Podkastlar tarixi

Devid Oktavius ​​Xill

Devid Oktavius ​​Xill

Devid Oktavius ​​Xill, Perth kitob sotuvchisining o'g'li, 1802 yilda tug'ilgan. U yoshligida temir yo'llarga qiziqib qolgan va 1831 yilda Garnkirk va Glazgo temir yo'lining gravyuralarini ishlab chiqargan. Bu rassom birinchi marta urinib ko'rdi. mexanik qurilmalarni aniqlik bilan yozib oling.

1843 yilda Xillga Shotlandiya Erkin cherkovining asoschilarini suratga olish topshirildi. Uning Linlitgo temir yo'lining surati temir yo'l sahnasining birinchi fotosurati deb ishoniladi.

Xill rasm chizishda davom etdi va 1848 yilda uning do'sti, temir yo'l muhandisi Jon Miller, Ballochmyleda qurgan viyadukni bo'yashni taklif qildi. Hill viyadukning uchta rasmini chizdi, shuningdek, Glazgo, Dumfris va Karlis temir yo'llarining ko'plab fotosuratlarini oldi.

1850 yilda Miller nafaqaga chiqqanidan so'ng, Hill temir yo'llarga qiziqishni yo'qotdi. Devid Oktavius ​​Xill 1870 yilda vafot etdi.


Milliy biografiya lug'ati, 1885-1900/Hill, Devid Oktavius

HILL, DAVID OKTAVYUS (1802–1870), peyzaj va portret rassomi, Tomas Xillning o'g'li, kitob sotuvchisi, Pert, 1802 yilda o'sha shaharda tug'ilgan. O'zining badiiy didini erta namoyon etib, o'sha paytda maktab direktori Endryu Uilsonga topshirilgan. Edinburgdagi san'at. Uning diqqatini asosan peyzaj rasmiga qaratgan va uning birinchi suratlaridan biri "Quyosh botishida Dunkeld" va yigirma bir yoshida namoyish etilgan "Pertdagi Tay" ning ikkita ko'rinishi edi. Xill sakkiz yil davomida Edinburgdagi Rassomlar Jamiyatining kotibi bo'lib ishlagan va 1838 yilda nizom Shotlandiya Qirollik Akademiyasiga qo'shilgan va deyarli o'limigacha bu lavozimni egallagan. 1841 yilda u "Yonganlar mamlakati" manzarasini tasvirlab beradigan, o'zi yog'da chizilgan eskizlardan o'yilgan oltmishta rasmlar seriyasini nashr etdi va bu asar katta shuhrat qozondi. Uning eng muhim rasmlari: "Eski va Yangi Edinburg, Qal'adan" va "Ballochmile jasurlari", Leytenlik Jon Miller uchun chizilgan va 1850 yilda "Pertdagi ko'prikdan Tay daryosi" "Vindzor qal'asi" , Yozgi oqshom '' Mons Megdan Edinburg '(Qirollik akademiyasi, 1852)' Dunyo qal'asi '(Qirollik akademiyasi, 1861)' Daryo Tay '(Qirollik akademiyasi, 1862)' Vale of Forth '(Qirollik akademiyasi, 1868). U shug'ullangan oxirgi ajoyib rasm bu Shotlandiya erkin cherkovi vayron bo'lgani haqidagi xotirjam ishi edi. U "Demissiya aktiga imzo chekish" deb nomlangan va unda harakatda qatnashgan barcha etakchi va ruhoniylarning besh yuzga yaqin portretlari bor. 1843 yilda boshlangan va 1865 yilda tugallangan bu keng ko'lamli ish hozir Edinburgdagi Erkin cherkov majlislar zalida. Bu avtotip jarayonida qayta ishlab chiqarilgan eng katta rasm edi va fotografiya rassomga portretda yordam sifatida ishlatilgan birinchi rasm edi. Ser Devid Bryusterning tavsiyasiga binoan, Hill Sent -Endryuslik Robert Adamson tomonidan o'tkazilgan fotografik tajribalar bilan qiziqdi. Xill birinchi bo'lib portretda yangi san'atni qo'lladi va u tanlagan taniqli odamlarning ko'plab kalotiplari hali ham mavjud. 1850 yilda Xill Shotlandiyadagi Sanoat maktabi va Shotlandiya milliy galereyasiga ega bo'lgan ishlab chiqaruvchilar kengashining komissarlaridan biri etib tayinlandi. O'limidan ikki oy oldin u Akademiya kotibligidan voz kechdi va unga pensiya sifatida ish haqining to'liq miqdori ovoz berildi. U 1870 yil 17-mayda, oltmish sakkiz yoshida vafot etdi va Din qabristoniga dafn qilindi, u erda beva ayol bronza byustini qo'ydi, uni o'zi qatl qildi. U ikki marta turmush qurgan, ikkinchi xotini-Ser Noel Patonning singlisi, RSA-taniqli haykaltarosh Ameliya Robertson Paton, (1891) tirik qolgan. Uning yagona qizi, Chattie Xill, janob U.Skott Dalgleyshning rafiqasi, undan oldinroq bo'lgan.

Hill qirollikda tashkil etilgan birinchi institut - Edinburg San'at Ittifoqini yaratib, san'atga katta xizmat qildi. Rassom sifatida u Xorvatio Makkullox, RSA, tegishli bo'lgan va hozirda izdoshlari kam bo'lgan Shotlandiya peyzaj rassomlari maktabida yuqori o'rinni egallagan. Uning asarlari haykaltaroshlik uchun juda mos edi va uni asl suratlaridan ko'ra, bu vosita orqali reproduktsiyasi yaxshi taniydi.

[Redgrave diktlari. Artists Art Journal, 1869–70 Edinburgh Evening Courant, 1870 yil 18 may, shaxsiy ma'lumotlar.]


Shotlandiya, 1802-1870 va Shotlandiya, 1821-1848

Fotosurat tarixidagi eng muhim hamkorliklardan biri, Shotlandiya rassomi Devid Oktavius ​​Xill katta esdalik rasmini suratga olishni umid qilib, o'sha paytda paydo bo'lgan fotografiya san'ati haqida texnik bilimga ega bo'lgan Robert Adamsonni portretni o'rganishga yordam berishdan boshlagan paytdan boshlandi. . Duo 1843 yildan 1847 yilgacha faqat besh yil birga ishlagan, lekin ular mahsuldor bo'lib, o'n besh yuzdan ortiq portretlarni, shu jumladan mahalliy zodagonlar va baliqchi Newhaven qishlog'idagi erkaklar va ayollarning tasvirlarini yaratgan. Ularning fotosuratlari - qog'ozli negativlardan tuzli bosma nashrlar - badiiy kompozitsiyasi bilan hayratga tushgan, ular oddiy va zerikarli tafsilotlar shakliga moslashgan va o'z davrida Rembrandt uslubiga o'xshatilgan.

O'z davrasida bo'lganlar singari, Alfred Stiglitz ham Xilni XIX asrning haqiqiy san'atkor rejimida ishlaydigan sanoqli fotosuratchilaridan biri deb hisoblagan (o'sha paytda Adamson e'tiborga olinmagan, lekin o'shandan beri hal qiluvchi sherik sifatida tan olingan), Stiglitz o'z maqolalarida muntazam ravishda eslatib o'tdi. to Hill "rasmli otaning otasi" sifatida. [1] U Hill va Adamson tasvirlarini o'z ichiga olgan Kamera ishi Uch xil holatda-1905, 1909 va 1912 yillarda. U o'z rasmlarini 1906 yilda Frederik Evans va Jeyms Kreyg Annan asarlari bilan birga, 18-asr fotosuratlarini ko'rsatgan. uning galereyasida, u avangardni targ'ib qilish bilan mashhur bo'ladi. Stiglitz komplektni o'rnatganida Xalqaro tasviriy fotosuratlar ko'rgazmasi 1910 yilda Nyu -Yorkning Buffalo shahridagi Olbrayt san'at galereyasida Hill va Adamsonning asarlari - qirqta bosma nusxasi - har qanday tirik fotografga qaraganda yaxshiroq namoyish etilgan.

