyurtma berish uchun, iltimos, Amazon yoki Barnes & amp Noble onlayn -sotish sahifasiga tashrif buyuring.
Kitobni chapdagi tugmachalarni bosib sotib olishingiz mumkin.
Omag portlashi: hujumdan oldin va keyin sodir bo'lgan asosiy voqealar
1998 yil 15 -avgustda Omag shahridagi Co Tyrone bozorida respublikachilar tomonidan tashlab yuborilgan mashina portladi. Hujum 29 kishining hayotiga zomin bo'ldi va 200 dan ortiq odam jarohatlandi. Rasm: Reuters
1998 yil 15 -avgustda Omag shahridagi Co Tyrone bozorida respublikachilar tomonidan tashlab yuborilgan mashina portladi.
Belfast shartnomasi imzolanganidan to'rt oy o'tgach sodir bo'lgan hujum, muammolar tarixidagi eng dahshatli vahshiylik edi.
Bu Real IRA portlashi oldidan va undan keyingi asosiy voqealar xronologiyasi bo'lib, u 29 kishining, jumladan, egizak homilador ayolning hayotiga zomin bo'ldi.
Payshanba, 13 avgust, 1998 yil
Qizil rangli Vauxhall Cavalier - reg 91 DL 2554 - Irlandiya Respublikasidagi Co Monaghan shahridagi Carrickmacross shahrida o'g'irlangan.
15 -avgust, shanba
14.00: Xuddi shu mashina, hozirda MDZ 5211 nomli soxta Shimoliy Irlandiya yukini olib, Market ko'chasiga, Omagga olib boriladi va SD Kells kiyim do'koni oldida to'xtaydi. Ikki erkak yo'lovchi Kempsi yo'li tomon ketayotganini ko'rish mumkin.
14.30: Bir kishi Ulster televideniyesining (UTV) yangiliklar xonasiga bomba haqida ogohlantirish bilan qo'ng'iroq qilmoqda: "Bomba, sud binosi, Omag, asosiy ko'chada, 500 lb, portlash 30 daqiqada". Chaqiruvchi Real IRA kod so'zini beradi: Marta Papa.
14.32: Samariyaliklarning Kolereyndagi idorasi boshqa ogohlantirish bilan chaqirilgan. "Men Omagga etib keldimmi? Bu bomba haqida ogohlantirish. U 30 daqiqada o'chadi ". Qo'ng'iroq qiluvchining aytishicha, bomba sud binosidan 200 yard narida joylashgan. U shuningdek, Marta Papaga kod so'zini berdi.
14.35: UTV boshqa telefon ogohlantirishini oladi: "Bomba, Omag shaharchasi, 15 daqiqa." Bu ogohlantirishlardan ikkitasi Armag janubidagi Forxill shahridagi qo'ng'iroq qutisidan qo'ng'iroq qilingan. Uchinchisi, Nyu -Taunxemilton, shuningdek Armag janubidagi telefon qutisidan qilingan.
14.31-1510: UTV va samariyaliklar Royal Ulster Constabulary boshqaruv markaziga tez yordam chaqirishadi. Xabar Omagdagi zobitlarga darhol yuborildi va evakuatsiya operatsiyasi boshlandi.
Omagda Main Street nomli ko'cha yo'q edi. Belgilangan yagona maqsad shaharning g'arbiy chekkasidagi Oliy ko'chaning tepasida joylashgan sud binosi edi. Mashina aslida shaharning sharqiy chekkasida, Market ko'chasida, suddan 500 metr narida to'xtab turgan edi.
Politsiya High Streetni qurshab oldi va sud binosida tintuvni boshlashdan oldin xaridorlar va do'kon egalarini Bozor ko'chasiga ko'chirdi.
Natijada, ogohlantirish kelganida, Omag shahar markazida bo'lganlarning hammasi, qizil kavalerdan narida, Market ko'chasida yig'ilishdi.
Yig'ilganlar orasida yozni Buncranada o'tkazayotgan bir guruh ispan talabalari bor edi. Ular bir kun davomida Omagga Co Donegal shahridan mahalliy bolalar bilan birga ketishgan edi.
15.10: Kavalierga qadoqlangan 500 lb bomba uzoqdan ishga tushirilgan tetik bilan portlatilgan. Portlash Market ko'chasida ko'z yoshlarini to'kdi. Ikkala tomonning do'konlari old tomondan, hali ham ichidagi xaridorlarning tepasida.
