Podkastlar tarixi

1945 yil 10 mart

1945 yil 10 mart

1945 yil 10 mart

Dengizdagi urush

U-275 nemis suv osti kemasi Nyuhaven yaqinidagi minaga urilganidan keyin hamma qo'llari bilan cho'kdi

Havoda urush

Bitta B-29 reydida Tokioning 16,5 gektar maydoni yonib ketdi

Uzoq Sharq

Yapon va frantsuz qo'shinlari Xanoyda jang qiladi

G'arbiy front

AQShning 1 va 2 -chi qo'shinlari Reynda birlashadi

Britaniya qo'shinlari Reynning g'arbiy sohilidagi Veselning janubi-g'arbidagi Alpenni egallab olishdi

Diplomatiya

Stalin Transilvaniyani Ruminiyaga qaytaradi

Sharqiy front

Panzer qo'shinlari generali Xasso von Manteuffel uchinchi Panzer armiyasini boshqaradi

Kitoblar



Natsist amaldorlari saqlanib qoldi fath qilingan hududda

Kimdan Jangari, Jild IX No 10, 1945 yil 10 mart, p. 3.
Einde O ’Callaghan tomonidan yozilgan va yozilgan Trotskizm on-layn entsiklopediyasi (ETOL).

Qrimning bema'nilik va'dalari, "nazizm yo'q qilinmaguncha", dam olmaslikka vafot etdi. Ittifoqchilarning gitlerchi axlat bilan hamkorlik qilishining butun dahshatli hikoyasi hali aytilmagan. Biroq, hamma bilgani uchun, hatto eng sodda odam ham, ballar nima ekanligini ayta oladi.

Keling, masalan, Axen shahridagi sozlashni olaylik. Londondagi so'nggi ma'lumotlarga ko'ra Daily Express va N.Y. PM, u erdagi hukumat butunlay "ldquoreactionaries" ga ishonib topshirilgan, ya'ni fashistlar yoki ularning yordamchilari. 325 ta shahar amaldorlaridan 57 nafari natsistlar edi. & rdquo Shahar hokimi etib katta biznes boshqaruvchisi, Oppenhof, ilgari Veltrup o'q -dorilarining kadrlar menejeri etib tayinlangan. Axen amaldorlari orasida fashizmga qarshi haqiqiy jangchi ham, nemis er osti a'zolarining hech biri yo'q edi.

Xulosa qilib aytganda, Axen ittifoqchilar davrida deyarli xuddi shu tarzda boshqarilgan va hatto Gitler davridagi ko'plab odamlar tomonidan boshqarilgan. Bu haqda xabarlar tarqalgach, o'zgarish yuz berdi. Natsistlarning bir qismi unchalik taniqli bo'lmagan elementlar bilan almashtirildi, lekin yana Axen shahridagi natsistlarga qarshi haqiqiy kuchlar butunlay chiqarib tashlandi.

Axen - bu qoida va istisno emas. Xabarchi Doroti Tompson, bizda (masalan, "ldquodemokratiya va rdquo") natsistlarga qarshi toza rekordga ega bo'lgan erkaklarga, masalan, kontslager lageridagi martaba bo'yicha, vakolat berilganligi to'g'risida aniq ayblov qo'ydi. & Rdquo Bu ayblov rad etilmagan. Bu & rsquot bo'lishi mumkin. Bu haqiqat. Hatto eng yumshoq anti-natsistlarni ham chetlab o'tish Ittifoqchilar hisoblangan siyosatning bir qismidir.

Natsistlar bilan muomala qiling

Bu muharrirlar kabi Stalinistlar yoki qo'rqoq liberallarga to'sqinlik qilmaydi PM, Ittifoqchilarni yashirishga urinishdan. Masalan; misol uchun, PMMax Lerner Aaxendan: "Bu erda harbiy hukumatning asl tuzilmasida" aql bovar qilmaydigan xatolar va siyosiy soddaligi "borligini aytdi. & rdquo

Bu da'vo Amerika ettinchi armiyasining rasmiy vakili tomonidan 1933 yilgacha fashistik partiyaga a'zo bo'lgan fashistlar lavozimidan chetlatilishi kerak bo'lgan bayonotlar oldida qilingan.

The N.Y. TaymsAmerika imperializmining markaziy organi, Qrim qarorlarining mohiyatini talqin qilishdan tortinmaydi, chunki ular Germaniyaning siyosiy hayoti bilan Aaxendagi ittifoqchi harbiy hokimiyat idoralari bilan bir xil ma'noda bog'liq. Shunday qilib, Vaqt Parij muxbiri, 19-fevral, "nemis qochqinlari, fashistlarga qarshi tashkilotlar yoki erkin nemislar bilan kurashish uchun & ldquoit hozir juda erta deb hisoblanadi. & Rdquo

Bu orada, agar aniq bo'lsa, ittifoqchilar, ular qilganidek, faqat natsistlar va pro-natsistlar bilan & ldquodeal & rdquo taklif qiladilar. Ruzvelt, Cherchill va Stalin natsistlar va nemis xalqini farqlash mumkin emas deb e'lon qilishsa-da, ular natsistlarga qarshi elementlarga qarshi va gitlerchilarning foydasiga farq qilish chizig'ini yaratishga kirishdilar.

Bu siyosatda Vashington, London va Moskvaning o'z taqdirini belgilashda nemis ommasiga ovoz berishiga yo'l qo'ymaslikka bo'lgan qat'iyligi ifodalangan. Ular Italiyadagi yutuqlarini yanada keng miqyosda takrorlashga umid qiladilar.

Haftalik AQSh yangiliklari, 2 -mart, buni o'chiradi:

& ldquoNemis fashistlarining hozirgi bosqichida rasman harbiy jinoyatchilar deb nomlanmasligining bir sababi shundaki, ularning orasidan kimdir Darlan yoki Badoglio bo'lib chiqadi, degan umid va hatto umid ham bor. & rdquo


Sotsializm haqida suhbatlar

Kimdan Jangari, Vol.  IX №. 㺊, 1945 yil 10 mart, p. 4.
Einde O ’ Callaghan tomonidan yozilgan va yozilgan Trotskizm on-layn entsiklopediyasi (ETOL).

Men sizning nuqtai nazaringizni ko'ra olaman, - deydi yosh Mayk. Hammamiz bir odam ishlab chiqargani uchun haq oladimi yoki yo'qmi, deb bahslashardik va agar elektrchi faqat topganini olsayu, qanday qilib och qolishi haqida hazillashardik.

& ldquoAgar sizga soat yoki bo'lak uchun pul to'lansa, siz qilgan ishingiz uchun baribir pul olasiz. Agar siz ko'proq harakat qilsangiz, ko'proq narsani olasiz. Men to'g'rimi? & Rdquo Mayk echinish xonasida sizdan ko'ra ko'proq joy oladi va do'konda yangi odamdan kutganingizdan ko'ra ko'proq. Ammo u ndash yaqinida tarbiyalangan va hamkasblarining yarmini yaxshi biladi.

& ldquoNo, & rdquo Slim turibdi, & ldquoyou siz to'laganingizdan ko'ra ko'proq ishlab chiqarasiz. Va agar siz & rsquot & ndash qilmagan bo'lsangiz. & Rdquo Lekin keyin hushtak chalindi va hamma o'z ishiga qaytdi.