Fotosuratchi va matbaachi J. Kreyg Annan Hill va Adamson asarlarining eng baquvvat chempioni edi. Oilaviy aloqalar orqali ularning arxiviga kirganidan so'ng, u asl nusxalarini ko'rgazmaga qo'ydi va qog'oz negativlaridan yangi fotogravuralar va uglerodli izlarni chiqardi. Stiglitz kollektsiyasidagi uglerod izlari, ehtimol, Annan yoki uning otasi Tomas tomonidan qilingan.

[1] Masalan, Stiglitzning "Fotosessiya a'zolariga xat" ga qarang. Fotosurat davri 15 (1905 yil oktyabr), Richard Whelan, tahr. Stiglitz fotografiya bo'yicha: uning tanlangan esse va eslatmalari (Millerton, NY: Diafragma, 2000), p. 178.


Robert Adamson va#038 Devid Oktavius ​​Xill

Devid Oktavius ​​Xill 1802 yilda Shotlandiyaning Pert shahrida tug'ilgan, kitob nashriyotchisining o'g'li. U Pert akademiyasi va Edinburgdagi dizayn maktabida tahsil olgan. Hill maqbul manzara rassomi va tasvirchisi edi (ser Uolter Skott uchun ba'zi romanlarni tasvirlab). U har doim san'at olamida qatnashgan, u Shotlandiya Qirollik akademiyasini tashkil etishga yordam bergan va 1870 yilda vafotigacha kotib bo'lib ishlagan. U o'z davrida hurmatli rassom bo'lgan, lekin hozirda u tan olinmagan bo'lsa, u bilan shug'ullanmagan. Robert Adamson.

Robert Adamson 1821 yilda Shotlandiyaning Sent -Endryus shahrida tug'ilgan, dehqonning o'g'li va shifokor Jon Adamsonning ukasi. U muhandis bo'lishni orzu qilgan, ammo sog'lig'ining yomonligi uni o'qishni tashlab ketishga majbur qilgan.

"Hill va Adamson" hikoyasi ingichka retsept bo'yicha ingredientlarga o'xshash.

Jon Adamson amaliyotchi shifokor va Sent -Endryus universiteti muzeyining kuratori bo'lgan. Ser Devid Bryuster, taniqli fizik (kaleydoskop va stereoskop ixtirochisi) Sent -Endryus universiteti direktori va Jon Adamsonning hamkasbi bo'lgan. Brewster, shuningdek, Kalotip musbat/salbiy fotografiya tizimini ixtiro qilgan Genri Foks Talbotning do'sti va maslahatchisi edi. 1841 yilda Brewsterning Talbot bilan yozishmalari yordamida Jon Adamson Shotlandiyada birinchi kalotipni chop etdi. Talbot o'z ixtirosini tijoratlashtirishdan manfaatdor bo'lib, Brewster va Adamsondan yordam so'radi, ular o'z navbatida Jonning ukasi Robertni kalotip jarayonida o'rgatishdi. Robert Edinburgdagi Calton Stair, Rock House -da Calotype portretlarini ishlab chiqaradigan studiya ochdi.

Devid Oktavius ​​Xill 1843 yilda Shotlandiya cherkovining yig'ilishida qatnashgan va 457 vazirning Shotlandiya erkin cherkovi sifatida qayta yig'ilishining guvohi bo'lgan. Xill shu qadar ta'sirlandiki, u 457 vazirning portretini birga chizishga va'da berdi. Uchrashuvda Shotlandiya cherkovi ruhoniylari uchun o'qigan ser Devid Bryuster ham bor edi. U kalotipni eskiz vositasi sifatida ishlatishni taklif qildi.

Bir necha hafta oldin Rok -Xausda o'z studiyasini ochgan Adamson, Shotlandiyaning yangi erkin cherkovining 457 nafar erkaklarini suratga olish uchun Hill bilan qo'shma korxonaga kirdi. Mavzular tashqarida tasvirlangan. Bitta to'plam ichki ko'rinishga mo'ljallangan edi, lekin aslida u tashqarida mebel va pardalar bilan devorning devoriga o'ralgan edi.

IPHFda dunyo bilan tarixni baham ko'ring.

Xill va Adamson Calotype hujjatli portretlarini yaratdilar, ular o'z vaqtlari haqida chiroyli gapirishadi. Ular nafaqat cherkov odamlarini, balki turli mavzularni: landshaftlar, arxitektura, do'stlar va oilani suratga olishdi. Ularning ekologik portretlari yangi suratga olish vositalaridan foydalangan holda yozilgan birinchi rasmlardan biri edi. Ular to'rt yarim yil davomida, Adamson 1848 yilda, 27 yoshida vafot etgunga qadar, birgalikda ishladilar.

Adamsonning roli har doim so'roq qilingan: u shunchaki tepadan yo'nalish oladigan texnikmi yoki u iqtidorli fotografmi? Ikkinchisini taxmin qilish kerak, chunki Xill Adamson vafotidan keyin boshqa ikkita fotosuratchi bilan ishlagan bo'lsa -da, uning ishi hech qachon tepalik va Adamson kalotiplarining ajoyib sifatiga erishmagan.

Hill vazirlarning rasmini tugatdi, lekin 1866 yilgacha, o'limidan to'rt yil oldin. Xill ham, Adamson ham 1978 yilda Fotosuratlar shon -sharaf zaliga kiritildi.


Fotosurat tarixiga kirish


Devid Oktavius ​​Xill (1802 va#82111870) va Robert Adamson (1821 va#82111848)
"1848 yil albomining old qismidan olingan fotosurat,
Missis Morris kuzatgan Greyfriars Kirkyarddagi D O Hill eskizini ko'rsatish.
Xuddi shu sozlamadagi boshqa stol usti rassom va mozorbozni o'z ichiga oladi.
manba: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Octavius_Hill

"Xillning ko'plab portretlari Edinburgdagi Greyfriars qabristonida qilingan - bu erta davrga, uning uydagilarining uyida bo'lganidan boshqa hech narsa xos emas. Haqiqatan ham, qabristonning o'zi, Hill rasmidan birida, ichki qismga o'xshaydi. Gable devorlariga qo'yilgan qabr toshlari o'tdan ko'tariladi, ular mo'ri bo'laklari singari, ichkarida alangalar o'rniga yozuvlar bor, lekin agar bu texnik sabablarga ko'ra tanlanmagan bo'lsa, bu parametr hech qachon bunday samarali bo'la olmasdi. Erta plastinkalarning yorug'lik sezuvchanligi pastligi, ochiq havoda uzoq vaqt ta'sir qilish zarurligini keltirib chiqardi, bu esa, o'z navbatida, ob'ektni sokin kontsentratsiyaga hech qanday to'siq bo'lmaydigan joyda olib borishni maqsad qilib qo'ydi.
Valter Benjamin - Fotosuratning kichik tarixi


Hill & amp; Adamson


Hill (chapda) va Adamsonning kompozit fotosuratlari. Taxminan 1845 yil.

1843 yilda rassom Devid Oktavius ​​Xill Shotlandiyaning birinchi fotostudiyasini yaratish uchun muhandis Robert Adamsonga qo'shildi. Adamsonning bevaqt o'limi bilan yakunlangan qisqa hamkorlik paytida Hill & amp; Adamson "yangi ixtiro qilingan fotosurat vositasidan foydalangan holda o'z-o'zini anglaydigan badiiy asarlarning birinchi muhim qismini" ishlab chiqardi. Akvarelchi Jon Xarden 1843 yil noyabr oyida Hill va Adamsonning kalotiplarini birinchi marta ko'rganida shunday yozgan edi: "Ishlab chiqarilgan rasmlar Rembrandtnikiga o'xshaydi, lekin uning uslubi va eng qadimgi va eng yaxshi ustalari singari, portret va rasm effektida katta yutuqlar bo'lishi kerak. .