Glass, masonry and metal tears through the crowd on the street as a fireball sweeps out from the epicentre. Twenty-one people are killed instantly — some of their bodies were never found, such was the force of the blast. A water main under the road ruptures. Gallons of water gushes out. Some of the dead and badly injured are washed down the hill.
15.10: Emergency operation begins. The two ambulance crews on call at the nearby Tyrone County Hospital arrive at the scene within minutes. Survivors are already tending to the injured and covering the dead.
Civilians who had been on nearby streets also rush to the scene to help. People grab medical supplies from a chemist’s shop while linen from a drapers is used to cover the victims.
Buses are commandeered from the nearby Ulster bus station to help take the injured to hospital. Shelves and doors are used as makeshift stretchers.
As news of the attack filters through, off-duty medical personnel head for the hospital. As well as those who died, more than 300 people were injured in the blast.
Army helicopters are scrambled to help the ambulance service ferry patients from the swamped Tyrone hospital to other medical centres.
Omagh’s leisure centre is transformed into an incident centre, with hundreds of relatives gathering there waiting for news on loved ones.
Inundated with calls, the Tyrone County Hospital phone system crashes. Staff ask members of the public for mobile phones to contact other hospitals. A temporary morgue is set up in a British Army base in the town.
Sunday, August 16th
Relatives of those people still unaccounted for wait at the leisure centre overnight.
12.00: The identity of the 28th victim who died on the day is revealed. (61-year-old year Sean McGrath would die a month later from injuries sustained in the bomb.)
12.45: RUC chief constable Ronnie Flanagan addresses the world’s press at the scene. “This is an attack, not carried out against the police or the army, but against the people of Omagh. We have had men, women and children slaughtered, slaughtered by murderers who want to murder, slaughtered by murderers who have nothing else to offer but murder, people who gave us a totally inaccurate warning, people who phoned to say there was a bomb close to the courthouse and as our officers searched and moved people from the area of the courthouse, a bomb detonated some 400 yards away.”
Queen Elizabeth II, prime minister Tony Blair, President Mary McAleese, Taoiseach Bertie Ahern, US president Bill Clinton and local politicians all voice their condemnation. Significantly Sinn Féin figures such as Gerry Adams and Martin McGuinness also condemn the attack — the first time they had unequivocally denounced a republican terrorist bombing.
Tuesday, August 18th
The Real IRA admits responsibility for the attack. The group claims its target was commercial and not civilian and blames loss of life on failure of RUC to respond to “clear” warnings. Northern Ireland Secretary Mo Mowlam describes the statement as “a pathetic excuse for mass murder”.
Saturday, August 22nd
One week after the attack a day of reflection is held. An estimated 60,000 people gather in Omagh with thousands more attending vigils in other towns and cities across Ireland.
In Omagh, a service is conducted by church leaders on the steps of the courthouse. The event is best remembered for a moving performance by local singer Juliet Turner, whose ballad Broken Things was beamed across the world.
September 22nd, 1998
The RUC and Garda Síochána arrest 12 men in connection with the bombing. They subsequently released all of them without charge.
February 22nd, 1999
Seven men are arrested in a joint RUC-Garda operation.
February 25th, 1999
Colm Murphy is charged with conspiracy to cause an explosion likely to endanger life or cause injury. The 48-year-old from Ravensdale, Co Louth, was also charged with membership of an unlawful organisation — the so-called Real IRA.
At the inquest into the deaths of 29 people in the Omagh bomb, Coroner John Leckey says he will press the courts to prosecute the bombers with the destruction of unborn twins. Avril Monaghan had been pregnant with twins when she was killed. Mr Leckey said he was in no doubt that 31 people were killed in the bomb and that he would write to the Director of Public Prosecutions to ask him to consider charging anyone apprehended for the bombing with child destruction.
August 15th, 2001
A report by the Police Ombudsman finds that the RUC Special Branch failed to act on prior warnings and slammed the RUC’s investigation of the bombing.
January 23rd, 2002
Colm Murphy is found guilty by the Dublin special criminal court of conspiracy to cause the Omagh bombing. He is the only person yet convicted in connection with the explosion. He is jailed for 14 years.
May 26th, 2005
Sean Hoey, of Molly Road, Jonesborough, Co Armagh, was formally charged in court with the murder of the 29 people killed in the Omagh bomb. He was the first person to face a murder charge in relation to the attack.
December 20th, 2007
Hoey is found not guilty of 58 charges, including the murders of 29 people in the Omagh bombing. Clearing Mr Hoey, the judge criticises police witnesses for “deliberate and calculated deception” during the 10-month trial.
