Podkastlar tarixi

1944 yil 15 sentyabr

1944 yil 15 sentyabr

1944 yil 15 sentyabr

Sharqiy front

Sovet qo'shinlari Sofiyaga kirdi.

Sovet qo'shinlari Naravda katta yutuqlarga erishdilar

Finlyandiya Germaniyaga urush e'lon qildi

G'arbiy front

AQSh 1 -armiyasi Zigfrid chizig'ini kesib o'tdi

AQShning 3 -armiyasi Nensini ozod qiladi

Britaniya qo'shinlari Escaut kanalidan ikkinchi nuqtada o'tishadi

Italiya

8 -armiya Marano daryosidan o'tadi

Evropani bosib oldi

Tito partizanlari Brak orolini ozod qiladilar

Britaniya qo'shinlari Kitera oroliga qo'ndi

Tinch okeani

AQSh qo'shinlari Moratayga qo'ndi

AQSh dengiz piyodalari Peleliuga qo'ndi

Dengizdagi urush/ Havodagi urush

RAF bombardimonchi samolyotlarga 12000 funtlik bomba tashladi Tirpitz



Bugun Ikkinchi jahon urushi tarixida - 1939 yil 15 sentyabr va 1944 yil#038

80 yil oldin - 1939 yil 15 sentyabr: Aviator Charlz Lindberg o'zining birinchi radioeshittirishini AQShning urushga aralashishiga qarshi qiladi.

Afro-amerikalik dengiz piyodalari Peleliuda, 1944 yil 15 sentyabr (AQSh milliy arxivi)

75 yil oldin - sentyabr. 1944 yil 15: AQSh birinchi dengiz bo'linmasi Tinch okeanidagi Palau orollaridagi Peleliuga qo'ndi.

"Dragoon" operatsiyasidan (Frantsiya janubidagi qo'nish) ittifoqchi kuchlar O'rta er dengizi operatsiya teatridan (MTO) Evropa operalar teatriga (ETO) o'tkazildi.


Tarkibi

Morotay - Indoneziyaning sharqidagi Maluku orollarining Halmahera guruhida joylashgan kichik orol. Orolning ko'p qismi qo'pol va qalin o'rmon bilan qoplangan. Morotayning janubi-g'arbiy burchagidagi Doroeba tekisligi orolning bir necha pasttekislik hududlaridan eng kattasi. Urush boshlanishidan oldin Morotay 9000 aholiga ega bo'lib, tijoriy jihatdan rivojlanmagan edi. U Gollandiya Sharqiy Hindistonining bir qismini tashkil qilgan va Gollandiya tomonidan Ternat Sultonligi orqali boshqarilgan. Yaponlar 1942 yil boshida Gollandiya Sharqiy Hindiston kampaniyasi paytida Morotayni egallab olishdi, lekin uni garnizon yoki rivojlantirmadilar. [2]

1944 yil boshida Morotay Filippinga janubiy yondashuvlarni himoya qilish uchun markaz sifatida qo'shni Halmahera oroli qo'shnilarini qura boshlagach, yapon harbiylari uchun muhim maydonga aylandi. [3] 1944 yil may oyida Yaponiya Imperator armiyasining 32 -diviziyasi Halmaheraga kelib, orolni va uning to'qqizta aerodromini himoya qildi. [3] Xitoydan olib ketayotgan karvonga (Take Ichi karvoni) AQSh suv osti kemalari hujum qilganida, diviziya katta yo'qotishlarga duch keldi. [4] 32 -diviziyaning 211 -piyodalar polkining ikkita batalyoni dastlab Doroeba tekisligida parvoz qilish uchun Morotayga joylashtirildi. Ikkala batalon ham iyul oyining o'rtalarida Halmaheraga olib ketilgan, ammo drenaj muammosi tufayli parvozdan voz kechilgan. [5] Ittifoqdosh kodlarni buzuvchilar yaponlarning Halmahera va Morotayning zaif himoyasida to'planganligini aniqladilar va bu ma'lumotlarni tegishli rejalashtirish xodimlariga etkazdilar. [6]

1944 yil iyulda Tinch okeanining janubi -g'arbiy mintaqasi qo'mondoni general Duglas Makartur Morotayni Filippindagi Mindanaoni ozod qilishni qo'llab -quvvatlash uchun zarur bo'lgan havo bazalari va dengiz inshootlari uchun joy sifatida tanladi. Morotay rivojlanmagan bo'lsa-da, uni Halmahera afzal ko'rdi, chunki katta va ancha yaxshi himoyalangan orolni qo'lga olish va xavfsizligini ta'minlash juda qiyin edi. [7] Morotayning ishg'oli Tradewind operatsiyasi deb nomlangan. Qo'nish 1944 yil 15 sentyabrda, 1 -dengiz bo'linmasi Peleliuga qo'nishi bilan rejalashtirilgan edi. Bu jadval AQShning Tinch okeani flotining asosiy bo'linmasiga bir vaqtning o'zida ikkala operatsiyani ham Yaponiyaning mumkin bo'lgan qarshi hujumlaridan himoya qilishga imkon berdi. [8]