Hill 1843 yildagi Buzilishlar Assambleyasida qatnashgan, 450 dan ortiq vazirlar Shotlandiya cherkovi yig'ilishidan chiqib, Shotlandiya Erkin cherkovini topish uchun boshqa majlislar zaliga tushganlarida. U dramatik sahnani do'sti Lord Kokbern va boshqa tomoshabin, fizik Sir Devid Bryusterning rag'batlantirishi bilan yozishga qaror qildi, u yangi kashfiyotdan, fotosuratdan foydalanishni taklif qilib, hozir bo'lgan vazirlarga o'xshaydi. Brewster o'zi 1839 yilga borib taqaladigan ushbu texnologiya bilan tajriba o'tkazdi va u Xillni boshqa ixlosmand Robert Adamson bilan tanishtirdi. Hill & amp Adamson hozir bo'lganlar va joyni suratga oldi.

Ularning Hill bilan kompozitsion va yoritish mahoratini ta'minlaganligi va Adamsonning kamerani boshqarishda sezgirligi va epchilligi juda muvaffaqiyatli bo'ldi va ular tez orada o'z mavzularini kengaytirishdi. Edsonning Kalton tepaligidagi Adamsonning "Rock House" studiyasi ularning fotografik tajribalari markaziga aylandi. Kalotip jarayonidan foydalanib, ular o'sha davrning mashhur Shotlandiya nuroniylari, shu jumladan Xyu Millerni studiyada ham, ochiq havoda ham, ko'pincha Greyfriars Kirkyarddagi qabrlar orasida tasvirlangan keng portretlarni ishlab chiqarishdi.

Ular mahalliy va Fife peyzajlari va shahar manzaralarini, shu jumladan Edinburgda qurilayotgan Skott yodgorligi tasvirlarini suratga olishdi. Buyuk va yaxshi odamlardan tashqari, ular oddiy ishchilarni, xususan, Nyufaven baliqchilarini va baliqlarni 5 km tepalikka ko'tarib olib, Edinburg shahriga olib borib, eshik oldida sotish uchun suratga tushirishdi. ularning "Qo'ng'iroq chavandozi" (yangi seld) degan qichqirig'i bilan. Ular askarlarning bir nechta "harakatli" fotosuratlarini va, ehtimol, ularning eng mashhur fotosuratini - yonma -yon yurgan ikkita ruhoniyni tayyorladilar.

Ularning hamkorligi 3000 ga yaqin bosma nashrlarni chiqardi, lekin 1848 yilda Adamsonning sog'lig'i va bevaqt o'limi tufayli atigi to'rt yil o'tgach, qisqartirildi. Bir necha oy o'tgach, u kamroq faollashdi va studiyani tark etdi, garchi u fotosuratlarning nashrlarini sotishda va ularni rasm chizishda yordamchi sifatida ishlatishda davom etdi. uz.vikipediya

Bir necha erkaklar o'z vatanlarida san'atni rivojlantirish uchun juda ko'p ish qilgan, bu mashhur peyzaj rassomi. "Shaxmatli va ba'zida bo'ronli davrda, bizning oramizda hozir baxtli va mustahkam o'rnashgan Akademiyamiz mavjud bo'lish uchun kurashar ekan, keyin lavozim va mustaqillik uchun u kotibning muhim lavozimini egalladi. Uning g'ayratli ishi g'ayratga to'la edi. Akademiya va Shotlandiya san'ati akademiyasi va hech qachon xohlamagan, u hech qachon qiyinchilik yoki tushkunlikka tushmasdi, ser Uilyam Allan, (hozir) prezident Jorj Xarvi va uning me'mori janob Tomas Xamilton kabi ittifoqchilar bilan birga. Akademiya Axilles deb nomlangan o'rta maktab, janob Xill akademiyaning janglarida maqsadli va vaqt va iste'dodga sadoqat bilan kurashdi, bu esa uning san'atda birinchi o'rinni egallashga bo'lgan sa'y-harakatlarini susaytirdi. aks holda uning serhosil va baxtli dahosining qo'lida. "

Shunday qilib, uning Shotlandiyadagi san'at mavqeini yuksaltirish yo'lida ko'rsatgan xizmatlari, vafotidan keyin, ommaviy matbuot tomonidan e'tirof etildi. Bundan tashqari, u Edinburgdagi eng yaxshi va madaniyatli odamlarning ko'p yillar davomida tanish bo'lgan Kalton Xill shahridagi uyida tinch va tartibsiz hayot kechirdi. Kurant1870 yil 18 may.

Uning otasi Pertda kitob sotuvchisi bo'lgan, rassomning san'atdagi bolalik harakatlari ota -onasini uni Edinburgga Endryu Uilson boshchiligidagi Vasiylik akademiyasiga o'qishga yuborishga undagan va u erda tez taraqqiyotga erishgan. Uning eng dastlabki asarlari - Pertshir shtatidagi litografik ko'rinishlar to'plami bo'lib, uning ko'rgazma devorlarida birinchi ko'rinishi 1823 yilda, u ba'zi landshaftlarni namoyish qilgan. Shundan so'ng, u bir nechta uy rasmlarini, shu jumladan "skotch to'y" va "muloyim cho'pon" sahnasini yaratganida, lekin ko'p o'tmay, u birinchi kirgan yo'lini davom ettirish uchun qaytib keldi. Endi bu nom faqat Shotlandiya manzaralari, ayniqsa Robert Bums asarlarida aytilgan joylar yoki shoir bog'langan joylar bilan bog'liq. Taxminan qirq yil davomida u akademiyada kotib bo'lib ishlagan va 1869 yilda sog'lig'i sababli lavozimidan iste'foga chiqqan, a'zolar uning xizmatlarini e'tirof etib, umr bo'yi maoshini davom ettirishga qaror qilgan va shu bilan birga janob janobdan portretini topshirgan. Herdman o'z kutubxonasi uchun. Bu yillar davomida u Akademiya ko'rgazmalarining doimiy ishtirokchisi bo'lib, uning rasmlari orasida "Yolg'iz qirg'oq" va "Nit vodiysi" 1850 yildagi "Fotheringay qal'asi" va "Tog'da quyosh botishi" rasmlari orasida eng ko'zga ko'ringan. "Ko'chib kelgan kemaning jo'nashi bilan qirg'oq", 1852 yilda "Dunfermlayn saroyining xarobalari", 1854 yilda "Dunsinane", 1855 yilda taniqli katta "Vindzor qal'asi". Ularning ta'sirining yorqin tabiatidan uning asarlari ajoyib tarzda moslashtirilgan. o'ymakorlik uchun va uning ismi oltmish rasm bilan olislarga tarqaldi Bums mamlakati, Blekri xonim tomonidan nashr etilgan, bu juda katta xizmat. Yog 'bilan bo'yalgan asl nusxalari 1851-1852 yillarda Edinburgda namoyish etilgan va rassom va noshirlarning niyati shoir tug'ilgan joy yaqinida Bums galereyasini tashkil etish uchun taqdim etish edi. zarur bino uchun mablag 'hisobi kelmayapti. U Shotlandiyadagi Tasviriy san'atni targ'ib qilish uyushmasi g'oyasini birinchi bo'lib taklif qildi, uni do'stlari Jon Stell, RSA va Sherifif Genri Glasford Bell samimiy qabul qilishdi, ular o'z konstitutsiyasini San'at fonida yaratdilar. Ittifoq. Las -janob janob birinchi bo'lib sxemani ommaga ma'lum qildi va shu tariqa Shotlandiyada paydo bo'lganidan buyon ko'plab avlodlarning ota -onasi bo'ldi. Rassomning ukasi bo'lgan marhum Tomas Xill Edinburgda matbaa sotuvchisi bo'lgan va Devidning sa'y-harakatlari tufayli u o'zining go'zal va qimmatbaho gravürlarini nashr etish orqali o'z biznesini kengaytirish va rivojlantirishga majbur bo'lgan. Kasb -hunar bilan bir qatorda, u boshqa izlanishlar qatorida, fotografiyaning yaqinda kashfiyoti bilan shug'ullangan va janob R. Adamson bilan birgalikda Talbotayp jarayonini rivojlantirishga yordam bergan, u ko'plab badiiy natijalar bergan. uning akasi rassomlarning portretlari, masalan, ser Uilyam Allan va Xenning Elgin-friz restavratori-ularning chiroyli muomalasi va xarakteri bilan ajoyib. Bular 1844 yilda nashr etilgan. 1866 yilda u "Shotlandiya cherkovidagi buzilish" ni eslatib, "Demission va ajralish aktiga imzo chekish" haqidagi o'zining katta va mashaqqatli rasmini tugatdi. 1843 yilda 500 ta ruhoniy o'z xohish -irodasi bilan o'z uylari va xizmatlaridan voz kechdi. Rasm 470 portretni o'z ichiga oladi va Tanfilddagi Erkin cherkovning birinchi uchrashuvini ifodalaydi: u hozir zalda. Edinburgdagi bepul cherkov. Bunday asar badiiy davolanish uchun hech qanday imkoniyatga ega emas edi va Sem Bough o'zining suratining she'riy tavsifini yaratganligini hammaga oshkor qilib, o'zining amaliy hazilini qilish uchun ishlatgan va uning ko'rgazmasi bilan bir vaqtda nashr etilgan. . Bu rasmning qiymatiga kelsak, ser Jorj Xarvi uni 3000 gvineyaga qo'ydi. Sir Jorjning Millfild janob Jon Millerga qo'mita vakili sifatida yuborgan maktubi jamoatchilikka e'lon qilindi va u o'zini shunday tushuntirdi: "Ish yigirma birdan ko'proq qo'lda bo'lgan. Menimcha, o'rtacha hisob -kitob, va bu holatda janob Xill zaxirasida saqlanadigan mualliflik huquqi va ko'rgazmasidan tashqari narx 3000 gvineyadan kam bo'lmasligi mumkin. Bu summa, agar ish ketma -ket to'langan bo'lsa, yiliga 300 gvineya bo'lardi, kamroq xarajatlar - bu janob Xill singari iqtidorli odamning iste'dodlarini amalga oshirish uchun o'rtacha daromad. hayotining eng yaxshi davri ".