April 7th, 2008
The families of some of the victims of the bomb begin a landmark civil case, suing five men they claim were involved.
A memorial garden is opened in Omagh to remember the victims of the blast, as well as a monument on the site where the bomb exploded.
June 8th, 2009
The judge in the civil trial rules that Michael McKevitt, Liam Campbell, Colm Murphy and Seamus Daly were all liable for the Omagh bomb. He orders them to pay a total of £1.6m damages to 12 relatives who took the case. A fifth man, Seamus McKenna, is cleared of liability for the bombing.
July 7th, 2011
Michael McKevitt and Liam Campbell lose their appeal against the civil trial verdict. Colm Murphy and Seamus Daly both win their appeals.
March 20th, 2013
Mr Murphy and Mr Daly are both found liable for the Omagh bombing after a civil retrial.
April 10th, 2014
Mr Daly is charged with the murders of 29 people in the Omagh bombing.
March 1st, 2016
The prosecution case against Mr Daly collapses. The Public Prosecution Service decides there is no reasonable prospect of conviction after a key witness contradicted his own previous testimony. Mr Daly has always denied any involvement in the bombing.
September 29th, 2016
A bid by Liam Campbell and Michael McKevitt to overturn a landmark civil ruling that found them liable for the Omagh bomb was rejected by the European Court of Human Rights.
2017 yil avgust
Relatives of Omagh bomb victims sue PSNI Chief Constable George Hamilton for investigative failings they believe let the killers escape justice. The bereaved families issued a writ against the chief constable seeking damages and a declaration their human rights have been breached
July 3rd, 2018
A legal challenge to the government’s refusal to hold a public inquiry into the Omagh bombing is pushed back to 2019. Michael Gallagher, whose son Aiden died in the attack, is taking legal action against former Northern Ireland secretary of state Theresa Villiers. The case was due to be heard at the High Court in Belfast. Proceedings were adjourned to February 2019 after issues of national security were raised in a closed session. – PA
During the Attack on Pearl Harbor, Canada Declared War One Day Earlier Than America
The attack on Pearl Harbor marked the beginning of American involvement in the Second World War. The Japanese provocation, which occurred before any official declaration of war, followed a pattern developed in Europe by none other than Adolf Hitler, who conquered the so-called neutral countries of Benelux without declaring war.
The United States was, of course, caught off guard and the attack was a serious blow, militarily and to public morale. But even though it was perceived as a provocation intended to draw the U.S. into the war, the Japanese surprise raid on Hawaii had a much more important strategic role.
On the day of 7th December 1941, when the attack commenced, the Japanese High Command was already preparing to launch an offensive on territories in Asia held by the USA, the Netherlands, and the UK. Since Canada, as part of the Commonwealth army, declared war on Nazi Germany just one week after the British did, their troops were already integrated into British garrisons in Asia.
So, when Pearl Harbor was attacked, it was to prevent the U.S. Pacific Fleet from reinforcing Allied troops in Asia and conducting a counter-offensive.
Photograph of Battleship Row taken from a Japanese plane at the beginning of the attack. The explosion in the center is a torpedo strike on USS West Virginia. Two attacking Japanese planes can be seen: one over USS Neosho and one over the Naval Yard.
Within seven hours of the attack on Pearl Harbor, Allied positions in the Philippines, Guam, Wake Island Malaya, Singapore, and Hong Kong were stormed by force and taken with relative ease. Nevertheless, some audacious last stands took place during the offensive as Allied soldiers stood their ground against the powerful and well-coordinated attack.
In Hong Kong, members of two infantry battalions – the Royal Rifles of Canada from Québec and the Winnipeg Grenadiers – formed part of the British garrison which was to hold out for the help that never came.
There were 1,975 Canadians among the defenders, who had arrived only weeks before the offensive commenced. The lack of experience was quickly remedied in the heat of battle, but 290 members of the Royal Canadian Army gave their lives in defense of the city.
One hero, Company Sergeant-Major John Osborn, was awarded the Victoria Cross posthumously, after he jumped on a grenade, using his body to protect several others from the blast. The siege was cruel and bloody, but the defeat was inevitable and imminent.
Company Sergeant-Major J.R. Osborn of “A” Company, The Winnipeg Grenadiers, Jamaica, ca. 1940–1941
The defenders of Hong Kong that survived faced the hell of Japanese concentration camps as POWs, where 264 of them lost their lives during the four years that followed.