Yosh Mayk Ed va Breezy bilan eski 29 -nashrda ishlagan. Bu 10 dyuym va 30 dyuymli varaqdagi katta teshiklarni teshish bilan bog'liq ish edi. Varaq bir tomondan matbuotga berildi va boshqa tomondan chiqarildi. Matn varaq siljiyotgan paytda bir nechta zarbalar berishi kerak edi. Agar siz do'zax kabi ishlasangiz va matbuotni doim avtomatik ravishda ushlab tursangiz, to'qqizdan o'n dollargacha pul topishingiz mumkin bo'lgan ish shu narxda edi.

Old 29 soatiga 450 marta urilgan, ya'ni buzilishlarga yo'l qo'ymaydi va hokazo. Bu Mayk qo'ygan eng yaxshi ish edi. Katta yoshda undan oldin boshqa ko'plab hamkasblar bor edi. Ammo bu aylanma ish edi va hech kim uni yomon pulga urishni xohlamadi.

Tabiiyki, bola xuddi itdek ishlagan, matodan o'sha choyshablarni olib tashlagan va yig'ishga yordam bergan. To'satdan yana bir nosozlik yuz berdi va 29 -chi kun yakunlandi.

Matbuot 31-da, xuddi shu sozlama o'rnatilgan. Va bir necha daqiqadan so'ng aktsiyalarni ko'chirish uchun kunlik ishdan keyin Ed, Breezy va yosh Mayk o'sha erdan yana boshladilar. 31 -chi soatiga 600 marta urilgan va eski matbuotga qaraganda o'ttiz uch foiz ko'p. Hamkasblar har bir zarbani olish uchun poyabzallarini chayqashlari kerak edi.

Ayniqsa, Mayk. U terdan ho'l bo'lib ketdi. Ammo u o'zini juda yomon his qilmadi, chunki u soatiga qo'shimcha o'ttiz uch foizini oladi. Uning aqliy arifmetikasiga ko'ra, soatiga kamida 40 tsentga ko'proq keldi.

Shift oxirida, ular echinish xonasida kiyimlarini almashtirganlarida, Breezi dedi: "Salom Mayk! Biz qancha ishlab topdik? & Rdquo

& ldquoEleven dollar va o'n etti sent, & rdquo Mayk javob berdi.

Mayk bo'lak-ish stavkalari haqida bilib oladi

Hamma echinish xonasida o'girildi yoki yuvinishni to'xtatdi.

& ldquoWhaddaya degani, o'n bir dollar va o'n etti sent? Hech kim bu ish uchun bunchalik ko'p pul topmaydi. & Rdquo

Mayk arifmetikani biladigan hech kim emas edi va u shunday dedi: "Siz menga diagramma chizishimni xohlaysizmi?" Va u shkafning yonidagi bo'r bilan o'ylab topdi. Va bu aniq o'n bir dollar va o'n etti sentga to'g'ri keldi.

Keyin bir qo'l yelkasidan o'tib, bir nechta raqamlarni o'chirib tashladi va to'qqiz dollar chorakka chiqdi.

Bu Slim edi. & ldquoKo'ryapsizmi, ular 31 da 29 ga qaraganda arzonroq narxga ega, chunki u tezroq ketadi. & rdquo

& ldquoBiroq men ham tezroq bordim, & rdquo biroz hayratda qolgan Maykga e'tiroz bildirdi.

& LdquoSiz, albatta, qildingiz, va siz tezroq ishlab chiqargansiz. Ammo tushlik paytida aytishni boshlaganimdek, siz ishlab chiqarganingiz uchun pul olmaysiz. & Rdquo

& ldquo Lekin bu boshqacha. Bu iflos firibgarlik! & ldquoNega biz shikoyat qilmaymiz? & rdquo

& LdquoSiz uni yo'qotdingiz demoqchimisiz? Qanday bo'lmasin, kompaniya nima deyishi mumkin? & Rdquo

Breezi kulib yubordi. & ldquoMen ular aytgan bir narsani eslayman! & ndash Agar sizda ham xuddi shunday narx stavkasi 31 bo'lsa, u 29 -da yigitlarga adolatli bo'lardi. & rdquo

& ldquoUlar sizga faqat bir kunlik ish uchun haq to'laydilar, & rdquo Slim javob berdi. & ldquoUlar o'n bir dollar va rsquosni ishlayotgan odam uchun biroz ortiqcha deb hisoblashadi. Siz o'ttiz uch foizga yaxshi ishlab chiqargansiz, lekin baribir sizga ovqat uchun pul kerak bo'lmaydi. Nega ular sizga ko'proq pul to'lashi kerak?

Men eslayman, & rdquo Slim davom etdi, & ldquo qachonki, barcha bosishlar sekinroq bo'lganida, siz hozir qo'lda ko'p narsalarni mashinada qilyapsiz. Biz hozir olayotgan mahsulotning yarmini ololmadik. Ammo biz yaxshi uylarda yashamasligimiz, mashinalar yaxshi haydamasligimiz yoki o'sha paytdagidan ko'ra yaxshiroq ovqatlanmasligimiz kerak. & Rdquo

& Ldquo, Xo'sh, bu vidalanadigan tizim, & rdquo yosh Mayk. & ldquoI & rsquom, albatta, sizni hayron qoldirdi! & rdquo

& ldquoQanday tizim yaxshiroq bo'lardi, Mayk? & rdquo Slim aybsiz so'radi.


Wheels G'arb kuni Susanvil tarixida –, 10 mart, 1945 yil

Lassen County Title Co kompaniyasi shu hafta mahalliy korxonaga aylandi, shunda advokat Jorj D. Pancera va Artur J. Anderson konsernni sotib olib, Lassen County Title Guarantee Co.

Xarid Title Insurance and Guarantee shirkatidan qilingan. San -Frantsiskodan. Yangi egalar Jorj D. Pancera, prezident Artur J. Anderson, vitse -prezident va xazinachi va kotib Electa Lazard bo'ladi.

Yangi kompaniya sug'urta kompaniyalarining umumiy huquqlarini sug'urtalash bilan shug'ullanadi, titullarni qidiradi va beradi va ko'chmas mulk, sotish va xavfsizlikni, shuningdek boshqa turdagi biznesni amalga oshiradi.

Pancera va Anderson, shuningdek, umumiy huquq amaliyoti bilan shug'ullanadilar, Anderson va Pancera nomi bilan yuridik sheriklik sifatida, Lassen Sankt -Andersondagi saroy binosidagi ofitserlar bilan, hozirgi Lassen okrug okrugi prokurori, shu lavozimda davom etadilar. Jorj D. Pancera tuman prokurorining o'rinbosari vazifasini bajarishda davom etmoqda.

Yangi firma a'zolari bir necha yillardan beri Lassen okrugida yashaydilar, Anderson 1926 yilda Syuzanvilga joylashdi. Yaqinda dengiz piyodalari bilan xizmatdan qaytgan Pancera 1937 yildan beri yashaydi. Ikki urush faxriysi, u Kaliforniyaning San -Xose shahrida tug'ilgan.

Lassen okrugining yangi unvon kafolati. Lassen grafligi 1862 yilda Lassen okrugi birinchi marta tashkil etilgan paytdagi ko'chmas mulk operatsiyalari to'g'risidagi yozuvlarni saqlaydi.