U 1840 yilda Hukumat tomonidan Shotlandiyadagi Sanoat maktabi va Milliy galereya nazoratidagi Komissarlardan biriga tayinlangan va 1870 yil 17 mayda vafot etgan.

Shotlandiyalik rassom yo'qki, uning ko'p asarlari o'yilgan. Ularning ko'pchiligi ushbu ob'ekt bilan bo'yalgan va shuning uchun gravürchi tomonidan talqin qilinadigan narsalarga qaraganda, rasm sifatida unchalik qimmat emas. Ko'p sonli kitob illyustratsiyalaridan tashqari, uning qal'adan Edinburgga bo'lgan ko'rinishi va uning Vindzor qal'asi ham katta hajmda o'yilganligi hammaga tanish.

Shaxsiy qiyofasida u janob Herdman portreti bilan abadiylashtirilgan ajoyib, klassik va erkalik xususiyatlari bilan ajralib turardi va marmar byustni uning iste'dodli va mehribon rafiqasi Sir J. Noel Patonning singlisi bajargan. "Do'st va hamroh sifatida, u o'zini mehribonlik, zukkolik va hazilni uyg'otadigan, tug'ma kamtarlik bilan hech qachon yo'l qo'ymaydigan jamiyatning baxtini targ'ib qilish uchun ajoyib iste'dod egasi sifatida bilganlar uni eslab qoladi. U hech kimga qattiq yoki befarq bo'lmagan narsani aytishi mumkin. " San'at jurnali, [Zamonaviy nekrologiya xabari].

Shotlandiyadagi san'at: uning kelib chiqishi va taraqqiyoti, Robert Brydall, Sent -Jorj Glazgo san'at maktabi ustasi, Uilyam Blekvud va o'g'illari, Edinburg va London, 1889 [MDCCCLXXXIX]


Xill, Devid Oktavius

Devid Oktavius ​​Xill (1802–1870), rassom va fotograf, 1802 yil 20 -mayda Shotlandiyaning Pert shahrida tug'ilgan, kitob sotuvchisi Tomas Xill va Emeliya yoki Emili Myurreyning sakkizinchi farzandi (shuning uchun Oktaviy). U Pert Akademiyasida tahsil olgan.
Hill o'smirlik chog'ida 1821-1823 yillar orasida olti qismdan iborat, otasi Tomas Xill, Pertsdagi nashriyot va bosmaxona sotuvchisi, "Tabiatdan va toshdan chizilgan" Pertshirda o'ttizta sahna ko'rinishini yaratish uchun litografiyaning yangi texnikasini qo'llagan. U Edinburgda, peyzaj rassomi va taniqli san'at biluvchisi Endryu Uilson boshchiligidagi Vasiylik Akademiyasi Dizayn maktabiga o'qishga kirdi. Garchi Hill o'z asarlarida Shotlandiya dehqonlarining odob -axloqini aks ettiruvchi tasvirlarni qo'shgan bo'lsa -da, bu uning peyzaj rasmlarining nozik kuchi bo'lib, u tezda o'z obro'sini o'rnatdi. Bu landshaftlar haykaltaroshlik uchun juda mos edi, XIX asr boshlarida tasvirlarni tarqatishdagi eng ta'sirli taraqqiyoti va uning ko'plab rasmlari gravürlar orqali tanilgan, chunki u boshqa Shotland rassomlariga qaraganda ko'proq o'yilgan. Xillning katta yutug'i uning 1840 yilda "Kuyganlar mamlakati" deb nomlangan po'latdan o'yib ishlangan bir qator qarashlari edi. Bu loyiha o'sha paytgacha eng shuhratparast va qimmat Shotlandiya nashri bo'lib, uning obro'sini mustahkam o'rnatdi. Uning rasm uslubi kuchli emas, balki nozik edi, lekin yorug'lik va soyaning ekspluatatsiyasi uning ko'plab asarlariga kutilmagan kuch bag'ishladi. Ayniqsa, u quyosh botganda yorug'likni yaxshi ko'rar edi. 1869 yildagi Art Journal jurnalida uning karerasiga keng baho berilgan, u shunday degan edi: u tabiatshunoslar maktabiga kirmaydi, bu atamani tabiatni ular ko'rganidek tasvirlashdan mamnun rassomlarga nisbatan qo'llaydi. shoirlar, o'z bo'ysunuvchilariga, ular o'zlarida bor narsalarga qo'shimcha joziba beradigan tarzda munosabatda bo'lishadi.
Xill hayoti davomida unga yaxshi xizmat qilgan, juda xushchaqchaq va bonxomiy odam edi. Edinburgh Evening Courant (1870 yil 18 -may) "tashqi qiyofasida u o'zining ajoyib, klassik va erkaklik xususiyatlari bilan ajralib turishini" esladi. Endryu Uilson uni badiiy hamjamiyat bilan tanishtirdi, u erda Hill xushchaqchaq va markaziy shaxsga aylandi. U 1826 yilda Tasviriy san'atni targ'ib qilish uyushmasiga qo'shilgan, biroq tortishuvlarda qatnashishdan voz kechgan bir qancha rassomlardan biri bo'lgan. 1829 yilda u Rassomlar uyushmasining asoschisi bo'lgan va keyingi yili 1836 yildan boshlab uning kotibi bo'lgan, bu haq to'lanadigan lavozim edi. 1838 yilda jamiyat Shotlandiya Qirollik san'at akademiyasiga aylandi va u umrining oxirigacha kotib bo'lib qoldi. U, shubhasiz, akademiyaning 1840 yil 10 fevralda, yosh qirolicha Viktoriya uylangan kuni ko'rgazmasini ochib, qirollik nizomini xotirlash qarorida ishtirok etgan.
1837 yil 9 -avgustda Xill Pertdagi sharob savdogarining musiqaga moyil qizi Ann MakDonaldga (1804 yil, 1841 y.) Uylandi. Ularning qisqa hayoti Edinburg badiiy jamoasining faollaridan biri edi. 1839 yilda Sharlotta ismli qiz tug'ildi, lekin 1840 yilda tug'ilgan ikkinchi qizi atigi bir necha soat yashadi. Juda zaiflashgan Enn 1841 yil 5 oktyabrda vafot etdi va Xill va uning qizi beva qolgan singlisi Meri Uotson bilan yashashga ketdi.