Aa well as Canada’s commitment of troops on the ground, the Royal Canadian Air Force also played a vital role during the first days of the war with Japan.
Fighting as part of the RAF, hundreds of Canadian pilots defended the skies above Malaya, Singapore, Java (now Indonesia), Burma (now Myanmar) and India.
Perhaps the most notable achievement of the early days of the war in the Pacific attributed to Canadian pilots happened in April 1942, when an early warning by the 413 General Surveillance Squadron literally prevented the invasion of the island of Ceylon (today’s Sri Lanka), just off the southeast coast of India. Squadron Leader Leonard Birchall was on patrol in his Consolidated Catalina flying boat on the 4th of April, when he detected the Japanese fleet moving in full force towards the island.
King (back left) with (counterclockwise from King) Franklin D. Roosevelt, Governor General the Earl of Athlone and Winston Churchill during the Quebec Conference in 1943
Even though the Japanese shot him down as soon as he was spotted, Birchall managed to transfer a message, warning the Ceylon garrison that a naval assault was inbound. The flying boat crash-landed in the ocean, where the Japanese were waiting for them. Three crewmembers were shot on sight, while Birchall and the others were taken, prisoner.
Leonard Birchall remained imprisoned until the end of the war not really knowing of his key contribution to the defense of Ceylon. Once his message was received, preparations commenced ― and just in time ― for the defenders managed to repel the invasion. A few weeks after, the Japanese faced a strategic defeat in the Battle of the Coral Sea, after which India remained out of reach for the rest of the war.
The men who were part of the patrol on the 4th of April were dubbed the “Saviours of Ceylon” and their contribution was officially recognized after the war. Birchall was not only awarded for his distinguished flying but also for showing leadership in times of need while being a prisoner of war in extremely harsh conditions.
Canadian involvement during the early days of the Pacific campaign is often overlooked, but the fact is the bravery and valor of the Canadian expedition which fought as part of the British army were indeed worthy of respect. They continued to contribute to the war effort and ultimately proceeded to liberate Europe as part of the Allied invasion of Normandy in 1944.
Pearl Harbor aftermath: the fallout from the attack
Stefanos Vasilakes was the embodiment of all that was great about the United States of America. After arriving from Greece in 1910, he had set up a hot peanuts and fresh popped corn cart on the corner of Pennsylvania Avenue and East Executive Avenue in Washington DC. The spot was actually White House property, but none of the occupiers minded when he sold the best peanuts in town. Presidents Taft, Wilson, Harding and Roosevelt had all been customers, as had Coolidge, who described Vasilakes as his “contact man” with the American public. To reporters, Vasilakes represented the “little man” of the nation.
And on the afternoon of Sunday 7 December the “little man” was livid. When the reporter from Washington’s Evening Star newspaper arrived outside the White House en route to a press conference, hastily called after news broke of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, he found an agitated Vasilakes. “Steve was too excited to talk clearly,” wrote the reporter. “And about all he could say was: ‘Just three months, we finish them.’”
The fury of Vasilakes and the rest of the US public at Japan’s ‘sneak attack’ united the country in an instant. On the Sunday afternoon, President Roosevelt met first with his cabinet and then with a delegation from the House of Representatives and the Senate. The next day, Congress voted on whether to sanction FDR’s wish to go to war with Japan, and only the pacifist Jeannette Rankin dissented. For that stance she was scorned by the American people, as were the few isolationists who continued to argue against involvement in armed conflict. One of the most vociferous of these prior to Pearl Harbor had been the celebrated aviator Charles Lindbergh, an ardent admirer of Nazi Germany and a man who used his fame to demand that Roosevelt keep the country out of a European war.
In May 1940, Lindbergh, a prominent figure in the isolationist America First Committee, had addressed the nation in a radio broadcast, ridiculing FDR’s warnings that the US was in danger. The country was under threat from no one, said Lindbergh (pictured right in April 1941), unless “American peoples bring it on”. He added: “There will be no invasion by foreign aircraft, and no foreign navy will dare to approach within bombing range of our coasts.”
But Japan had dared, and with devastating consequences. As one newspaper, the Wilmington Morning Star, put it in an editorial: “Japan’s Sunday attack on American outposts ended American isolationism. Leaders of that movement, with the exception of Charles Lindbergh, who has gone into seclusion, lost no time in making it clear that they underwent a change of heart forthwith.”