Morotayda ozgina qarshilik kutilgandek, ittifoqdosh rejachilar bosqinchilarni Doroeba tekisligidagi aerodrom maydonlariga yaqin joylashtirishga qaror qilishdi. Orolning janubi-g'arbiy sohilidagi ikkita plyaj qo'nish joyi sifatida tanlangan va Qizil plyaj va Oq plyaj deb nomlangan. Ittifoqdoshlar rejasi 31 -diviziyaning uchta piyoda polkini 15 -sentabr kuni ushbu plyajlar bo'ylab qo'ndirib, tekislikni himoya qilish uchun tezda ichkariga haydashni talab qilgan. Morotayning ichki qismi hech qanday harbiy ahamiyatga ega bo'lmaganligi sababli, ittifoqchilar aerodromlarni himoya qilish uchun zarur bo'lgan perimetrdan oshib o'tishni xohlamadilar. [9] Aerodromlar va boshqa bazaviy inshootlarni qurishni rejalashtirish ham qo'nish oldidan amalga oshirildi va 15 sentyabrgacha bu ob'ektlar uchun taxminiy joylar tanlab olindi. [10]

Qarama -qarshi kuchlar tahrir

Ittifoqchilar qo'ngan paytda Morotayni 500 ga yaqin yapon askari himoya qilgan. Asosiy bo'linma 1944 yil 12-19 iyul kunlari orolga asta -sekin etib kelgan, 2 -vaqtinchalik reyd bo'linmasi bo'lib, ular 32 -diviziya batalonlari olib tashlanganida almashtirildi. Ikkinchi vaqtinchalik reyd bo'linmasi to'rtta kompaniyadan iborat bo'lib, ularni yapon zobitlari va Formosan askarlari boshqargan. Orolda boshqa bir qancha piyoda askarlari, harbiy politsiya va yordamchi bo'linmalarning kichik elementlari ham bor edi. 2-chi vaqtinchalik bosqinchilar bo'linmasining qo'mondoni, mayor Takenobu Kavashima, bo'linmani orolning janubi-g'arbiy qismiga joylashtirdi va kichik bo'linmalar yordamida Morotayning qirg'oq bo'yida kuzatuv punktlari va otryadlarini o'rnatdi. [11] Bu postlarning eng kattasi orolning shimoli-sharqiy chekkasida, Sopi burnida bo'lib, u taxminan 100 kishidan iborat edi. [12] Yaponiya kuchlari juda kichik va keng tarqalgan bo'lib, samarali mudofaani o'rnatishga qodir emas edi, shuning uchun 32 -bo'linma unga itoatkorlarni Morotayni qattiq ushlab turgan deb o'ylash uchun qo'g'irchoq lagerlar qurishni va boshqa yolg'onlardan foydalanishni buyurdi. [5]

Ittifoqchilarning Morotayga tayinlangan kuchlari orol himoyachilaridan yuzdan bittaga ko'p edi. Tradewind ishchi guruhi 20 -avgustda general -mayor Charlz P. Xoll qo'mondonligi ostida tashkil etilgan va AQSh armiyasining 40.105 askari va 16.915 AQSh armiyasi havo kuchlari (USAAF) va Avstraliya qirollik havo kuchlari (RAAF) xodimlaridan iborat. Tradewind ishchi guruhi Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari Oltinchi Armiyasining umumiy qo'mondonligi ostiga o'tdi, uning asosiy jangovar elementlari XI korpus bosh qarorgohi, 31 -piyodalar diviziyasi va 32 -piyodalar diviziyasining 126 -polk jangovar guruhi (RCT) edi. Bu bo'linmalar muhandislar va katta zenit guruhi tomonidan qo'llab-quvvatlandi. Tradewind ishchi guruhi, shuningdek, orolni asosiy bazaga tez rivojlantirishdan iborat bo'lgan ko'plab qurilish va boshqa aloqa birliklarini o'z ichiga oldi. 6 -piyodalar diviziyasi kuchlar zaxirasi deb e'lon qilindi, lekin Yangi Gvineyaning materik qismida qoldi. [13] General MakArtur USS bortidagi kuchlarga hamrohlik qildi Nashvil lekin operatsiyaga bevosita rahbarlik qilmagan. [14]

Desantni kuchli havo va dengiz kuchlari qo'llab -quvvatladi. Qo'shma Shtatlar Beshinchi Havo Kuchlari to'g'ridan -to'g'ri yordam ko'rsatdi, O'n uchinchi Havo Kuchlari va 10 -sonli RAAF operatsion guruhi NEI va Filippinda strategik missiyalarni amalga oshirdi. [15] Dengiz kuchlari 77 -sonli ishchi guruhi etib tayinlandi va ikkita hujum guruhiga, to'rtta mustahkamlovchi guruhga, qo'llab -quvvatlovchi guruhga va eskort tashuvchi guruhga bo'lingan. Hujum va kuchaytirish guruhlari hujum kuchlari va keyingi qo'llab-quvvatlash bo'linmalarini tashish uchun mas'ul edilar va yigirma to'rtta qiruvchi, to'rt fregat, ikkita Avstraliya LSI, beshta APD, bitta LSD, yigirma to'rt LCI, qirq beshta LST, yigirma LCT va o'n birdan iborat edi. LCIlar raketalar bilan qurollangan. Qo'llab -quvvatlash guruhi Avstraliyaning ikkita og'ir kreyseri, uchta AQSh engil kreyseri va sakkiz AQSh va ikkita avstraliyalik esminetsdan iborat edi. Eskort tashuvchilar guruhi oltita eskort tashuvchi va o'nta esminets eskortidan iborat bo'lib, suv osti kemalariga qarshi va jangovar havo patrulini ta'minladi. Agar kerak bo'lsa, 77.4 -guruhni qo'llab -quvvatlash uchun ikkita flot tashuvchi, ikkita yengil samolyot tashuvchi, bitta og'ir kreyser, bitta engil kreyser va o'n uch qiruvchi bilan 38.4 -topshiriq guruhi mavjud edi. [16]