Fotosurat kashshofi: Robert Adamson bilan hamkorlik.
1839 yilda fotografiya ixtirosi haqida ommaviy e'lon e'lon qilindi, bu san'at tez orada D. O. Xill va Robert Adamsonni birlashtirdi (1821-1848) va ularning hayotini qaytarib bo'lmaydigan darajada o'zgartirdi. Adamson 1821 yil 26 aprelda tug'ilgan, Bernsaydda (Sent -Endryusdan 5 mil sharqda) ijarachi Aleksandr Adamson va uning rafiqasi Rachael Melvilning o'g'li. U Sankt -Endryus shahridagi Madras maktabida o'qigan, u erda ikki marta matematika bo'yicha sovrinni olgan. Adamson yoshligida injenerlik sexida ishlagan mexanikaning g'ayrioddiy iqtidorini namoyon etdi, ammo uning sog'lig'i zaifligi bu chaqiruvni taqiqlab qo'ydi. Uning akasi, doktor Jon Adamson (1809-1870), Sent -Endryusda tibbiyot bilan shug'ullangan va Sent -Leonard va Sankt -Salvator birlashgan kollejlari direktori Ser Devid Bryuster (1761-1868) bilan bog'lanib, St. Endryus adabiy va falsafiy jamiyati. Brewster, shuningdek, Lakok Abbeyining Uilyam Genri Foks Talbot (1800-1877) bilan g'ayrioddiy yaqin ilmiy do'stlikdan bahramand bo'ldi. 1839 yil yanvarda Talbot o'zining kashfiyotini qog'ozda ixtiro qilganini e'lon qilganida, Brewster katta qiziqish uyg'otdi va yangi san'at haqida ma'lumot olish uchun Shotlandiya kanaliga aylandi. Doktor Adamson ushbu yangi fotogalereyaning etakchilaridan biri bo'lgan va ukasini kalotipni olishga undagan. 1842 yil yoziga kelib Brewster Talbotga yigitning san'atda yaxshi bilim olgani haqida xabar berdi va 1843 yil 10-mayda Robert Adamson Edinburgdagi Calton Hill pog'onasida, XVIII asrning kichik Rok-uyida Shotlandiyaning birinchi kalotip studiyasini qurdi. .
Adamson o'z studiyasini ochganidan bir necha kun o'tgach, 1843 yil 19 mayda Edinburgda Shotlandiya cherkovining buzilishi bo'lib o'tdi, bu, ehtimol, XIX asr Shotlandiya tarixidagi eng muhim voqea edi. Shotlandiya cherkovi xizmatchilarining katta qismi o'z cherkovlarini nazorat qilish haqidagi chuqur printsiplarga asoslanib, o'zlarini yashashdan ajratib, Shotlandiya Erkin cherkovining poydevorini qo'yib, demission aktiga imzo chekishdi. Doktor Tomas Chalmers (1780-1847) Erkin cherkov yig'ilishining birinchi moderatori sifatida raislik qilgan. Xillning qaynotasi, Revd Robert MakDonald (1813-1893), Erkin cherkovning birinchi a'zolaridan biri, ularning maktablarini qurish dasturiga asosan javobgar bo'lgan. Xill, bu muhim voqeadan taassurotlanib, 500 ga yaqin vazirning monumental portretini suratga olish niyatini e'lon qildi va imzo qo'yishda ishtirok etgan odamlarni akasi tomonidan o'yilgan va chop etildi. Balki Xill 1832 yilda parlament a'zolarining hayotdan chizilgan 400 ta portretidan tashkil topgan Jorj Xeyterning "Buyuk islohotlar to'g'risidagi qonun" 1832 yildagi namoyishidan ilhomlangan. Hillning loyihasi darhol muammolarni keltirib chiqardi. Temperament va peyzaj rassomini o'rgatish bilan u bundan oldin faqat bitta muhim portretni chizgan edi. Ishtirokchilar tez orada Shotlandiyaning har bir burchagiga tarqalib ketishini bilib, ser Devid Bryuster Robert Adamsonning yangi san'atini o'z xususiyatlarini yozib olish vositasi sifatida taklif qildi.
Qisqa vaqt ichida Xillning badiiy yo'nalishi va Adamsonning manipulyatsiya qilish qobiliyati fotografiyaning dastlabki tarixida bo'lmagan hamkorlikka aylandi. Hatto Edinburglik mohir Tomas Devidson tomonidan ishlab chiqarilgan maxsus ishlab chiqilgan kameralar, linzalar va boshqa asboblar yordamida ham, kalotipning ekspozitsiya vaqti ularni quyosh nurlaridan foydalanish uchun mebel va buyumlarni bog'ga ko'chirishga majbur qildi. Ko'zgular va reflektorlar yorug'likni yo'naltirish va konsentratsiyalashga yordam berdi. Xillning iliq va qo'mondonligi, o'tirganlarni o'z tanalarini va ifodalarini kamera yozib oladigan shaklga qo'yib qo'yganda ham yengil qiladi. Robert Adamson yangi san'atning murakkabliklarini puxta egallab, badiiy jozibali nashrlarga olib keldi. 1844 yilda Shotlandiya Qirollik San'at Akademiyasida birinchi urinishlari namoyish etilganda, ular "R. Adamson tomonidan D. O. Xill badiiy rahbarligida qatl qilingan" deb nomlangan. Ularning kalotipli portretlari, birinchi navbatda katta rasm uchun qulay tadqiqotlar sifatida ko'rilgan, o'z kuchlari va haqiqatliligi bilan paydo bo'lgan.
Ularning obro'si, mavzularining xilma -xilligi kabi tez o'sdi. Hillning keng ijtimoiy aloqalari ishga tushdi va ularning keyingi portretlarida Edinburg jamiyati va uning ko'plab mashhur mehmonlari qayd etildi. Ular o'z kameralarini Glazgodagi Erkin cherkov yig'ilishida va Buyuk Britaniyaning Ilm -fan taraqqiyoti assotsiatsiyasining Yorkdagi yig'ilishiga olib ketishdi. Linlitgow, Durham, York va Edinburg me'morchiligi ularning mavzusini kengaytirdi va Edinburg panoramalari o'sha paytdagi shahar haqida batafsil ma'lumot beradi. Ushbu landshaft manzaralarining bir nechtasi Hill rasmlariga bevosita ilhom berdi. Ularning eng shuhratparast va ta'sirchan loyihalaridan biri baliqchilar va ayollarni, asosan, Nyuxaven qishlog'ini hujjatlashtirish edi. Ushbu go'zal va o'ziga xos jamiyatda Xill va Adamson fotosurat haqidagi tasavvurni hayot tarzini, shu jumladan nafaqat odamlarni, balki qayiqlarni, to'rlarni va ularning mavjudligini aniqlaydigan boshqa narsalarni hujjatlashtirishga kengaytirdilar. Xill uchun bu Shotlandiya dehqonlarining xulq -atvorini yozishga bo'lgan qiziqishining ancha murakkab tarzda qaytishi edi. Just as in his paintings, it was poetry and not nature that inspired Hill, and the calotype negatives were often retouched to remove distracting elements or to emphasize important features. In the end, however, they spoke with truth to the spirit of the subject.
Within the first four years of their partnership, Hill and Adamson took more than 3000 photographs, many of which remain of undeniable quality to this day. But Robert Adamson's health, the cause of his taking up photography in the first place, continued to fail. Adamson's work dropped off throughout 1847 and on 14 January 1848 his short life came to a tragic end at St Andrews. Hill was devastated, losing not only a close friend, but also the source of his success in the art of photography. He continued to live in Rock House and to distribute their photographs, but could never again achieve the artistic harmony of the works that he had produced with Adamson. He joined the Photographic Society of Scotland in 1858, even though more than a decade had passed since he had been involved in taking a photograph. A brief collaboration with the Glasgow photographer A. M'Glashon in the years 1860–62 was unproductive. The original inspiration for taking up photography, his painting of the signing of the deed of demission, was not completed until 1865, and this grand painting, now in the offices of the Free Church, is little more than a collage of the calotype photographs on which it was founded.
Hill's activities as the secretary of the Royal Scottish Academy continued throughout his life and served to maintain his prominence in the artistic community. In 1830 Hill was one of the major forces in the formation of the Art Union of Edinburgh, the first institution of the kind in the nation, and one that was soon copied. In 1850 he was appointed one of the commissioners of the board of manufactures in Scotland, a body then responsible for the Government School of Art and the new National Gallery of Scotland.