Tarixdagi eng vayronkor bombardimon hujumidan 73 yil o'tdi: Tokio 1945 yil 9-10 mart

Hamma biladi, Xirosima va Nagasaki va ikkita shahar, o'n minglab odamlar bitta bombadan o'lgan –, lekin 1945 yil 9-10 martga o'tar kechasi Tokioda nima bo'lgani haqida xabardorlik kam. U tarixdagi eng vayronkor bombardimon hujumiga dosh berib, 100 mingga yaqin tinch aholini o'ldirgan (garchi ularning sonini hech kim bilmasa ham).

The Vikipediya Hisob rasmiy manbalarga asoslangan:

1945 yil 9-10 martga o'tar kechasi (“Operation Meetinghouse ”), 334 B-29 (Boing tomonidan ishlab chiqarilgan yirik bombardimonchilar) reydga chiqishdi, ulardan 279 tasi Tokioga 1665 tonna bomba tashladi. Bomba asosan 500 funtli (230 kg) E-46 klasterli bomba bo'lib, u 38 napalm tashuvchi M-69 yondiruvchi bombalarini [napalm-yopishqoq yonuvchi jele, keyinchalik Koreya va Vetnamda ishlatilgan] 2000–2500 fut balandlikda tarqatdi. (610–760 m).

M-69 samolyotlari yupqa tom yopish materialini teshdi yoki erga tushdi, har ikki holatda ham ular 3-5 soniyadan keyin yonib ketib, alangali napalm globuslarini tashladilar. Kamroq M-47 yondirgichlari ham tashlandi: M-47-100 funtli (45 kg) benzinli va oq fosforli bomba.

Reydning dastlabki ikki soati mobaynida 226 ta hujumkor samolyot bomba tushirib, shahar va#8217s o't o'chiruvchilarini bosib ketdi. Birinchi B-29 samolyotlari, X-Koto va Chuo shaharlaridagi docklar yaqinida, Tokioda joylashgan va ishchilar sinfining zich joylashgan katta X shaklidagi bomba tashlagan, keyinchalik samolyotlar X. yonib ketgan. Umumiy yong'inni yaratish uchun bomba qo'shildi, bu yong'in bo'roni deb tasniflanadi, lekin shamollar tezligi soatiga 27 dan 45 km gacha.

Bosqindan so'ng, Tokio markazining 16 kvadrat milya qismi tekislangan va bir million odam boshpanasiz qolgan.

[P] 6 soat ichida Tokioda sodir bo'lgan yong'inda odamlar tarixidagi har qanday vaqtga qaraganda ko'proq odam halok bo'ldi. Odamlar haddan tashqari issiqlikdan, kislorod etishmasligidan, uglerod oksidi bo'g'ilishidan, olomonning oyoq osti ostida qolib ketishidan va cho'kib ketishidan vafot etdilar. Eng ko'p qurbonlar eng himoyasizlar edi: ayollar, bolalar va qariyalar.

Kertis LeMay, Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari Harbiy havo kuchlari generali, Tokiodagi portlashni uyushtirgan (va Yaponiyaning boshqa shaharlarida, Koreya va Vetnamda ham xuddi shunday rollarni o'ynagan), uning samolyotlari yonib, qaynatilib, Tokioda ko'proq odam o'lganini aytgan. kecha … Xirosima va Nagasaki birlashgan ko'ra ’. Robert McNamara, keyinchalik AQSh mudofaa vaziri, lekin 1945 yilda LeMay va uning xodimlari, 2003 yilda LeMay ’ ning fikricha,

"Agar biz urushda mag'lub bo'lganimizda, biz hammamiz harbiy jinoyatchilar sifatida javobgarlikka tortilgan bo'lar edik." Menimcha, u to'g'ri [MakNamara davom etdi]. U va men aytardimki, o'zimni urush jinoyatchilari kabi tutardim. LeMay, agar uning tarafi mag'lub bo'lganida, qilayotgan ishi axloqsiz deb hisoblanishini tushundi. Ammo nima yutqazsangiz axloqsiz, g'alaba qozonsangiz axloqsiz emas?

(Ichida You Tube ekstrakti, dan Urush tumani, McNamara shuningdek, urush paytida qilinishi kerak bo'lgan tanlovlarni ham ko'rib chiqadi.)

Biz Avstraliyadagi urush memoriali Tokio yubileyini nishonlayotganini tekshirdik. Memorial ’s veb -sayti shuni ko'rsatadiki, ertangi kun (ko'rgazmalar davom etishi va har kuni o'tkaziladigan oxirgi post marosimidan tashqari) uning odatdagi hikoyasi: bolalar uchun bepul mashg'ulotlar va soat 10.30 da.

Qo'g'irchoqlar, formalar va o'quv o'yinchoqlari orqali jasur hayvonlar, g'ayrioddiy odamlar va uzoq joylar haqidagi hikoyalarni tinglang. Bu dastur maktabgacha yoshdagi bolalar uchun mos, lekin katta aka-uka va opa-singillar ham qabul qilinadi.

Tokio portlashidan keyin ona va bola (Vikipediya)

Har bir mamlakat xotiraga bag'ishlangan, ammo Avstraliya ko'pchilikka qaraganda ko'proq "miyopik" va "miyopik" ko'rinadi. Biroq, Tokio 1945 va Xotira Memoriali o'rtasidagi bog'liqlik bor: 334 B-29 samolyotlarini ishlab chiqaruvchi Boeing-Memorialning yirik donorlaridan biri va direktor Brendan Nelson 2015 yil fevral oyida Senatning taxminlariga. Yodgorlik 2014-15 yillarda Boeing kompaniyasidan 1 million dollar olgan va uning bosh direktori Dennis Muilenburg Xotira ishtirokchilari bo'lgan ikki tadbirkordan biridir.


548 -chi NFSning ikkitasi Tinch okeani bo'ylab uchmoqda

Ivo -Jimaning tungi jangchilar otryadlari, ehtimol, o'z samolyotlarida qo'llaniladigan burun san'ati bilan mashhur, axir, bu, ehtimol, butun urushda eng yaxshisi edi. Lekin, bu 348-, 349- va 6 -chi tungi jangchilar otryadlari xizmatiga yomonlik qiladi, chunki ular taniqli va esda qolishga loyiqdir.

Tasavvur qilish mumkinki, tungi qiruvchi eskadron deb tasniflangan bo'linmalar aniq vazifaga ega bo'lib tuyuladi. Agar ular uchgan samolyot Ikkinchi Jahon urushidagi har qanday jangchining birinchi mo'ljallangan tungi qiruvchi samolyoti bo'lsa, yanada aniqroq bo'lardi. Shunday qilib, ajoyib odamlar boshqargan ajoyib samolyotlar burun san'atidan ko'ra ko'proq yutuqlarga erishgani va dushmanlarning tungi bosqinchilarini quvib chiqarish va otib tashlashi ajablanarli bo'lishi mumkin.