Dastlabki hujumlar tahrir

Yaponiya havo kuchlarini Morotay yaqinida bostirish uchun dastlabki havo hujumlari 1944 yil avgustda boshlangan. Bu vaqtda Ittifoq razvedka xizmatlari Morotaydan 640 km uzoqlikda 582 ta Yaponiya samolyoti borligini, ulardan 400 tasi ob'ektiv maydon. Ittifoqchi havo kuchlari Halmaheras, Celebes, Ceram, Ambon, Boeroe va boshqa hududlardagi aerodromlarga kuchli reydlar o'tkazdi. AQSh harbiy-dengiz kuchlari tashuvchi samolyotlari Mindanao shahridagi Yaponiya havo birliklariga ham hujum qilishdi va yana Halmahera va Celebesga hujum qilishdi. Bu hujumlar muvaffaqiyatli o'tdi va 14 sentyabrga kelib Morotay yaqinida atigi 60 ta samolyot qolgani taxmin qilindi. [17]

Ittifoqchilar ajablanib qolish uchun Morotayni bostirib kirishdan oldin bombardimon qilmagan va orol ustida faqat bir nechta fotografik razvedka parvozlarini amalga oshirgan. [18] Ittifoqchi razvedka byurosi patrullari iyun oyida orolga qo'ngan edi, lekin u to'plagan ma'lumotlar oltinchi armiyaga berilmagan. Tradewind Ishchi guruhi plyajlar yoki Yaponiya pozitsiyalari haqida kam ma'lumotga ega bo'lsa -da, Oltinchi Armiya Morotayga hech qanday razvedka patrullarini qo'ymadi, chunki ular orol himoyachilariga hujum yaqinlashishi haqida ogohlantirishi mumkin edi. [19]

Tradewind ishchi guruhi Yangi Gvineyaning shimoli-g'arbiy qismidagi bosqinchilik karvoniga kirdi va sentyabr oyining boshida Aitape va Vakde orolida qo'nish mashqlarini o'tkazdi. 11 -sentabr kuni Maffin ko'rfaziga yig'ilgan karvon ertasi kuni Morotayga yo'l oldi. Uning sayohati muammosiz o'tdi va karvon 15 sentyabr kuni ertalab Yaponiya kuchlari tomonidan aniqlanmagan holda Morotayga etib keldi. [20]

Morotay jangi 15 sentyabr kuni ertalab soat 6:30 da boshlandi. Ittifoqchi harbiy kemalar u erdagi har qanday yapon kuchlarini bostirish uchun qo'nish maydonini ikki soatlik bombardimon qildi. Bu bombardimon bir necha qishloqlarni yoqib yubordi, lekin bu hududda qo'shinlari ko'p bo'lmaganligi sababli yaponlarning kam qurboniga sabab bo'ldi. [21]

Amerika qo'shinlarining birinchi to'lqini 8:30 da Morotayga qo'ndi va hech qanday qarshilikka duch kelmadi. 155 -chi va 167 -chi RCT Red Beachga va 124 -RCT White Beach -ga qo'ndi. Bir marta qirg'oqqa hujumkor qo'shinlar o'zlarining taktik bo'linmalariga yig'ilishdi va tezlik bilan ichki qismga o'tdilar. Kunning oxiriga kelib, 31-bo'linma o'zining D-kunlik maqsadlariga erishdi va ichki qismi 1800 m bo'lgan perimetrni egalladi. Janglar oz edi va qurbonlar har ikki tomondan ham juda kam edi. [22] Yaponiya 2 -vaqtinchalik reyd bo'linmasi ittifoqchilarning kuchli kuchlariga qarshilik ko'rsatishga qodir emas edi va ichki tartibda yaxshi chiqib ketdi. Yaponiya Ceram va Celebes 7 -chi havo bo'linmasi samolyotlari 15 sentyabrda Morotayga tungi havo hujumlarini boshladi, ammo bu ittifoqchilar kuchlariga unchalik ta'sir qilmadi. [23]