Hill's only child, Charlotte (Chatty), the wife of W. Scott Dalgleish, died early in 1862. Shortly afterwards, on 18 November 1862, Hill married the sculptor Amelia Robertson Paton [see Hill, Amelia Robertson (1820–1904)], who was the sister of the Pre-Raphaelite artist Sir Noël Paton and the landscape painter Waller Hugh Paton.
In addition to his public services, Hill continued to paint and to exhibit. Some of his paintings, particularly Old and New Edinburgh, from the Castle and The Braes of Ballochmyle, were clearly inspired by the photographs he had been involved in taking. In all, Hill exhibited about 300 of his works in his lifetime. About 270 of these were shown in the annual exhibitions of the Royal Scottish Academy. Nearly all were paintings, but he exhibited seven calotypes in 1844 and ten more the following year. His reputation was grounded largely in Edinburgh—he showed only four times at the Royal Academy in London—but this was not as limiting as it might seem. The ‘Athens of the north’ was a powerful intellectual centre in the dual wake of the Scottish Enlightenment and the exhortations of Sir Walter Scott. It was a place where a man such as Hill could influence greatly the course of artistic development. And that he did.
Hill's marriage to Amelia was not only happy but productive. It was under her influence that Hill finally completed his Disruption painting. Although she was clearly a Scottish artist, Amelia exhibited eighteen of her sculptures at the Royal Academy in London, helping to extend her husband's reputation as well. Tragically, Hill developed rheumatic fever in 1868. They moved from the cramped but central quarters of Rock House to a more tranquil spot in Edinburgh. There—Newington Lodge, Mayfield Terrace—Hill died on 17 May 1870. Amelia Hill executed a bronze bust for his grave in the Dean cemetery.
It is curious that Hill's obituaries nearly universally failed to mention his pioneering photographic work with Robert Adamson. But it is this body of work, much more than his paintings and engravings, that has lived on, inspiring successive generations of photographers and historians. The landscapes and architectural work that they accomplished are valuable records of a Scotland now changed. More significantly, however, they brought to the photograph the expressive power to record the personality of the sitters. In 1843, when Adamson started his studio, those in the know maintained a careful distinction between the daguerreotype and the photograph. Daguerreotypes, those magic little mirrors that were unique images on sheets of polished silver, had immediately taken over the province of the portrait. Photographs, which at the time meant images on paper, had lagged in this application. Perhaps part of this can be ascribed to the temperament of their inventor, William Henry Fox Talbot, for social contact was difficult for him and this shows almost inescapably in his photographs of people. Hill had no such problem and Robert Adamson ensured that the human contact he had made was expressed clearly and forcefully on a sheet of paper. The power and visual nature of Hill's and Adamson's images were likened to those of Rembrandt, and appropriately so, with their moody range of masses of light and shade. Nothing in the early history of the photograph can be compared to their body of work.
Although Hill's and Adamson's photographs fell briefly from sight within Hill's lifetime, it was not long before they regained an enduring and well-deserved reputation as beautifully symbolizing the expressive power of a radical new art. The photographer Francis Caird Inglis (1876–1940), who took over Rock House about 1900, found many negatives and prints remaining there. The Glasgow photogravure master Thomas Annan (1828–1887) had made permanent carbon prints of Hill's Disruption painting. His son, J. Craig Annan (1864–1946), had been familiar with Hill's and Adamson's photographs since he was a child, and worked with Inglis to make new prints from the negatives (a practice natural at the time but roundly discouraged today) and permanent prints in carbon. It was through Annan that Alfred Stieglitz (1864–1946) became interested in this pioneering work, introducing it not only to the American public, but also to serious photographers worldwide. A nephew of Hill's, the bookseller Andrew Elliott, had taken over the shop and stock of Hill's brother Alexander. In addition to writing one of the early books on Hill's photographs, he commissioned Jessie Bartram to make sensitive carbon prints from the originals between 1913 and 1925. It was natural that Elliott's book should emphasize the contributions of his uncle and by the time Heinrich Schwarz had published his serious assessment in 1931 Robert Adamson was almost totally forgotten. Later historians have begun to appreciate the essentially symbiotic nature of this unique partnership, however, and it is not unusual to find their work today labelled (perhaps as it always should have been) as being by Adamson and Hill. Certainly there can be no meaningful separation of their individual contributions to their photographic masterpieces.
Robert Adamson's command of the process of making prints in silver was as unusual as it was complete, and the original prints have proven to be among the most durable of all early photographs. More than 3000 are in the collection of the Scottish National Portrait Gallery in Edinburgh and many hundreds of other originals grace the collections of museums worldwide. Nearly 1000 of their original paper calotype negatives survive, the largest group at the Glasgow School of Art and most of the others at the Scottish National Portrait Gallery (with smaller deposits at the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, University of Texas, and at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York). By their very nature, Hill's lithographs and engravings are scattered but survive in numerous locations. His paintings fared less well, though the Perth Museum and Art Gallery, the National Gallery of Scotland, and the Hunterian Gallery in Glasgow each hold several, and numerous others are in collections worldwide. Many were purchased by patrons, and these are still coming to market. In addition to his photographic legacy shared with Robert Adamson, Hill's greatest influence was on the development of the arts in his native Scotland. The obituary in the Art Journal (new ser., 9, 1870) observed that even though Mr. Hill's works may not rank with the highest productions of British artists, even with the best of those of Scotland, he did much to maintain the honour of the school to which he belongs … in the Art-circles of Edinburgh … his loss will undoubtedly be much deplored, and his absence from them deeply regretted. (p. 203) The Edinburgh Evening Courant (18 May 1870) stressed the character that had made it all possible, saying that Hill was ‘very loveable and much beloved’.