Ularning hikoyasining Ivo Jima qismi D+8 ga 548 -NFS kelishi bilan boshlanadi. Sakkiz oy oldin, 1944 yil mart oyida, P-40 va#8217 samolyotlarida uchishgan, ular o'sha yilning iyun oyida P-61 va#8217-larga o'tishgan. Ular 1944 yilgacha va 1945 yil boshlarida tinimsiz tayyorgarlikdan o'tdilar, mart oyida Ivo Jimaga jo'natilishidan oldin, hozirda ettinchi qiruvchi qo'mondonligi tarkibida. Ularning soniga tajribali 6 -NFSning ba'zi ekipajlari kirgan. Ko'p o'tmay, 6-chi ularga qo'shildi (u erda B-29 aerodromlarini himoya qilgan Saypandan) va birozdan keyin, 549-NFS.

1945 yil 10 martda yangi kelgan 548-NFS P-61 va#8217s Iwo Jima rampasida tizildi.

U kelgach, podpolkovnik Jimmi Alford boshchiligidagi 348 -chi samolyot aeroportini yaponiyalik Betti bombardimonchilarining tungi reydlaridan himoya qilish uchun CAPni ta'minlash bo'yicha birinchi vazifasini boshladi. Iwo Jima hali to'liq ta'minlanmagan va 15-FG ning yangi kelgan P-51 Mustanglari dengiz piyodalari uchun yaqin havodan yordamchi missiyalarini uchirishgan.

25 -martga kelib, orol xavfsiz deb hisoblandi, oxirgi yaponiyalik qo'mondon oxirgi xayrlashuv xabarini ikki kun oldin, 23 -da yubordi. Dengiz piyodalari chiqib keta boshladi va yaponlar Ivo Jimani himoya qilishdan bombardimonchilar bilan hujum qilishga o'tdilar. 6-NFSning ikkita P-61 va#8217-lari o'sha kecha CAPda bo'lishdi va kamida ikkita yapon bombardimonchi bilan shug'ullanishdi, bunda Ivo Jima ustidan birinchi tungi jangchi o'ldirildi. Bu o'sha kecha asosiy harakat emas edi, garchi 300 ga yaqin yapon qo'shinlari yashiringan joylaridan chiqib, uxlab yotgan uchuvchilar va quruqlik ekipajlariga hujum qilib, o'zlarini yo'q qilib yuborishdi. Endi, nihoyat, Ivo Jima xavfsiz edi.

Iyun oyiga kelib, P-51 ’s B29 va#8217-larning eskortlari bo'lib, Yaponiyaning uy orollariga hujum qilishdi va erdan hujum missiyalarini jiddiy bajarishdi. 548 -chi, 549 -chi va 6 -chi NFS havo bazasi ustidan samarali CAPni saqlab turishdi. Endi ularga boshqa vazifalar yuklanardi.

Uchib ketayotgan ikkita 548 -NFS qora beva ayol

Ettinchi qiruvchi qo'mondonlik generali Mikki Mur, yaponlar Yaponiya materikiga qilgan reydlaridan keyin jangchilarni (va bombardimonchilarni) kuzatib, qaytib kelayotgan samolyotlarga katta zarar etkazishidan xavotirda edi. U, shuningdek, oroldagi aviabazaga kunduzgi reyd uyushtirishi mumkinligidan xavotirda edi. Qaytib kelayotgan samolyotlarni himoya qilish uchun P-61 va 8217-lari kunduzi shimolga qaytib kelgan bombardimonchi va qiruvchi samolyotlarni himoya qilish uchun yuborilgan. Shunday qilib, P-61 va 8217-lar, shuningdek, yoqilg'isi juda past bo'lgan jangchilarga juda minnatdor navigatsion yordam ko'rsatishga qodir edilar, ular Yaponiyadan Ivo Jimaga 650 mil orqaga qaytishda juda kam xato qilgan. Keyinchalik, P-61 va#8217-lar chiquvchi jangchilarga ham navigatsiya yordami ko'rsatdi.

P-61 va#8217-larning eng qadrli vazifalaridan biri bu okeanda halok bo'lgan uchuvchilarni qutqarish edi. Ularning vazifasi parashyut bilan uchib ketgan uchuvchilarni aniqlash va ularni olib ketish uchun suv osti kemalarini yoki qirg'inlarni qutqarish edi. Bu vazifa Yaponiyadan qaytayotgan bombardimonchi va qiruvchi oqimlar bilan chegaralanmagan, ular Chichi Jima va boshqa nishonlarga tez -tez hujum qilishda ham bu qopqoqni berishgan.

  • Night Fighter eskadronlari haqli ravishda mashhur bo'lgan burun san'ati

G'ayrioddiy qo'shimcha vazifalardan biri iyun oyining boshlarida sodir bo'lgan. Buzilgan B-29 radiosi Osaka ustidagi yapon zarbasidan keyin ham bomba bortida bo'lganini aytdi. Bu zarba samolyot va#8217 komandirini o'ldirdi va kopilotni yarador qildi. Eng muhimi, u bomba yuklari etkazib berilmasligi yoki hatto jettison qilinishiga yo'l qo'ymaslik uchun bomba eshiklari eshiklarini tiqib qo'ygan edi. Hech qanday gidravlika va to'liq yuklamagan holda, bombardimonchi erga tusha olmadi, shuning uchun ekipaj Ivo Jima ustidan parashyut bilan uchib ketdi, u hamon samolyotni o'ldirgan qo'mondonini ko'tarib ketdi. Uni otish vazifasi 548-chi birinchi leytenant Artur Shepardga o'zining P-61 rusumli avtomashinasida kelgan. Katta bombardimonchi va uning baxtsiz qo'mondonini tushirish uchun "Qora beva ayol" ning sakkiztasini o'qqa tutish uchun ikkita o'tish kerak edi.

Ko'p o'tmay, iyun oyi o'rtalarida 548 -chi I Shima shahriga u erdagi havo bazalari ustidan tungi CAPni ta'minlash uchun yuborildi, ular kelganidan ko'p o'tmay, birinchi tunda o'ldirishdi. Biroq, I-Shima-da, P-61 va#8217-larning boshqa missiyasi tayinlangan. 548-chi P-61 va 548-chi P-61-chi missiyalarni bajarishda 318-chi rolni o'z zimmasiga olsak, Yaponiya materikiga uchib, havo bazalari va boshqa harbiy nishonlarga quruqlikdan hujum qilishimiz kerak edi. Bu missiyalar o'ta xavfli edi. Quruqlik hujumi endi P-61 va#8217s repertuariga qo'shildi.

Iwo Jima-dagi P-61 va#8217s va P-51 va#8217-lar

548-chi, 549-chi va 6-chi NFS P-61 va#8217-lari, shubhasiz, ettinchi qiruvchi qo'mondonligining bombardimonchilarni himoya qilish va quruqlikdagi qo'shinlarga yordam berishdagi muvaffaqiyatining katta qismi edi. Mustanglardan o'ta xavfli VLR missiyalarini bajarish talab qilingan bo'lsa-da (bitta dvigatelli qiruvchi samolyotda suv ustida 1300 mil masofani tasavvur qiling!), P-61 va#8217-lar u erdagi havo bazalari ustidan kechayu kunduz CAP va jangchilarga navigatsion yordam ko'rsatdi. Qidiruv va qutqaruv xizmatlari halok bo'lgan uchuvchilarga va hatto "#8220Heckler" va#8221 tungi vaqtda Yaponiya materikiga quruqlikdagi hujum reydlari.