Aiding the allies
This transformation was welcomed by Roosevelt, who from early in the war had recognised the danger posed by the ruthless ambition of Nazi Germany. In September 1940, Adolf Hitler had signed a Tripartite Pact with Italy and Japan, and on 29 December that year – following his recent historic re-election to a third term of office – Roosevelt addressed the nation in one of his ‘fireside chats’ on the radio. “If Great Britain goes down, the Axis powers will control the continents of Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia and the high seas,” he warned. “It is no exaggeration to say that all of us, in all the Americas, would be living at the point of a gun.”
Such rhetoric not only angered isolationists, it infuriated the Nazis. In September 1940, FDR had signed the Destroyers for Bases Agreement with Great Britain, transferring 50 destroyers to the Royal Navy in exchange for land rights on British possessions. In March 1941, he got his Lend-Lease bill through Congress in the face of fierce opposition from isolationists. Finally he was able to provide aid and military equipment to America’s allies, principally Britain.
By the time the US declared war on Germany and Italy on 11 December 1941, responding to declarations from those nations, the Nazis were putting their own spin on events, with Reich radio accusing Roosevelt of “continually war-mongering” since 1939. As a consequence, it said, the president “has at last got the war he has always been looking for”.
The anger that surged across the United States on 7 December was visceral but controlled. The Evening Star reported that Major Edward Kelly, superintendent of the metropolitan police, was summoned to the White House because there was “fear of a popular demonstration” against some of the Axis embassies. Guards were posted, but no baying mob appeared in search of bloody vengeance.
The reporter from the Star was surprised. So he toured downtown Washington to gauge the mood, and in doing so encountered “something of the strange psychological phenomenon” that was so palpable in London during the Blitz of 1940. “Folks wanted to be together,” he wrote. “Strangers spoke to strangers. A sense of comradeship of all the people was apparent.”
This feeling strengthened in the days that followed the Pearl Harbor attack, as stories emerged of unimaginable grief and suffering. In Wisconsin, Mr and Mrs Barber learned of the deaths of three of their sons, all firemen aboard the USS Oklahoma. “I’m glad they died like men and could give their lives for their country,” said their father, who just days before had received a photo of his sons aboard their ship. “When their [younger] brothers are old enough, I’m sure they will avenge their deaths.”
If the people responded to the attack with a dignified restraint, the same could not be said of many media outlets. Sensationalism abounded in those first frenetic hours after the attack, with fake news spreading like wildfire. “Japanese parachute troops are reported in Honolulu,” reported CBS.
“At least five persons have been reported killed in the city of Honolulu. The Japanese dive bombers have been making continuous attacks, apparently from a Japanese aircraft carrier.”
Some newspapers spewed hatred, like the fiery editorial in the Los Angeles Times on 8 December. “Japan has asked for it,” stormed the paper. “Now she is going to get it. It was the act of a mad dog, a gangster’s parody of every principle of international honour.”
Other papers expressed dismay that the States had been suckered by the Japanese. “It now turns out that Japan was one of our customers who wasn’t right,” said the Arkansas Gazette, a reference to the raw materials that had been shipped to Japan and then returned in the form of bombs.
But a common thread in the analysis was relief that the divisive question of whether the US should join the war had been settled. “The air is clearer,” declared the New York Herald Tribune. “Americans can get down to their task with old controversies forgotten.”
If Roosevelt was reassured with this unanimity, across the Atlantic in London, Winston Churchill was discreetly elated. He phoned FDR on Sunday evening to offer his sympathy and support. “We’ve got at least 2,000 men lost we’ve lost three destroyers, four battleships,” explained a dazed Roosevelt. “That’s fine, Mr President that’s fine,” replied Churchill, trying his best to soothe and reassure his friend and ally. The British prime minister had suffered similar agonies in his 18 months in the job, and while he was sincere in his grief for the president and his people, he knew what it meant for his beleaguered country now that the most powerful nation in the world had joined the fight. That evening, Churchill would later write, “being saturated and satiated with emotion and sensation, I went to bed and slept the sleep of the saved and thankful”.
Churchill’s immediate concern, however, was the news that, following Japan’s invasion of northern Malaya the day after Pearl Harbor was attacked, Britain was now engaged in war with two formidable adversaries. In a statement to the House of Commons shortly after the attack, Churchill said: “When we think of the insane ambition and insatiable appetite which have caused this vast and melancholy extension of the war, we can only feel that Hitler’s madness has infected the Japanese mind and the root of the evil and its branch must be extirpated together.”