David Octavius Hill

The Scottish painter and arts activist collaborated with the engineer and photographer Robert Adamson between 1843 and 1847 to pioneer many aspects of photography in Scotland. He became learned in lithography, and produced an album of landscape views titled "Sketches of Scenery in Perthshire". He and other artists established a Scottish Academy in 1829 with the assistance of his close friend Henry Cockburn, provided illustrations to Walter Scott and Robert Burns.

He recorded the dramatic scene when 400 ministers walked out of the Church of Scotland to subsequently find the Free Church of Scotland using a new found technique called "photography" to claim likenesses of the ministers. These were used by Hill in his painting "The Disruption of 1843".

In partnership with Robert Adamson Hill produced a number of portraits of the well-known in Scotland, including Hugh Miller. Their partnership produced over 3000 Calotype prints which can fade over time if exposed to light.

After finishing "The Disruption" in 1866, he received wide acclaim even though most of those pictured had already died. He was greatly affected by his daughter's death and illness caused him to be less active. He is portrayed in a bust sculpted by his second wife, Amelia R Paton. Inscription: DAVID OCTAVIUS HILL RSA Born 1802, died 1870. For 43 years secretary to the Royal Scottish Academy. He was a man of upright noble and unselfish character who sacrificed much for the advancement of the Fine Arts of his country. AMELIA ROBERTSON PATON, Sculptor, born 1820, died 1904.


About Rock House

Built in the 1750s, Rock House is reputed to be one of the oldest houses in Edinburgh’s new town. It came to worldwide fame as the home of David Octavius Hill, the artist and pioneering photographer who in 1843 together with Robert Adamson developed the calotype process at Rock House.

Robert Adamson
courtesy of Scottish National Portrait Gallery

David Octavius Hill
courtesy of Scottish National Portrait Gallery

Both Hill and Adamson are credited with the origination of photography as an art form – taking the camera into the landscape and for the first time photographing people in their natural habitat.


General Information

Name of creator

Biographical history

David Octavius Hill (1802–1870), painter and photographer, was born on 20 May 1802 in Perth, Scotland, the eighth child (hence Octavius) of Thomas Hill, bookseller, and Emelia or Emily Murray. He was educated at Perth Academy.
While still a teenager Hill applied the new technique of lithography to producing Thirty Sketches of Scenery in Perthshire, Drawn from Nature and on Stone, which was issued in six parts between 1821 and 1823 by his father Thomas Hill, a publisher and printseller in Perth. He went to study in Edinburgh at the Trustees' Academy School of Design under Andrew Wilson, a landscape painter and well-known art connoisseur. Although Hill inserted into his works depictions illustrating the manners of the Scottish peasantry, it was the subtle strength of his landscape paintings on which he rapidly built his reputation. These landscapes were admirably suited to engraving, the early nineteenth century's most influential development in the distribution of images, and many of his paintings are best-known through the engravings made from them he had more works engraved than any other Scottish artist. Hill's great early achievement was his series of views in 1840 that were made into steel-engravings entitled The Land of Burns. This project was the most ambitious and expensive Scottish publication up to that time and firmly established his reputation. His painting style was delicate rather than vigorous, but exploitation of light and shade gave many of his works unexpected force. He was particularly fond of the light at sunset. An extensive assessment of his career appeared in the Art Journal for 1869, which asserted that: he is not to be classed with the school of the naturalists, applying the term to those artists who are satisfied to represent Nature as they see her, but with that of the poetists, treating his subjects in a manner that gives additional charms to whatever they may in themselves possess.
Hill was a man of tremendous good cheer and bonhomie, which served him well throughout his life. The Edinburgh Evening Courant (18 May 1870) recalled that ‘in personal appearance he was remarkable for his striking, classical, and manly features’. Andrew Wilson had introduced him to the artistic community, in which Hill became a jovial and central figure. He joined the Association for the Promotion of Fine Arts in 1826, but was one of several artists who withdrew in a controversy. In 1829 he was a founder member of the Society of Artists, and became its secretary in the following year from 1836 this was a paid position. In 1838 the society became the Royal Scottish Academy of Fine Arts, of which he remained secretary for the rest of his life. He undoubtedly played a part in the academy's decision to commemorate the royal charter by opening its exhibition on 10 February 1840, the day the young Queen Victoria married.
On 9 August 1837 Hill married Ann McDonald (bap. 1804, d. 1841), the musically inclined daughter of a wine merchant in Perth. Their brief life together was one active in the society of the artistic community of Edinburgh. A daughter, Charlotte, was born in 1839, but a second daughter, born in 1840, lived only a few hours. Much weakened, Ann died on 5 October 1841 and Hill and his daughter went to live with his widowed sister, Mary Watson.