Bundan ko'proq faqat chiroyli burun san'ati.

Buyuk devor hobbi 1/48 o'lchovli P-61B

GWH 1/48 o'lchovli P-61B-2 “ sifatida qurilganCooper va#8217s Snooper”, 1945 yil may oyida 548 -NFS tarkibida Ivo Jimaga asoslangan

Bu to'plam "Great Wall Hobby" model to'plami bilan birinchi tajribam edi. Men uzoq vaqtdan beri P-61 qilishni xohlardim, lekin Monogram to'plamining obro'si meni chetga surib qo'ydi. GWH to'plami bilan to'qnash kelish tasodif edi, menimcha, men bir kuni Modellashtirish jinniliklarini ko'rib chiqayotgan edim va men Tom Kliverning to'plamini ko'rib chiqdim. Yangi to'plamning mavjudligi men uchun vahiy edi, bu to'plam yaxshi qaror chiqaruvchi edi. Men bittasini sotib oldim.

Men kokpitdan ishlay boshladim va u bilan biroz harakat qildim, chunki P-61 oynasidagi oynalar uni ko'rinadigan qilib qo'ydi. Umuman olganda, to'plam juda ko'p qismlarni o'z ichiga oladi, shu jumladan pe tiqilib qolishi va men ba'zi muhandisliklarni keraksiz murakkab deb topgan bo'lsam -da, natijalar o'zlari uchun gapiradi. Men eng iqtidorli kokpit quruvchi emasman, lekin bu qanday amalga oshganidan biroz mamnun bo'ldim.

  • Kokpit detallari hamma narsani qondirishi kerak

Keyin konstruktsiya mantiqiy progressiya orqali havo ramkasi bilan davom etadi. Men qorin qurollari bilan chalkashib ketdim va asosiy korpusni yopishda biroz qiynaldim, lekin bu juda ko'p muammo tug'dirmadi.

Men ilgari ko'p marta aytganimdek, men qurilishda unchalik yaxshi emasman, shuning uchun ko'p qismini yig'ish va to'ldirish uchun tikuvlar bor edi. Uslubiy ishlash modeli birlashdi va bo'yashga tayyor bo'ldi. Ko'rsatmalar dumga o'tirmaslik uchun modelga burunga og'irlik qo'shishni aniq eslatadi. Yaxshiyamki, men tanlagan sxemada radar qopqog'i bo'yalgan edi va qo'rg'oshin zarbasini yashirish oson edi. Qurilish tugagandan so'ng, men tozalab, oynaga niqob qo'ydim.

  • Bo'yoqqa tayyorman, va, albatta, burundagi qo'rg'oshinlar bilan dumini o'tiruvchi bo'lolmayman!

Qora ranglar sxemasi juda oson bo'lib tuyulishi mumkin, lekin men o'yinchoqqa o'xshamaydigan ob -havo samolyotini xohlardim. Birinchidan, men Iwo Jima P-61 va#8217-larning ko'plab rasmlarini o'rganib chiqdim, shunda ular qanday ko'rinishga ega ekanligini, eng muhimi, ular bo'yoq qoplamasi va eskirish nuqtai nazaridan qanday o'zgarganligini bilib oldim.

Yuqoridagi rasmlar to'plamini va boshqa ko'p narsalarni o'rganayotganda, men "Qora beva" ning pardasi biroz qora rangda bo'lishi kerak degan xulosaga keldim. a juda nozik panel chizig'i aksenti. Dvigatel qopqog'ida katta porlashi bo'lgan umumiy atlas qoplamasi bo'lishi kerak. Ko'pgina samolyotlar Ivo Jimadagi qattiq vulqon changidan bo'yalgan bo'yoqlarning umumiy parchalanishini va umumiy eskirishni ko'rsatdi, shuning uchun men ham buni aks ettirishni juda muhim deb hisobladim.

Qirqish jarayonini osonlashtirish uchun men qora rangdan oldin modelni umumiy alyuminiy bilan bo'yashga qaror qildim, keyin bo'yoq yo'qolishini ko'rsatish uchun qora ranglarning bir qismini olib tashlayman.

Vallejo alyuminiy keyinchalik ob -havoga tayyorlanish uchun qo'llaniladi

Pastki palto bilan men Tamiya Nato Blekka asos bo'ldim. Men buni ishlatganimda, men asosiy panelga Tamiya Flat Black-ning engil soyasida ishladim va ularni ta'kidlash uchun kirish joylarida ishladim. Men ham pastki qismini biroz qoraytirdim, chunki ular quyosh botishiga shunchalik ta'sir qilmagan bo'lardi. Keyin men boshqa eskirgan joylarni soyabon bilan urdim yengillashdi NATO qora.

Bu bosqichda menda juda tekis, o'zgaruvchan ohang bor edi, men bundan mamnun bo'ldim. Yuqoridagi rasmlar men xohlagan darajada adolat qilmaydi, lekin umid qilamanki, siz tugallangan bo'yoq sxemasini tushunasiz. Keyin men ilgari sodir bo'lgan baxtsiz hodisa ob -havoni bo'yash sxemasini juda qiziqarli tugatishga olib kelishi mumkin bo'lgan narsani sinab ko'rdim. Men modelni oshxona sochiqlari bilan mahkam ishqaladim. Bu pardozni biroz chalkashtiradi, lekin u bo'yoqni qattiqlashtiradi, uni juda silliq qiladi (bu dekalni qo'llashda katta yordam beradi) va qog'oz sochiqni qanchalik va qanchalik qattiq surtilganiga qarab ohangda ko'proq o'zgarishlarni keltirib chiqaradi.

Shu nuqtada pardoz juda silliq edi, men dekalatsiyaga tayyorgarlik ko'rishda yaltiroq qoplamadan voz kechishni o'ylardim, lekin oxirida dekallar kumush bo'lmasligini ta'minlash uchun va bo'yoqni men odatda ishlatadigan eritma (lar) dan himoya qilish uchun bittasini oldim. Qo'shimcha ehtiyot chorasi sifatida men hatto yaltiroq paltoni ham yaltiratdim.

Yuqoridagi rasmlarda dekalatsiya natijalari o'z -o'zidan muammosiz ketayotganini ko'rsatib turibdi, hatto qanotlarda qizil yo'lakchalar ham hech qanday muammo tug'dirmagan. Men shablonlar va nishonlar va "Kitlar-World" va#8220War Birds ” P-61 Black Widow (KW-148003) naushniklari va seriallari uchun dekallarni ishlatardim. Men “Cooper ’s Snooper ” ni tanladim, chunki u B versiyasi edi va burunning og'irligini osongina o'rnatishga imkon beradigan bo'yalgan radar qopqog'i bor edi. Internetga nazar tashlaydigan bo'lsak, aksariyat modellar bir xil fikrda! Yopishtirgichlar bilan men hamma narsani engil porloq palto bilan yopib qo'ydim, so'ngra ob -havoga tayyorgarlik ko'rish uchun taglik tekis qatlamini surtdim.