Describing the attack on Pearl Harbor as an act of “calculated and characteristic Japanese treachery”, the prime minister was at his bellicose best in issuing a solemn warning. “No one can doubt that every effort to bring about a peaceful solution had been made by the government of the United States and that immense patience and composure had been shown in the face of the growing Japanese menace. Now that the issue is joined in the most direct manner, it only remains for the two great democracies to face their task with whatever strength God may give them.”
But what military strength did the United States have? Thanks to Roosevelt’s foresight, more than its enemies imagined. In September 1940, Washington had passed the Selective Training and Service Act – the first peacetime conscription in US history, whereby all men between the ages of 21 and 36 were compelled to register with local draft boards if drafted, they served on active duty for 12 months. This was expanded to 30 months in August 1941, and following the attack on Pearl Harbor, an amendment to the act made all men between the ages of 20 and 44 liable for military service. There had been much grumbling among draftees before Pearl Harbor, but not afterwards, as outraged young men flocked to the colours. By May 1945, America boasted nearly 8.3 million active-duty soldiers, whereas six years earlier its army of 187,893 soldiers had been smaller than Portugal’s.
Firing on all cylinders
The US had the men to fight both the Japanese and the Germans, but did it have the machines and munitions? As Roosevelt told Congress a few weeks after the declaration of war, “Powerful enemies must be out-fought and out-produced.” It was a repeat of what he had told Americans in his fireside chat of 29 December 1940: that Britain was asking “for the implements of war, the planes, the tanks, the guns, the freighters which will enable them to fight for their liberty and for our security…. We must be the great arsenal of democracy.”
In May 1940, after Germany’s invasion of the Low Countries, the president had stated his wish “to see this nation geared up to the ability to turn out at least 50,000 planes a year”. Once war broke out, a revolution in the workplace was needed to achieve this. With young white men enlisting in their hundreds of thousands, their places on the production lines were taken by women and African-Americans – two demographics hitherto largely excluded from such employment. Both groups, especially the latter, encountered prejudice, so FDR passed Executive Order 8802, which banned racial discrimination in federal defence industries and established the Fair Employment Practices Committee.
By 1943, some 310,000 women were working in the US aircraft industry – around 65 per cent of the industry’s total workforce, compared with just 1 per cent in the 1930s. For the majority, the work brought fulfilment and freedom. “My mother warned me when I took the job that I would never be the same,” said Inez Sauer, a tool clerk at Boeing. “At that time, I didn’t think it would change a thing. But she was right, it definitely did. At Boeing I found a freedom and an independence I had never known… The war changed my life completely. I guess you could say, at 31, I finally grew up.”
As the workers gained in confidence, the American war machine expanded, thanks to their industry in meeting Roosevelt’s demands. He wanted 60,000 aircraft in 1942 and 125,000 the year after, and he nearly got them, with the production of 171,257 aircraft by early 1944. That year alone, the US produced more planes than the Japanese did in the entire war. As for ships, the industry underwent an astonishing transformation at the hands of Henry J Kaiser, who hired most of his workforce from the “destitute labourers of the Dust Bowl states”. In 1941, it took 200 days to assemble one of Kaiser’s Liberty ships, weighing between 9,000 and 10,5000 tons by November 1942 it took just five days, and by 1943 these supply vessels were entering service at the rate of 140 a month.
Roosevelt’s “arsenal of democracy” cost money, of course, and to raise it, his government came up with several strategies, including the rationing of several important commodities, and the sale of war bonds to individuals and financial institutions. Selling the bonds relied on appealing to the nation’s patriotism, as they yielded a 2.9 per cent annual return with a 10-year maturity. Advertising campaigns helped with this – posters were emblazoned with the words: “The greatest investment on earth: For your country, your family, yourself.”
But while Roosevelt braced himself for a long and bitter struggle, he also yearned for a quick retaliatory strike. Four days before Christmas, he summoned his military chiefs to the White House and demanded they come up with a way of hitting the Japanese in their own backyard. The result was the ‘Doolittle raid’ of April 1942, when 16 modified B-25 bombers, led by Lieutenant Colonel James H Doolittle, took off from the aircraft carrier USS Hornet and flew 650 miles to strike targets on the Japanese mainland.
The material damage inflicted on Japan was slight, but the psychological hurt was immense. Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, the mastermind of the attack on Pearl Harbor, said it was “a disgrace that the skies over the imperial capital should have been defiled without a single enemy plane being shot down”.