Plyaj sharoitlari kutilmaganda yomon bo'lgani uchun qarshilikning yo'qligi ittifoqchilar uchun omadli keldi. [24] Bosqinlar oldidan cheklangan razvedka Qizil va Oq plyajlar amfibiya qo'nishni qo'llab-quvvatlay olishini taxmin qilgan bo'lsa-da, aslida ular bu maqsad uchun juda yaroqsiz edi. Ikkala plyaj ham loyli edi va toshli qirlar va marjon qoyalari tufayli kemaga yaqinlashish qiyin edi. Natijada, askarlar va texnika chuqur bemaqsad orqali qo'nishga majbur bo'ldi. Bu operatsiyani kechiktirdi va katta miqdordagi asbob -uskunalarning shikastlanishiga olib keldi. [25] Ko'p askarlari singari, general MakArtur ham qirg'oqqa chiqqanda, ko'kragidan baland suzib o'tishga majbur bo'ldi. [26] D-Day kuni ertalab so'rovnoma partiyasi Morotayning janubiy qirg'og'idagi plyaj LSTlarga ancha mos kelishini aniqladi. Moviy plyaj deb nomlangan bu plyaj 16 sentyabrdan boshlab ittifoqchilarning asosiy qo'nish nuqtasiga aylandi. [27]

31 -diviziya 16 -sentabr kuni ichki harakatini davom ettirdi. Bo'linma ozgina qarshiliklarga duch keldi va shu kuni tushdan keyin aerodrom hududining rejalashtirilgan perimetri chizig'ini ta'minladi. [28] 17 sentyabrdan boshlab 126 -piyodalar polki radar stansiyalari va kuzatuv punktlarini tashkil etish uchun Morotayning qirg'oq chizig'i va dengiz orollarining bir necha nuqtalariga qo'ndi. Bu operatsiyalar umuman qarama -qarshi bo'lmagan, garchi patrullar shimoliy Morotayga qo'ngan bo'lsa, kichik yapon partiyalari bilan ko'plab aloqalar o'rnatgan. [28] 2 -vaqtinchalik reyd bo'linmasi 18 -sentabrga o'tar kechasi Ittifoqdoshlar perimetriga kirishga uringan, ammo muvaffaqiyat qozonmagan. [23]

Gollandiya Indiya fuqarolik boshqarmasi (NICA) otryadi Morotayda fuqarolik ishlari uchun mas'ul edi. Bu otryad 15 sentyabrda qirg'oqqa chiqdi va Morotayning tinch aholisi ustidan Gollandiya suverenitetini tikladi. Ko'plab mahalliy fuqarolar keyinchalik NICAga Morotay va Halmahera haqidagi yaponiyaliklar haqidagi ma'lumotni berishdi va boshqalar Amerika patrullari uchun qo'llanma bo'lib xizmat qilishdi. [29]

20 sentyabrda 31 -diviziya kengaytirilgan perimetrni ta'minlash uchun ichki qismga o'tdi. Bu General Makarturning shtab -kvartirasi orolda aerodrom qurilishini kengaytirishga qaror qilganidan so'ng, qo'shimcha bivouacs va ta'minot uskunalari uchun joy ajratish uchun zarur edi. Avans ozgina qarshilik ko'rsatdi va bir kunda yakunlandi. [28] 22 sentyabrda yapon kuchlari 1 -batalon, 167 -piyoda polkining shtab -kvartirasiga hujum qilishdi, lekin osonlikcha qaytarildi. Ertasi kuni 126 -piyodalar polkining kompaniyasi orolning g'arbiy sohilidagi Vajaboeta yaqinidagi mustahkamlangan yapon bo'linmasiga hujum qildi. 126 -chi hujumni 24 -sentabrda davom ettirdi va o'z pozitsiyasini ta'minladi. AQSh kuchlari 4 oktabrgacha orol xavfsiz deb e'lon qilingunga qadar intensiv patrullikni davom ettirdilar. [30] Morotayning birinchi bosqini paytida AQShning qurbonlari soni 30 nafarni tashkil etdi, 85 kishi yaralandi va bedarak yo'qolgan. Yaponiya qurbonlari ancha ko'p edi, ularning soni 300 dan oshdi, 13 kishi asir olindi. [31]

Amerika quruqlik qo'shinlari ularga og'ir havo yordamini talab qilmadilar va tezkor tashuvchilar guruhi boshqa vazifalarga 17 sentyabrda qo'yib yuborildi. Oltita eskort tashuvchisi qo'llab -quvvatlashda qoldi, lekin ularning samolyotlari hech qanday harakat qilmadi. CVElarning to'rttasi 25 sentyabrda chiqarildi, qolgan ikkitasi 4 oktyabrda jo'nab ketdi. [32] Esminets USSni kuzatib boradi Shelton Yapon suv osti kemasi tomonidan cho'kib ketgan Ro-41 3 oktyabrda CVE guruhini kuzatib borayotganda. [33] [34] Bir necha soat o'tgach, USS eskort tashuvchisidan TBF Qasoskor Midway USSga hujum qildi Dengiz bo'ri 20 mil (32 km) shimoldan Shelton u suv osti kemasi mas'ul ekanligi haqidagi noto'g'ri fikrda torpedo qilingan edi. Ikki bomba tashlanganidan so'ng, TBF Avenger USS -ni boshqargan Richard M. Rowell maydonga va esminet eskorti cho'kdi Dengiz bo'ri beshta urinishdan so'ng, suv osti kemasining barcha ekipaji o'ldirildi. Bu keyinchalik aniqlandi Dengiz bo'ri belgilangan "suv osti kemalari xavfsiz yo'lakchasida" ketayotganida, CVE uchuvchilariga yo'lning mavjudligi va joylashuvi to'g'risida to'g'ri ma'lumot berilmagan va suv osti kemasining holati USSga ko'rsatilmagan. Richard M. Rowell. [35]