Ob -havo - bu modellashtirishning eng sevimli qismi va men uni to'plamga buyurtma bergan kundan boshlab kutgan edim. Bu modelni tozalashda ikkita asosiy element bor edi, ular bo'yoqlarni parchalash, chang va chiqindilarni bo'yash edi. Model alyuminiydan yasalgan bo'lsa ham, men bo'yoqlarni tozalash uchun kumush qalamdan, chang va chiqindilarni bo'yash uchun havo cho'tkasidan foydalanishga qaror qildim.

Chipsni qo'llash uchun men modelga kumush qalamni engil va qayta -qayta qo'yib, effektni o'rnataman. Sabr - bu yondashuvning kalitidir. Ta'siri, mening nazarimda, hech bo'lmaganda juda ishonarli va menga bu model qanday paydo bo'lgani yoqadi.

Egzoz va umumiy changni ishlatish uchun men havo yostig'ini kulrang va och rangdagi nozik aralashmasi bilan ishlatardim. Men har doim nusxa emas, balki modelga o'xshab ko'rinadigan juda bir xil dastur tuzog'idan qochish uchun aralashmani o'zgartirdim. Men egzoz bo'yog'ini dvigatelning chiqindilariga va pastda va atrofdagi umumiy changlanishiga texnik xizmat ko'rsatish va/yoki qurollanish uchun piyoda harakatlanishi mumkin bo'lgan joylarga moslashtirish uchun qo'lladim.

Men ob -havodan xursand bo'lganimda, o'zgarmaydigan nashridan xursand bo'lgunimcha, yana aniqroq tekislikni qo'lladim. Qolgan narsa - bu poyezd va boshqa bit va bo'laklarni tugatish edi. Odatdagidek, men modelni ag'darib tashladim va uning pastki qismini, qopqog'ini, antennalarni va boshqalarni tugatdim, so'ngra uni g'ildiraklari ustki tomoniga burdim. Men ozgina tozalashni talab qiladigan oynadagi niqoblarni olib tashlashda qiynaldim, lekin umuman yaxshi chiqdi.

Birinchi leytenant Jorj C. Kuper ’s P-61B-2 (S/N 42-239454) Ivo Jimadagi 548-chi tungi jangchilar otryadining 1945 yil bahorida

To'plam menga juda ta'sir qildi va men erishgan natijadan juda mamnun bo'ldim. To'plamga aniq keladigan qisqa vaqt-bu yordamchi yonilg'i baklarining etishmasligi, agar mening to'plamim ularni sirli ravishda yo'qotmagan bo'lsa. Bir kuni men o'zimga mos keladigan to'plamni topaman va ularni ushbu modelga qo'shaman. Bu bitta shikoyatdan tashqari, lekin men bir kun kelib boshqasini qilaman, menda burun san'ati ko'p.

Galereya

Manbalar va kreditlar

  • ” Ananas havo kuchlari ” Jon W. Lambert
  • “VLR P-51 Tinch okeani urushining Mustang birliklari ”, Karl Molesvort
  • “Songi jangchi uchuvchi ” Don Braun va Jerri Yellin

Mualliflik huquqi: Men ushbu maqoladagi matn va modelning fotosuratlari uchun original ish va Mualliflik huquqi 2019 da'vo qilaman. Boshqa holatlar bundan mustasno, men boshqa barcha rasm va fotosuratlarni internetdan olganman va ulardan adolatli foydalanaman. Mualliflik huquqi bilan himoyalangan har qanday rasmlar uning haqiqiy egasi talabiga binoan darhol o'chiriladi yoki hisobga yoziladi.


1945 yil 19 -iyul - payshanba. Bu yilning 200 -kuni va yilning 29 -haftasida (har hafta dushanba kuni boshlanadi deb faraz qilinadi) yoki yilning 3 -choragi. Bu oyda 31 kun bor. 1945 yil kabisa yili emas, shuning uchun bu yil 365 kun bor. Qo'shma Shtatlarda qo'llaniladigan ushbu sana uchun qisqa shakl 19/19/1945 va dunyoning deyarli hamma joylarida 19/7/1945.

Bu sayt har qanday ikki kalendar sanasi orasidagi kunlar sonini farqini topishga yordam beradigan onlayn sana kalkulyatorini taqdim etadi. Har qanday hodisaning davomiyligini hisoblash uchun faqat boshlanish va tugash sanasini kiriting. Shuningdek, siz ushbu vositadan foydalanib, tug'ilgan kuningizdan necha kun o'tganini yoki chaqalog'ingizning tugash sanasigacha bo'lgan vaqtni o'lchashingiz mumkin. Hisob -kitoblar 1582 yilda yaratilgan va keyinchalik 1752 yilda Britaniya va hozirgi AQShning sharqiy qismi tomonidan qabul qilingan Gregorian taqvimidan foydalaniladi. Eng yaxshi natijalarga erishish uchun 1752 yildan keyingi sanalardan foydalaning yoki agar siz nasabnomani tadqiq qilayotgan bo'lsangiz, har qanday ma'lumotni tekshiring. Tarixiy taqvimlarning ko'p xilma -xilligi bor, ular orasida qadimgi Rim taqvimi va Yulian taqvimi ham bor. Kabera yillari kalendar yilini astronomik yilga moslashtirish uchun ishlatiladi. Agar siz bugungi kundan boshlab X kun ichida sodir bo'ladigan sanani aniqlamoqchi bo'lsangiz, ga o'ting Hozirgi kunlar kalkulyatori uning o'rniga


1945 yil mart oyida 10 -SS korpusining yo'q qilinishi

Muallif: Igorn & raquo 2005 yil 27 may, 15:18

Men Sovet generali Aleksey Radzievskiyning kitobini o'qiyapman va 1945 yil mart oyida Pomeraniyada Germaniyaning 10 -SS korpusining mag'lubiyati haqida batafsil ma'lumotga qiziqaman.

"... Qiziqarli va o'qituvchi Sharqiy-Pomeraniya operatsiyasida birinchi gvardiya tank armiyasining tajribasi edi. Polzin hududida qurshovga olingan nemis guruhining mag'lubiyatini tezlashtirish uchun olib borilgan janglar chog'ida, Birinchi gvardiya tank armiyasi 1945 yil 5 martdan Belgard va Kolberg yaqinidagi ba'zi bo'linmalarni tark etdi, asosiy kuchlarini janubga yo'naltirdi. Birinchi gvardiya tank armiyasi shimoldan va 2-gvardiya otliq korpusi va sharq va sharq-g'arbdan 1-Polsha armiyasi va 3-chi zarba armiyasining 7-miltiq korpusi 1945 yil 7-mart kuni kechqurun nemislarni qurshab olgan zarbalar natijasida. 10 -SS korpusining beshta bo'linmasidan iborat guruh yo'q qilindi. 8000 dan ortiq nemis harbiy asirlari qo'lga olindi, shu jumladan o'z xodimlari bilan 10 -SS korpusining qo'mondoni.

Aleksey Radzievskiy, "Tank zarbasi", "Tank armiyasi" frontli hujumda, Moskva, 2003 yil.

Muallif: Jan-Xendrik & raquo 2005 yil 27 may, 16:14

Shunisi qiziqki, muallif "10-SS-Korps" deb nomlanganini faqat 5-chi Jadjirlik va 163-chi infontrizionning kambag'al oromgohlaridan tashkil topganini aytgan.