Above all, the Doolittle mission was a huge fillip to Americans back home, one seized upon by the media. Describing the attack as a “daring raid”, Washington’s Evening Star showed no sympathy for Japan, which had, it said, “experienced for the first time in her history the destruction and terror of air assault which she has visited on scores of cities”.
Vasilakes, the presidential peanut vendor, had called on his compatriots to finish off Japan in three months. It would take four years – and an apocalyptic new weapon – for that to happen, and neither he nor President Roosevelt would live to see the end of a war that, for Americans, began with a day of infamy one December Sunday.
The injustice of internment
On 19 February 1942, President Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066, which permitted his secretary of war, Henry L Stimson, “to prescribe military areas in such places and of such extent as he, or the appropriate military commander, may determine”. In short, anyone considered an enemy alien could be rounded up and incarcerated in what were euphemistically called ‘relocation centres’, but in reality were internment camps. Particularly affected was the large Japanese-American community living on the Pacific coast: not only were an estimated 110,000 people interned, but the US Department of the Treasury froze the assets of all citizens and resident aliens who were born in Japan.
One of those detained was 28-year-old Roy Matsumoto – despite the fact he had been born and schooled in California. “It was very hard when I lost my freedom,” he recalled. “I lost just about everything – almost all my personal property and financial assets. The government’s excuse: it was enemy alien property. I was so mad.”
Matsumoto was one of the ‘lucky’ internees – in that, as a fit young man, he was given the chance to join the military as a ‘Nisei’ (US-born children of Japanese immigrants) interpreter. He subsequently served with distinction in Burma with the special forces unit Merrill’s Marauders, winning a Bronze Star for his courage. But most Japanese-Americans remained interned for the war’s duration.
It wasn’t until 1976 that President Gerald Ford officially rescinded Executive Order 9066, and in 1988 Congress passed the Civil Liberties Act, acknowledging that a “grave injustice” had been inflicted on Japanese-Americans during the war.
|v. 240||An epidemic leads to a significant drop in the worldwide population. With the power of the Founding Titan, the King of Eldia alters the biology of the Subjects of Ymir to give them immunity, and no Subject of Ymir dies to the epidemic. ⎜]|
|Noma'lum||Eldia becomes allies with Hizuru. ⎝]|
|Unknown - v. 743: The Great Titan War||Karl Fritz, the 145th monarch of the Fritz family, inherits the Founding Titan and succeeds his predecessor as the monarch of Eldia. Ashamed of Eldia's history of genocide and civil war, Fritz conspires with the Tybur family, an Eldian house possessing the War Hammer Titan, to bring about Eldia's downfall.|
The Tybur family fabricates the story of a Marleyan man named Helos to instigate the Eldian in-fighting and serve as a hero for the oppressed people of Marley. ⎞]
Karl Fritz gathers most of the Fritz royal family to Paradis Island, Eldia's last remaining undisputed territory, ⎟] and moves the capital to that island, abandoning the conflict between the eight other Titan houses. He also invites Asians from the Shogun clan of Hizuru. ⎠] Some Fritz royals disagree with the King's decision to abandon the war, and remain behind in the mainland. ⎡] In the King's absence, the other eight Houses wage civil war. ⎢] ⎘]
The surviving Marleyans took advantage of this and incited a rebellion. The Tybur family is the first to side with the Marleyan uprising. ⎣]
Over the course of the war, the Marleyans succeed in gaining the power of six more of the Nine Titans possessed by Eldia: the Colossus Titan, the Armored Titan, the Female Titan, the Beast Titan, the Cart Titan, and the Jaw Titan.