AQSh Harbiy -dengiz kuchlari 16 sentyabrda USS savdolari paytida Morotayda PT qayiq bazasini o'rnatdi Mobjack va USS Oyster ko'rfazi 9, 10, 18 va 33 motorli torpedali qayiq eskadronlari va ularning 41 ta qayig'i bilan keldi. PT qayiqlarining asosiy vazifasi yaponlarning Halmaheradan Morotayga qo'shinlarini 12 millik (19 km) kenglikdagi bo'g'ozni blokirovka qilib qo'yishini oldini olish edi. [36]

31 -bo'linma elementlari noyabr oyida Morotaydan Yangi Gvineya yaqinidagi bir qancha orollarni egallash uchun jo'nab ketishdi, u yerdan yapon postlari ittifoqchilar harakatlarini kuzatishi mumkin edi. 15 -noyabr kuni 2 -batalon, 167 -piyoda polki va unga biriktirilgan bo'linmalarning 1200 askari ertasi kuni Mapiya orollaridagi Pegun oroliga qo'ndi, Bras oroliga hujum qilindi. 18 -noyabr kuni Mapiya orollari xavfsiz deb e'lon qilindi, 36 -piyoda diviziyasining 172 yapon qo'shini qarshilik ko'rsatdi. 19 -noyabr kuni F Company, 124 -piyoda polki atrofida qurilgan 400 AQSh qo'shinlari kuchsiz Osiyo orollarini bosib oldi. [37] Bu Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlarining sakkizinchi armiyasi tomonidan nazorat qilingan birinchi hujum operatsiyalari edi va ikkala operatsiyaning dengiz qo'mondoni HMS bortida qirollik dengiz floti kapitani Lord Ashbourne edi. Ariadne. Keyinchalik orollarda Radar va LORAN stantsiyalari o'rnatildi. [38]

Morotayni tez yirik harbiy bazaga aylantirish operatsiyaning asosiy maqsadi edi. Bosqindan oldingi rejalar 15 sentyabrdan qirq besh kun mobaynida uchta katta aerodromni qurishni nazarda tutgan, birinchisi qo'ngandan so'ng darhol ishga tushadi. Rejalar, shuningdek, 60,000 havo kuchlari va qo'shinlari uchun turar joy va ta'minot, 1900 o'rinli kasalxona, quyma yoqilg'i omborlari va ishlov berish uskunalari va kemalarni joylashtirish moslamalarini o'z ichiga olgan. [39] Bu inshootlarni qurish uchun Tradewind ishchi guruhiga 7000 muhandis -xizmatchi qo'shinlari kirgan, ulardan 84 foizi amerikaliklar, qolganlari avstraliyaliklar. [10]

Morotay himoyalanishidan oldin bazaviy inshootlar ustida ish boshlandi. Tadqiqotchi tomonlar 16 -sentabrdan aerodrom maydonlarida tranzit tekshiruvlarni boshladilar, bu esa ularning rejalashtirilgan hizalanishi ishlamasligini aniqladi. [10] Yaponiya aerodromini tugatish rejalaridan ham voz kechildi, chunki bu sharqda qurilishi kerak bo'lgan katta aerodromlarga xalaqit berishi mumkin edi. Buning o'rniga u tozalandi va favqulodda "avariya chizig'i" sifatida ishlatildi. Birinchi yangi aerodrom (Wama Drome deb nomlanadi) ustida ish 23 -sentabrda sayt tozalanganidan keyin boshlandi. 4 oktyabrga kelib, Vama Dromning uchish -qo'nish yo'lagi 5000 fut (1500 m) masofani bosib o'tdi va Borneo shahridagi Baliqpapanda og'ir bombardimonchi hujumlarini qo'llab -quvvatladi. Bundan ham kattaroq Pitu Dromning qurilishi Wama Dromga parallel ikkita uchish-qo'nish yo'lagiga ega bo'lishi kerak edi, u sentyabr oyining oxirida boshlangan edi va 17 oktyabrga kelib u 2100 m balandlikdagi uchish-qo'nish yo'lagiga ega edi. [40] Qurilish ishlari 18 oktyabrdan AQShning Uchinchi floti Leytaga rejalashtirilgan qo'nishni to'g'ridan -to'g'ri qo'llab -quvvatlashdan chiqarilgandan keyin tezlashtirildi. [41] Noyabr oyida ikkita aerodrom qurib bitkazilgach, ular uchta katta uchish -qo'nish yo'lagi va 253 ta samolyot, shu jumladan 174 ta og'ir bombardimonchi samolyotlari uchun bardoshli bo'lishga ega edi. [42] Havo bazasi qurilishi qishloqlarni vayron qilishni talab qilsa -da, Amerika va Avstraliya aerodromi muhandislariga 1 -oktabrdan NICA otryadidan mahalliy yollangan 350 ga yaqin ishchi yordam berdi. [29]