Muallif: Igorn & raquo 2005 yil 27 may, 17:43

G'arb manbalaridan bu borada ba'zi ma'lumotlar:

"... eng og'ir harakat Reets hududida bo'lib, u erda ruslar Uchinchi Panzer armiyasini III (German) SS korpusi va X SS korpusi tutashgan joyda urishdi. 2 martda chiziqdagi buzilish umuman bo'lmadi va ruslar shimoliy-sharqdan, sharqdan, janubdan va janubi-g'arbdan konsentrik hujumlarni nemis qo'shinlariga qarshi, sharqdan. These were the X SS Corps (Lt.-General Krappe) and the adjacent Corps Group Tettau, which made up the left eastern wing of the Third Panzer Army. Colonel-General Erhard Raus, as commander of the Third Panzer Army, applied for permission to pull back Krappe and Tettau to safety. Both Himmler (now in Prenzlau) and Guderian were adamant in their refusal, and any hope of saving the left wing from encirclement vanished. In other words, two groups of German forces were now lost from sight-the whole of the Second Army, and the eastern flank of the Third Panzer Army. … ”

Christopher Duffy, Red Storm on the Reich, London, 2001, PP.188-189.

Muallif: Igorn » 27 May 2005, 21:19

Jan-Hendrik wrote: Interesting that the author did nit mention that this so called "10th SS-Korps" only consisted of the poor rests of 5th Jägerdivision & 163th Infantriedivision .

Erhard Raus, Commanding General of the Third German Panzer Army is witnessing:

”… A short time after my first discussion with RF Himmler, the Eleventh SS Panzer Army launched the offensive as ordered by the Fuehrer. After achieving insignificant initial success, the operation came to a standstill on the second day with the loss of many panzers… I received orders from Army Group Vistula to relieve Obergruppenfuehrer Steiner’s Eleventh SS Panzer Army headquarters… On 22 February 1945 –24 hours after I had assumed command-the 2nd Belorussian Front, in overpowering strength, launched its expected counteroffensive. From the orientation given me by Obergruppenfuehrer Steiner about the enemy when I assumed command, and from observations during the last 24 hours, I had beeb certain that the Russian attack was imminent. For that reason I had no opportunity to make any kind of decisive changes in OGF Steiner’s inadequate defensive scheme… At the time Third Panzer Army assumed control of the troops formerly belonging to 11th SS Panzer Army, the units in my sector consisted of III SS Panzer Corps (23rd SS Nederland Panzergrenadier Division, 27th SS Langemarck Panzergrenadier Division, 28th SS Wallonien Panzergrenadier Division), X SS Corps (163rd Infantry Division, 402nd Infantry Division), Provisional Corps Hoernlein (9th Parashute Division), Provisional Corps von Tettau, Reserve Division Baerwalde, Division Pomerania, 5th Jaeger Division and Panzer Division Holstein… Even befor I took command, I had issued orders for the construction of a dense network of tank obstacles in the army rear area, which abounded in wooded areas and bodies of water, thus lending itself well to such a purpose. In a few days, with the energetic cooperation of party members and local inhabitants, these obstacles sprang up on all bridges, village entrances, and bypasses, as well as highway and road entrances leading into woods or swampy terrain. Stout-hearted members of Volkssturm, who had been trained in the use of the Panzerfaust, guarded these barriers. Moreover, men equipped with antitank weapons were held in readiness with bicycles and motorcycles for mobile employment and the rapid establishment of strongpoints…Never before had an area been transformed into such a tightly meshed antitank obstacle within so short a period of time as we had accomplished in Pomerania. The aim of this measure was to prevent Russian tanks that had broken through the front from carrying out a surprise advance, or at least to delay such an advance… .By noon on 22 February 1945, however, I suddenly received a message from Provisional Corps von Tettau that the Russians had broken through in the area of adjoining division of Second Army, 33rd SS Charlemagne Grenadier Division, and that enemy tanks were driving towards the northwest by way of Stregers. During the afternoon, approximately fifteen Russian tanks coming out of the Second Army area actually appeared at the outskirts of Baldenburg, 35 kilometers in the rear of Third Panzer Army’s left wing…In the meantime, powerful reinforcements had been moved up in support of the Russian spearhead and had forced the remnants of Second Army’s crumpled left wing (15th SS Latvian Grenadier Division and 33rd SS Charlemagne Grenadier Division) into Third Panzer Army’s sector. There they caused unrest among my improvised units, especially in Reserves Division Pomerania, which already suffered from low morale…Since Second Army, together with the forces that Army Group Vistula had moved up via Rummelsburg (VII Panzer Corps, consisting of the 7th Panzer Division, 4th SS Polizei Panzergrenadier Division, and the remnants of 32nd Infantry Division), had failed to block off the Soviet penetration at Stegers, more and more Russian units poured through the gap, deep into the flanks of Third Panzer Army. My own flank thus became enveloped and was pushed back toward Neustettin. Russian pressure constantly increased in the area between Neusttetin and Bublitz. The Soviet tank spearheads pushing from Bublitz toward the heights east of Koeslin completely cut off our contact with Second Army… On 2 March 1945 Soviet tanks attacked in such great strength that they penetrated 5th Jaeger Division’s front between Falkenburg and Drammburg, causing the left flank of the III SS Panzer Corps and the right flank of XX SS Corps (adjoing General Sixt’s division on ether side) to be rolled back, cracking the front wide open. Russian tanks almost immediately gained freedom of movement and pushed ahead, By 3 March 1945 enemy tank spearheads had already appeared at Regenswalde, 8 kilometers east of my command post, which nonetheless remained in position. Strong rifle units followed the Russian armor and widened the gap, while the enemy also gained ground daily in the direction of Bad Polzin and captured Neustettin…The 2-nd Belorussian Front’s attack had sealed the fate of Pomerania. After the crumbled line had been established on the Oder River, despite very heavy losses and thanks to the unequal courage of the troops, I was again summoned to a conference with Himmler on 7 March. This meeting took place in the Hohenlychen Sanatirium, where the RF lay ill with angina… Himmler began by congratulating me, saying, ‘ You have passed through some very difficult days, but inspite of all obstacles you have again stabilized the front!’…. I told the Reichsfuehrer, ‘during the enemy offensive you repeatedly issued orders that prevented me from acting along lines demanded by the tactical situation. For example, you forbade the withdrawal of protruding sectors to favorably located and well-prepared positions along shorter lines at the lakes. Had I been allowed to do so, unnessary losses would have been avoided, and forces could have been released for the creation of reserves. Thiese forces would have been adequate to seal off the initial Russian penetrations. Instead, the Soviets achieved deep penetrations at Neustettin and in the area east of Stargard where we found oueselves short of troops to contain the pressre. The single reserve division-Panzer Division Holstein-which I made available by weakening enen front-line sectors under direct attack, had to be commited in accordance with your orders toward Rummelsburg via Bulitz with the hopeless task of reestablishing contact with Second Army. In so doing, this division was needlessly exhausted and unavailable at the point of main effort east of Stargard, where 5th Jaeger Division was overpowered and split into pieces after waging an extremely courageous defensive battle against Soviet tanks… The balk of the X SS Corps and Provisional Corps Tettau, which were fighting in the area between the two points of penetration, thus came in danger of being encircled and eliminated. With respect to the increasing probability of loosing those two Corps, I requested permission over a period of 5 days, each day more urgently-finally imploring you-to allow me to pull the forces out of the threatened area during the night to prevent their encirclement, since they would otherwise be sacrificed to no purpose. Even then you did not agreeto the withdrawalbut instead added special emphasis to your disapproval by threatening a court-martial action against all key officers. As a result, both corps (with the exception of a few elements of Provisional Corps Tettau that still be able to fight their way back) were captured on the fifth day. These staggering events led to the rapid loss of Pomerania …Even after the two corps had been encircled, impossible orders from your headquarters did not stop. The 10th SS Frundsberg Panzer Division, ordered back to us from Silesia, abruptly received orders to reestablish contact with Second Army by attacking across Pomerania through the territory already occupied by several Russian Armies. This altogether impossible mission served to demonstrate the extent to which you and the Supreme Command had misjudged the existing situation… Himmler listened to these remarks in a serious and attentive manner, then replied, ‘ I know that you understood the actual danger on the Pomeranian Front and pedicted these events in advance…Calm down. There will be a turning point soon. We shall win this war’….”