Photographic pioneer: partnership with Robert Adamson.
The year 1839 had seen the public announcement of the invention of photography, an art that soon brought together D. O. Hill and Robert Adamson (1821–1848), changing both their lives irrevocably. Adamson was born on 26 April 1821, the son of Alexander Adamson, a tenant farmer at Burnside (5 miles east of St Andrews), and his wife, Rachael Melville. He was educated at Madras School, St Andrews, where he twice took the prize for mathematics. Adamson displayed an unusual talent for mechanics, working for an engineering shop in his youth, but his fragile health prohibited this calling. His older brother, Dr John Adamson (1809–1870), practised medicine in St Andrews and associated with Sir David Brewster (1761–1868), the principal of the United Colleges of St Leonard and St Salvator, along with other members of the St Andrews Literary and Philosophical Society. Brewster also enjoyed an unusually close scientific friendship with William Henry Fox Talbot (1800–1877) of Lacock Abbey. When Talbot announced his invention of photography on paper in January 1839, Brewster took an immediate enthusiastic interest and became the conduit into Scotland for information on the new art. Dr Adamson was one of the leading figures in this fledgeling photographic circle and encouraged his younger brother in taking up the calotype. By summer 1842 Brewster had reported to Talbot that the young man was becoming well drilled in the art, and on 10 May 1843 Robert Adamson established Scotland's first calotype studio, in the small eighteenth-century Rock House, on the steps of Calton Hill in Edinburgh.
Within days after Adamson opened his studio, on 19 May 1843, there took place in Edinburgh the Disruption of the Church of Scotland, perhaps the most significant event in nineteenth-century Scottish history. Acting on deeply held principles about control of their own parishes, a substantial proportion of the ministers of the Church of Scotland took the courageous act of signing the deed of demission, separating themselves from their livings and laying the foundations for the Free Church of Scotland. Dr Thomas Chalmers (1780–1847) presided as the first moderator of the Free Church assembly. Hill's brother-in-law, the Revd Robert MacDonald (1813–1893), one of the most fiery of the Free Church's early members, became largely responsible for their school building programme. Hill, moved by this momentous occasion, announced his intention of painting a monumental portrait of the nearly 500 ministers and lay people involved in the signing, to be engraved and published by his brother. Perhaps Hill had been inspired by the recent showing of George Hayter's The Great Reform Bill, 1832, a composite of 400 portraits of members of parliament painted from life. Hill's project presented immediate problems. By temperament and training a landscape painter, he had painted only one significant portrait before this. Knowing that the participants would soon scatter to all corners of Scotland, Sir David Brewster suggested Robert Adamson's new art as a means of recording their features.
Within a very short period Hill's artistic direction and Adamson's manipulatory skills merged into a partnership unlike any in the early history of photography. Even with the help of specially devised cameras, lenses, and other devices made by the ingenious Thomas Davidson of Edinburgh, the exposure times of the calotype negative forced them to move furniture and trappings out into the garden in order to take advantage of the sunlight. Mirrors and reflectors helped to direct and concentrate the light. Hill's warm and commanding personality put the sitters at ease even while locking their bodies and expressions into a form that the camera could record. Robert Adamson had mastered the intricacies of the new art, refining it in a way that led to artistically pleasing prints. When their first efforts were exhibited at the Royal Scottish Academy of Arts in 1844, they were titled as ‘executed by R. Adamson under the artistic direction of D. O. Hill’. Their calotype portraits, at first seen as convenient studies for a grand painting, emerged with a power and truthfulness of their own.
Their reputation grew as rapidly as the diversity of their subject matter. Hill's extensive social contacts came into play, and their subsequent portraits recorded the society of Edinburgh and many of its famous visitors. They took their cameras to the Free Church assembly in Glasgow and to the British Association for the Advancement of Science meeting in York. The architecture of Linlithgow, Durham, York, and Edinburgh expanded their subject matter, and their panoramas of Edinburgh provide a detailed record of the city at that time. Several of these landscape views provided direct inspiration for Hill's paintings. One of their most ambitious and penetrating projects was to document the fishermen and women, principally of the village of Newhaven. Within this picturesque and self-contained society Hill and Adamson extended the vision of photography to documenting a way of life—including not only its people, but also the boats, nets, and other objects that defined their existence. For Hill this was a return in a more sophisticated fashion to his early interest in recording the manners of the Scottish peasantry. Just as in his paintings, it was poetry and not nature that inspired Hill, and the calotype negatives were often retouched to remove distracting elements or to emphasize important features. In the end, however, they spoke with truth to the spirit of the subject.
Within the first four years of their partnership, Hill and Adamson took more than 3000 photographs, many of which remain of undeniable quality to this day. But Robert Adamson's health, the cause of his taking up photography in the first place, continued to fail. Adamson's work dropped off throughout 1847 and on 14 January 1848 his short life came to a tragic end at St Andrews. Hill was devastated, losing not only a close friend, but also the source of his success in the art of photography. He continued to live in Rock House and to distribute their photographs, but could never again achieve the artistic harmony of the works that he had produced with Adamson. He joined the Photographic Society of Scotland in 1858, even though more than a decade had passed since he had been involved in taking a photograph. A brief collaboration with the Glasgow photographer A. M'Glashon in the years 1860–62 was unproductive. The original inspiration for taking up photography, his painting of the signing of the deed of demission, was not completed until 1865, and this grand painting, now in the offices of the Free Church, is little more than a collage of the calotype photographs on which it was founded.
Hill's activities as the secretary of the Royal Scottish Academy continued throughout his life and served to maintain his prominence in the artistic community. In 1830 Hill was one of the major forces in the formation of the Art Union of Edinburgh, the first institution of the kind in the nation, and one that was soon copied. In 1850 he was appointed one of the commissioners of the board of manufactures in Scotland, a body then responsible for the Government School of Art and the new National Gallery of Scotland.
Hill's only child, Charlotte (Chatty), the wife of W. Scott Dalgleish, died early in 1862. Shortly afterwards, on 18 November 1862, Hill married the sculptor Amelia Robertson Paton [see Hill, Amelia Robertson (1820–1904)], who was the sister of the Pre-Raphaelite artist Sir Noël Paton and the landscape painter Waller Hugh Paton.
In addition to his public services, Hill continued to paint and to exhibit. Some of his paintings, particularly Old and New Edinburgh, from the Castle and The Braes of Ballochmyle, were clearly inspired by the photographs he had been involved in taking. In all, Hill exhibited about 300 of his works in his lifetime. About 270 of these were shown in the annual exhibitions of the Royal Scottish Academy. Nearly all were paintings, but he exhibited seven calotypes in 1844 and ten more the following year. His reputation was grounded largely in Edinburgh—he showed only four times at the Royal Academy in London—but this was not as limiting as it might seem. The ‘Athens of the north’ was a powerful intellectual centre in the dual wake of the Scottish Enlightenment and the exhortations of Sir Walter Scott. It was a place where a man such as Hill could influence greatly the course of artistic development. And that he did.
Hill's marriage to Amelia was not only happy but productive. It was under her influence that Hill finally completed his Disruption painting. Although she was clearly a Scottish artist, Amelia exhibited eighteen of her sculptures at the Royal Academy in London, helping to extend her husband's reputation as well. Tragically, Hill developed rheumatic fever in 1868. They moved from the cramped but central quarters of Rock House to a more tranquil spot in Edinburgh. There—Newington Lodge, Mayfield Terrace—Hill died on 17 May 1870. Amelia Hill executed a bronze bust for his grave in the Dean cemetery.
It is curious that Hill's obituaries nearly universally failed to mention his pioneering photographic work with Robert Adamson. But it is this body of work, much more than his paintings and engravings, that has lived on, inspiring successive generations of photographers and historians. The landscapes and architectural work that they accomplished are valuable records of a Scotland now changed. More significantly, however, they brought to the photograph the expressive power to record the personality of the sitters. In 1843, when Adamson started his studio, those in the know maintained a careful distinction between the daguerreotype and the photograph. Daguerreotypes, those magic little mirrors that were unique images on sheets of polished silver, had immediately taken over the province of the portrait. Photographs, which at the time meant images on paper, had lagged in this application. Perhaps part of this can be ascribed to the temperament of their inventor, William Henry Fox Talbot, for social contact was difficult for him and this shows almost inescapably in his photographs of people. Hill had no such problem and Robert Adamson ensured that the human contact he had made was expressed clearly and forcefully on a sheet of paper. The power and visual nature of Hill's and Adamson's images were likened to those of Rembrandt, and appropriately so, with their moody range of masses of light and shade. Nothing in the early history of the photograph can be compared to their body of work.
Although Hill's and Adamson's photographs fell briefly from sight within Hill's lifetime, it was not long before they regained an enduring and well-deserved reputation as beautifully symbolizing the expressive power of a radical new art. The photographer Francis Caird Inglis (1876–1940), who took over Rock House about 1900, found many negatives and prints remaining there. The Glasgow photogravure master Thomas Annan (1828–1887) had made permanent carbon prints of Hill's Disruption painting. His son, J. Craig Annan (1864–1946), had been familiar with Hill's and Adamson's photographs since he was a child, and worked with Inglis to make new prints from the negatives (a practice natural at the time but roundly discouraged today) and permanent prints in carbon. It was through Annan that Alfred Stieglitz (1864–1946) became interested in this pioneering work, introducing it not only to the American public, but also to serious photographers worldwide. A nephew of Hill's, the bookseller Andrew Elliott, had taken over the shop and stock of Hill's brother Alexander. In addition to writing one of the early books on Hill's photographs, he commissioned Jessie Bartram to make sensitive carbon prints from the originals between 1913 and 1925. It was natural that Elliott's book should emphasize the contributions of his uncle and by the time Heinrich Schwarz had published his serious assessment in 1931 Robert Adamson was almost totally forgotten. Later historians have begun to appreciate the essentially symbiotic nature of this unique partnership, however, and it is not unusual to find their work today labelled (perhaps as it always should have been) as being by Adamson and Hill. Certainly there can be no meaningful separation of their individual contributions to their photographic masterpieces.
Robert Adamson's command of the process of making prints in silver was as unusual as it was complete, and the original prints have proven to be among the most durable of all early photographs. More than 3000 are in the collection of the Scottish National Portrait Gallery in Edinburgh and many hundreds of other originals grace the collections of museums worldwide. Nearly 1000 of their original paper calotype negatives survive, the largest group at the Glasgow School of Art and most of the others at the Scottish National Portrait Gallery (with smaller deposits at the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, University of Texas, and at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York). By their very nature, Hill's lithographs and engravings are scattered but survive in numerous locations. His paintings fared less well, though the Perth Museum and Art Gallery, the National Gallery of Scotland, and the Hunterian Gallery in Glasgow each hold several, and numerous others are in collections worldwide. Many were purchased by patrons, and these are still coming to market. In addition to his photographic legacy shared with Robert Adamson, Hill's greatest influence was on the development of the arts in his native Scotland. The obituary in the Art Journal (new ser., 9, 1870) observed that even though Mr. Hill's works may not rank with the highest productions of British artists, even with the best of those of Scotland, he did much to maintain the honour of the school to which he belongs … in the Art-circles of Edinburgh … his loss will undoubtedly be much deplored, and his absence from them deeply regretted. (p. 203) The Edinburgh Evening Courant (18 May 1870) stressed the character that had made it all possible, saying that Hill was ‘very loveable and much beloved’.

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Videoni tomosha qiling: Hill and Adamson. People (Yanvar 2022).