Aerodromlar qurilishi bilan bir vaqtda boshqa bazaviy inshootlar ham qurildi. Yoqilg'i omborlarida ishlar qo'nishdan ko'p o'tmay boshlandi va birinchisi 20 sentyabrda tayyor bo'ldi. Oktyabr oyining boshlarida neft tankerlari va katta tanklar fermasi qurib bitkazildi va saqlash joylari noyabrgacha, 129000 barrel (20,500 m 3) yoqilg'i sig'imi mavjud bo'lganda, kengaytirildi. Ozodlik kemalarini joylashtirishga qodir bo'lgan bir nechta doklar Morotayning g'arbiy sohilida qurilgan va birinchisi 8 oktyabrda yakunlangan. Bundan tashqari, Blue Beach -da bu kemalarni yuklash va tushirish ishlarini engillashtirish uchun yigirma LST qo'nishi qurilgan. Boshqa yirik qurilish loyihalariga keng ko'lamli yo'llar tarmog'i, dengiz inshooti, ​​28000 kvadrat fut (2600 m 2) omborxona va yig'im -terim va bivouak uchun erlarni tozalash kiradi. 1900 o'rinli shifoxonaning dastlabki rejalari qayta ko'rib chiqilgandan so'ng, 1000 o'rinli shifoxona ham qurildi. Asosiy qiyinchiliklar g'ayritabiiy yomg'ir natijasida paydo bo'lgan loyni yengish va etarli miqdorda suv ta'minotini topish edi. [43]

Ittifoqdoshlarning rejalarini qayta ko'rib chiqish Morotayning Filippinni ozod qilishda dastlab kutilganidan ko'ra ko'proq rol o'ynaganligini anglatardi. Mindanaoga bostirib kirish 1944 yil sentyabr oyida Filippin markazidagi Leyte shahriga qo'nishi foydasiga qoldirildi. Morotaydagi havo bazalari Ittifoqchilarning Leyte shahriga eng yaqin bo'lgan havo uchastkalari edi va orolga asoslangan qiruvchi va bombardimonchi samolyotlar Filippin janubidagi obektlarga hujum qilishdi va 25 oktyabr kuni Leytga qo'nishni qo'llab -quvvatlashdi. [44] Leytda aerodromlar qurib bitkazilgach, Morotay Filippinga boradigan jangchilar va bombardimonchilar uchun joy sifatida ham ishlatilgan. [45]

Yaponcha javob Tahrirlash

Yaponiya harbiylari Filippindagi qo'shinlari, agar ittifoqchilar Morotayda aerodromlar qursa, xavf ostida qolishini tan olishdi. Aerodrom qurilish dasturini buzishga urinish maqsadida, Halmaheradagi Yaponiya armiyasi qo'mondonlari sentyabr oyining oxiridan noyabr oyigacha Morotayga ko'p miqdorda qo'shimcha kuchlar yuborishdi. Bu qo'shinlarga 211 -piyoda polkining asosiy qismi, 210 -chi polkning 3 -batalyoni va uchta bosqinchi otryadi kirgan. [23] 211 -piyoda polkining qo'mondoni polkovnik Kisou Ochi 12 oktyabrda Morotayda yapon qo'shinlari qo'mondonligini qabul qildi. [46] Ittifoqdosh kodbreakerlar ko'pincha Morotaydagi kuchlarni blokadani boshqarishga urinishlar haqida ogohlantira olishgan, [6] va PT qayiqlari yaponiyaliklar Halmaheradan qo'shin tashish uchun ishlatgan ko'plab barjalarini vayron qilishgan. Ammo ittifoqchilar Yaponiya qurilishini butunlay to'xtata olmadilar. [47]

Yaponiyaning Morotayga qarshi hujumi muvaffaqiyatli bo'lmadi. Orolga olib kelingan qo'shinlar kasallikning yuqori darajasidan aziyat chekdilar va ittifoqchilarning havo va dengiz blokadasi orqali etarli miqdorda etkazib berish imkonsiz bo'lib chiqdi. Natijada, 2 -chi vaqtinchalik reyd bo'linmasi bir necha bor AQSh perimetri bo'ylab bostirib kirgan bo'lsa -da, qo'shimcha kuchlar katta hujumlarni amalga oshira olmadi va ittifoqchilarning aerodrom qurilishiga to'sqinlik qilmadi. Keyinchalik Yaponiya kuchlari markaziy Morotayga chekinishdi, u erda ko'plab askarlar kasallik yoki ochlikdan vafot etishdi. [48] ​​Halmaheradan so'nggi yapon etkazib berish barjalari 1945 yil 12 mayda Morotayga etib keldi. [49]

1944 yil dekabr oyining oxirida, AQSh 33 -chi piyodalar diviziyasining 136 -chi piyodalar polki orolning g'arbidagi Yaponiya 211 -piyoda polkiga hujum qilish uchun Yangi Gvineyadan Morotayga olib kelindi. Orolning g'arbiy sohiliga qo'nganidan so'ng, Amerika polki 26-dekabr kuni Yaponiya nazoratidagi hududga ko'chib o'tdi va janubi-g'arbiy va shimoldan Yaponiya pozitsiyasiga ko'tarildi. 136 -chi Doroeba tekisligidan quruqlikka chiqayotgan 130 -piyodalar polkining batalyoni, Morotay qirg'og'idagi orollarda joylashgan artilleriya bo'linmalari va yuz nafar fuqaro yuk ko'taruvchilar tomonidan qo'llab -quvvatlandi. [50] 167 -piyoda polkining 3 -batalyoni ham ushbu operatsiyada qatnashdi va yaponlarning orol tog'larida kichik guruhlarga tarqalib ketishining oldini olish uchun Morotayning janubiy qirg'og'idan ichki qismga qiyin yurish qildi. [51]