Erhard Raus, Panzer Operations. The Eastern Front Memoir of General Raus, 1941-1945, PP-324-332


10 March 1945 - History

HISTORY: The 10th Armored Division ("Tiger Division") was activated 15 July 1942 at Ft. Benning, Ga. and assigned to the Armored Force. After participating in the Tennessee maneuvers June to September 1943 under the Second Army, the Division was transferred to Camp Gordon, Ga., where training was continued. It left for overseas from New York 13 September 44.

DATE OF: Activation -- 15 July 1942 Inactivation -- 13 October 1945, at Camp Patrick Henry, Virginia.

BATTLE CREDITS WWII: (Division) Ardennes, Rhineland and Central Europe.

COMMANDING GENERALS: Maj. Gen. Paul W. Newgarden -- July 42 July 44 Maj. Gen. William H.H. Moris, Jr. July 44 May 45 Maj. Gen. Fay B. Prickett May 45 to inactivation

COMBAT CHRONICLE: The Tenth Armored Division entered France through the port of Cherbourg 23 Sep. 44 and put in a month of training at Teurtheville, France before entering combat. Leaving Teuertheville 25 Oct., the Division moved to Mars-la-Tour, where it entered combat (1 Nov.) in support of the XX Corps, containing enemy troops in the area. In mid-November it went on the offensive, crossed the Moselle at Malling, and drove to the Saar River, north of Metz. The Division was making preparations for the Third Army drive to the Rhine when it was ordered north to stop the German winter offensive, 17 December. The 10th held defensive positions against heavy opposition near Bastogne, Noville, and Bras. Resting briefly in early January the 10th moved out again to defensive positions east of the Sarr, south of the Maginot line. On 20 Feb 45 the Division returned to the attack, and took part in the clearing of the Sarr-Moselle triangle, 15 March. Driving through the Kaiserlautern, it advanced to the Rhine, crossed the river at Mannheim (28 March), turned south, captured Oehringen and Helibronn, crossed the Rems and Fils Rivers, and reached Kircheim, meeting waning resistance. The Division crossed the Danube 23-25 April and took Oberammergau. In May the 10th drove into the famed "Redoubt" and had reached Innsbruck when the war in Europe ended.

HONORS: Congressional Medals of Honor -- None Distinguished Unit Citations -- Five

FATE: occupation duty in Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Austria) after the war inactivated on 15 Oct 1945 at Camp Patrick Henry (Virginia).


The Gory Way Japanese Generals Ended Their Battle on Okinawa

W hen the World War II battle over the Japanese island of Okinawa officially ended 70 years ago today, on June 22, 1945, it had secured its place as the bloodiest clash in the Central and Western Pacific fronts. TIME’s initial estimate a few days later was that more than 98,000 Japanese people had been killed and nearly 7,000 Americans were dead or missing.

Two men were not among that haunting count. It wasn’t until weeks later, in its July 9 issue, that TIME reported on what happened to Lieut. Gen. Mitsuru Ushijima and Lieut. Gen. Isamu Cho, based on the tale told by the soldier who cooked their last meal:

On a narrow ledge overlooking the sea at the southern end of Okinawa the two Generals whispered to each other. They knelt side by side on a patchwork quilt covered by a white sheet (the color of death). Ushijima’s aide stepped forward, bowed, handed each General a gleaming knife. The knives had been half covered with white cloth, so that the aide did not touch the sacred metal.

The Generals opened their blouses, unbuckled their belts. Ushijima leaned forward and with both hands pressed the blade against his belly. One of his adjutants did not wait for the knife to plunge deep. With his razor-sharp saber he lopped off his superior’s head. General Cho leaned forward against his blade. The adjutant swung again. Orderlies took the bodies away.

General Cho had left his own epitaph: “Twenty-second day, sixth month, 20th year of Showa era. I depart without regret, fear, shame or obligation. Age on departure 51 years.”

As for the American forces, the battle closed in a much gentler fashion: to symbolize that the U.S. had conquered the island all the way to its farthest tip, Corporal John C. Corbett of the 8th Marines stood on a cliff and tossed a stone into the ocean.

Read more, from 1945, here in the TIME Vault:End on Okinawa


Eagle Archives, March 13, 1945: West Stockbridge looks back as old records are displayed

WEST STOCKBRIDGE — The Garden Club entertained 100 guests after a covered dish supper in the parish house of the Congregational Church last night delving into old records, pictures and mementoes of the early days of the community. The parish house was transformed into a museum by the display of pieces from the homes of many long-time residents of the town. Ms. Florence Burke directed the collective.

At a short business meeting, the presiding officer, J. Clyde Moore, made the report that West Stockbridge, with a Red Cross drive quota of $897, had raised the sum of $1106.60. He also received a favorable report on the motion that the community issue a news sheet which will be named “The Old Town” to be mailed regularly to all local boys in the armed forces. This multigraph bulletin will carry local news and items of interest to those 160 serving their country.

John J. Powell gave an account of the 40 families living on the west side of the mountain, who first made the application to have their settlement designated a “district” so they might have their own preacher. Reading from the town records of 1774, 1775 and up to 1789, the speaker proved the importance to those early settlers of their religious leadership, even though they voted only sums of money between $60 and $100 yearly for the preacher’s salary. It was noted, however, that if he were married, several cords of wood were allotted to him extra.

Mrs. Laura Rouelle gave an interesting account of the early transportation afforded West Stockbridge. This speaker related the history of the first railroad to come to Western Massachusetts — the Hudson and Berkshire Railway, which was built primarily to carry the great blocks of marble from the local quarries to the river where it was shipped by boat.

Clarence Sicard followed with the story of the first industries of the neighborhood. He surprised his audience with the number of stone mills, gristmills, sawmills, and other enterprises which flourished in the locality. His account credited the discovery of iron ore in West Stockbridge to a hunter who noticed the evidences of the metal while trying to dislodge a woodchuck from his hole. Attention was also called to the unrecorded scrap-iron industry of the village when the post office safe was blown up seven times between 1897 and 1906.

Tarixdagi bu hikoya Jeannie Maschino, The Berkshire Eagle arxivlaridan tanlangan.

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Videoni tomosha qiling: Battle of Berlin 1945 - Nazi Germany vs Soviet Union HD (Yanvar 2022).