Using the seven Titans, Marley gradually gains control of the continent. ⎢] ⎤]
King Fritz uses the Founding Titan to create and order countless Colossus Titans to form the three concentric Walls—Maria, Rose, and Sheena—to protect the remnants of Eldia. ⎥ ]
The Great Titan War ends. The nation of Marley would retain control of a large portion of the world beyond Paradis Island throughout the next century, using the power of the Titans. ⎧] Hizuru's reputation is tarnished due to their association with Eldia. ⎨ ]
The Eldians who did not flee overseas would become low-class citizens of Marley, forced to live in internment zones separate from the rest of the population. ⎩ ]
After gaining control over the mainland, the Marley government promotes the story that Ymir Fritz had gained the Titan's power through a deal with the "Devil of All Earth," who was slain by their hero Helos during the war. ΐ] ⎪] ⎫]
King Fritz informs both the Fritz family in Marley and the Tybur family that he has made a vow renouncing war to the Founding Titan, and that there will be no retaliation if and when Marley chooses to enact a final solution against Eldia. ⎬] However, he asks that he and his people should be given a brief age of peace before their retribution. ⎭] ⎮]
The King uses the power of the Founding Titan to erase the memories of the Subjects of Ymir. The Subjects successfully forget their history, but minority groups not sharing the majority's common bloodline such as the Ackerman clan and the Asian clan are unaffected by the mind wipe. Many of the minority groups swear to secrecy at the King's request and gain noble status, ⎯] but the Ackerman and Asian groups give up said status, turn against King Fritz, and are hunted down. ⎰]
For the safe-keeping of the Founding Titan, the royal family lives in hiding as the noble Reiss family while another bloodline takes the place of the Fritz family as a false monarchy. ⎱]
The 145th Fritz King, now the First Reiss King, creates an underground cavern where the Founding Titan can be passed down to successors within the royal family. Some time afterward, a chapel is built above the entrance to the cavern. ⎲ ]
Plans are made for underground districts within the Walls, but these plans are eventually abandoned at the behest of the Church of the Walls. ⎵]
Kenny Ackerman, a criminal in the underground city of the Walls, is told the history of the Ackerman clan's persecution. ⏉] He attempts to assassinate the true king Uri Reiss, but fails. Uri chooses to forgive Kenny and offer his apologies for the crimes committed against the Ackerman clan. Kenny becomes Uri's right hand man and eventually joins the First Interior Squad. The persecution of the Ackerman clan ends. ⏊]
Kenny Ackerman discovers his little sister Kuchel Ackerman, a brothel worker in the underground, has become ill and died. Within the underground, he raises her son Levi Ackerman for an unspecified amount of time before leaving him. ⏋] ⏌]
After hearing of Marley's plans through information from the Owl, Grisha urges Zeke to join the Warriors as a double agent. ⏏]
After torturous interrogation at the hands of the Marleyans overseen by Officer Kruger, the Eldian Restorationists are sent to Paradis Island. Many of the Restorationists, including Dina Fritz, are turned into Pure Titans. Kruger turns against the Marleyans before Grisha was to be killed, revealing himself to be the Owl and an inheritor of one of the Nine Titans. In his Titan form, Kruger kills the soldiers of Marley. ⏓] ⏔]
Kruger informs Grisha of his past, the nature of the Titan's power and the "Curse of Ymir," and his desire to see the Founding Titan retrieved from the Walls. Grisha reluctantly accepts the duty from Kruger, turning into a Titan and eating Kruger, inheriting the power of the Attack Titan. Grisha transforms for the first time and uses the Attack Titan to safely reach the Walls. ⏕] ⏖]
Some time later, Keith Shadis of the Survey Corps discovers Grisha Yeager outside the Walls of Shiganshina District in a state of amnesia. He takes him into Shiganshina and teaches him of human life within the Walls. ⏗]
1 avgust - Reiner Braun is born to Karina Braun and her Marleyan lover in Liberio. ⏘]
The 11th Commander of the Survey Corps is killed beyond the Walls. The position of Commander is given to Keith Shadis. ⏚]
Grisha Yeager marries Carla, a tavern keeper from Shiganshina. ⏛] While starting a new family, he provides medical services for the nobility in the interior and gaining information needed to locate the true royal family on Paradis. ⏜]
Keith Shadis' reputation is heavily damaged after the Survey Corps base beyond the Walls is overrun by Titans. ⏝]
Erwin Smith presents his plans for the long-distance enemy scouting formation to Commander Keith, but his idea is rejected at the time. ⏝]
January 15 - Historia Reiss is born to Rod Reiss and his mistress Alma. ⏡] ⏟]
30 mart - Eren Yeager is born to Grisha and Carla Yeager. ⏢] ⏟]
Zeke Yeager inherits the power of the Beast Titan from his mentor, Tom Ksaver. ⏥] ⏦]
April 14 - Gabi Braun is born in the Liberio internment zone. ⏧] ⏨] ⎽]
The Warriors are sent to war against an enemy nation of Marley, quickly eradicating the opposing forces. ⏪]
In her home, Mikasa Ackerman is abducted by human traffickers after her parents are killed. She is rescued by Eren Yeager, who kills two of the traffickers. Mikasa uses her newly awakened power as an Ackerman to kill the third. She is later taken in to the Yeager family. ⏭] ⏮]
The capital of an enemy nation of Marley is conquered in a single night by hundreds of Titans controlled by Zeke Yeager's Beast Titan. ⏯]List of site sources >>>