1945 yil yanvar oyining boshida Amerika kuchlari Yaponiya 211 -polkining ikkita bataloni Ittifoqdoshlar perimetridan 6 mil shimolda taxminan 4 mil (40 km) tepada joylashganligini aniqladilar. Bu pozitsiyaga hujum 1945 yil 3 yanvarda, 136-piyoda polkining 1 va 2-batalonlari janubi-g'arbdan chiqib, kuchli qarshilikka uchraganda boshlandi. Polk bu hujumda katta miqdorda o'q -dorilarni ishlatgan va uning zaxiralarini to'ldirish uchun havodan zaxiralash zarur bo'lgan. Ikkala Amerika batalyoni ham ertasi kuni yuqori samarali artilleriya bombardimonlari yordamida hujumni davom ettirdilar va peshindan keyin Yaponiyaning asosiy pozitsiyasiga etib kelishdi. Bu davrda 136 -polkning 3 -batalyoni shimoldan 40 -tepalikka ko'tarildi va 211 -polkning 3 -batalyonini ketma -ket janglarda yo'q qildi. Bu yapon batalyoni qirg'oqda Halmaheradan ta'minot olish uchun joylashtirilgan va dekabr oyida qo'nganidan keyin Amerika batalonining qirg'og'iga bir nechta muvaffaqiyatsiz hujumlar uyushtirgan. [52]

136 -piyoda polki 5 -yanvar kuni 40 -tepalikka hujumini yakunladi. Polkning 1 va 2-batalonlari g'arb va janubi-g'arbdan, 3-batalon esa shimoldan ilgarilab, ozgina qarshilik ko'rsatdilar. 1 va 2 -batalonlar shimolda 14 -yanvargacha yapon qoldiqlarini ta'qib qilishda davom etishdi, shu vaqtgacha polk 870 yapon askarini o'ldirganini va o'ntasini asir olganini, 46 kishi halok bo'lganini va 127 kishi yaralangan va yaralanganini aytdi. [53] 3 -batalon, 167 -piyoda polki, 4 -yanvar kuni oroldagi Yaponiyaning asosiy radiostansiyasini bosib olgandan so'ng, 7 -yanvarda 136 -chi bilan bog'landi. [54] Yanvar oyining o'rtalarida 136-polk Ittifoqdoshlar perimetriga olib ketildi va u 33-diviziyaga qo'shildi, u Morotay orqali ittifoqchilar Luzonga qo'ndi. [55]

Havo hujumlari va ittifoqchilar tahrirni o'chirish

Yaponiya 7 -havo diviziyasi Ittifoqchilar qo'nganidan keyin bir necha oy Morotayga bostirib kirishda davom etdi. Havo bo'linmasi 1944 yil 15 sentyabrdan 1945 yil 1 fevralgacha Morotayga 179 ta jang o'tkazgan 82 ta reyd o'tkazdi. Bu reydlarda ishlatilgan samolyotlar Ceram va Celebesdan uchib, Halmaxeradagi aerodromlarga qo'ndi. 54 ta reyd hech qanday zarar etkazmagan bo'lsa, qolganlari ittifoqchilarning qirq ikkita samolyotini yo'q qilishga va yana o'ttiz uchtasiga shikast etkazishga olib keldi. Havo hujumida ittifoqchilarning qurbonlari 19 kishi halok bo'ldi va 99 kishi yaralandi. Eng muvaffaqiyatli reyd 22 -noyabrga o'tar kechasi bo'lib o'tdi, unda 15 ta ittifoqchi samolyot yo'q qilindi va sakkiztasi shikastlandi. Yaponiya havo hujumlari 1945 yil yanvar oyining oxirida to'xtatildi, ammo oxirgi hujum 22 martda sodir bo'ldi. USAAF tungi jangchilarining muvaffaqiyati cheklangan edi, chunki bosqinchilar odatda zenit qurolidan himoyalangan zonalarga kirishdan oldin aniqlangan, bu qurollar Morotayda yo'qolgan 26 yapon samolyotining ko'pini urib tushirgan. [56] USAAF tungi qiruvchi kuchlarining rasmiy tarixida aytilishicha, Morotay "ikkinchi jahon urushi paytida amerikalik tungi jangchilar tomonidan amalga oshirilgan eng qiyin vazifa bo'lgan", chunki kiruvchi bosqinchilarni aniqlash qiyin bo'lgan. [57]

Morotaydagi PT qayiq kuchi 1945 yil fevral oyiga qadar bitta eskadronga tushirildi, lekin urush oxirigacha faol qoldi. Qayiqlar Morotay atrofida patrullik qilish bilan bir qatorda, NEI sharqida, Yaponiya pozitsiyalarini bosib olish va Avstraliya va Gollandiya skaut partiyalarini qo'llab -quvvatlash uchun ishlagan. 1945 yil may oyida PT qayiqlari va Avstraliyaning Z maxsus bo'linmasi Ternat sultonini, uning yaponlari tomonidan yomon muomalaga uchraganidan so'ng, "Opossum Project" kodli operatsiyasi paytida o'z sudi va haram bilan birga qutqarib qolishdi. [58] [59] Urush tugagunga qadar, PT qayiqlari 1300 ga yaqin patrullik ishlarini olib borishdi va Morotay va Halmahera yaqinida 50 ta barja va 150 ta kichik kemani yo'q qilishdi. [60]

31 -diviziya Morotayda 1945 yil 12 apreliga qadar qoldi, u Mindanaoni ozod qilishda qatnashdi va 93 -piyoda diviziyasi bilan almashtirildi. [61] 93 -bo'linma afro -amerikaliklarning alohida bo'linmasi bo'lib, asosan urush paytida xavfsizlik va mehnat vazifalarini bajarish uchun ishlatilgan. [62] Morotayda tuzilgan bo'linma orolda qolgan yapon kuchlarini yo'q qilish maqsadida intensiv patrullik ishlarini olib bordi. O'sha paytda Morotaydagi yaponlarning ko'p qismi orolning g'arbiy qirg'og'ida joylashgan va odatda fuqarolar bog'lariga yaqin bo'lgan. 93 -diviziya aprel oyidan boshlab Morotayning g'arbiy va shimoliy qirg'oqlari bo'ylab patrul qo'ydi va ular kichik yapon qo'shinlari bilan tarqoq to'qnashuvlarga qarshi kurashdilar. Diviziyaning asosiy maqsadlaridan biri polkovnik Ouchini qo'lga olish edi va bunga 2 avgust kuni 25 -piyoda polkining patrul xizmati erishdi. Ouchi urush tugashidan oldin asirga olingan eng yuqori martabali yapon ofitserlaridan biri edi. Amerika kuchlari, shuningdek, Morotaydagi yapon askarlarini taslim bo'lishga da'vat qilish uchun targ'ibot eshittirishlari va varaqalardan foydalanganlar. [63]

Leyte himoyalanganidan keyin Morotay ittifoqchilarning muhim bazasi bo'lib qoldi. O'n uchinchi havo kuchlari va Avstraliyaning birinchi taktik havo kuchlari samolyotlari (avvalgi RAAF 10 -operatsion guruhi) Morotayda joylashgan va urush tugagunga qadar NEI va Filippin janubidagi nishonlarga hujum qilgan. 1945 yil apreldan boshlab orol Avstraliyaning I korpusi tomonidan Borneo kampaniyasini o'rnatish uchun ishlatilgan. [45] Avstraliya armiyasi muhandislari ushbu operatsiyani qo'llab -quvvatlash uchun Morotaydagi tayanch punktlarini kengaytirdilar. Odamlar ko'p bo'lganligi sababli, Avstraliyaning ba'zi lagerlari Amerika perimetri tashqarisida joylashgan. [64]

Yaponiya taslim bo'lganidan keyin Morotay bir qancha taslim bo'lish marosimlariga sahna bo'lgan. 15 avgustdan keyin Morotaydagi 660 ga yaqin yapon qo'shinlari ittifoqchi kuchlarga taslim bo'lishdi. [65] 93 -diviziya 26 -avgustda Yaponiya qo'mondoni AQSh harbiy -dengiz kuchlarining PT qayig'i bilan Morotayga olib kelingandan so'ng, 26 -avgustda Halmaherada 40 ming yapon qo'shinining taslim bo'lishini qabul qildi. [49] 1945 yil 9 sentyabrda avstraliyalik general Tomas Bleymi Morotaydagi I korpus sport maydonchasida bo'lib o'tgan marosimda Yaponiya Ikkinchi Armiyasining taslim bo'lishini qabul qildi. [66] Morotayda yoki boshqa joylarda oxirgi tasdiqlangan yapon xodimi oddiy Teruo Nakamura 1974 yil 18 dekabrda Indoneziya Harbiy havo kuchlari tomonidan qo'lga olingan. [67] [68]

Urushdan keyingi oylarda Morotaydagi ob'ektlardan ittifoqchilar qattiq foydalanishni davom ettirdilar. Sharqiy NEIni bosib olish va harbiy boshqaruv uchun mas'ul bo'lgan Avstraliya kuchining bosh qarorgohi 1946 yil aprelgacha Gollandiya mustamlakachilik hukumati tiklangunga qadar Morotayda joylashgan edi. [69] [70] Bu orol, shuningdek, Avstraliya va NEI harbiylari yapon xodimlarining urush jinoyatlari bo'yicha sud jarayonlarini o'tkazgan joylardan biri edi. [71]


1944 yil 15 sentyabr - Tarix

Peleliu dengiz piyodalari

Filippinni bosib olish to'g'risida qaror qabul qilindi. Buni amalga oshirishdan oldin, Morotay va Peleliu qo'lga olinib, baza sifatida foydalanish muhim deb qaror qilindi. 1944 yil 15 sentyabrda ikkala orolga ham bir vaqtning o'zida qo'nish amalga oshirildi. Morotay tezda ramziy yapon qarshiliklari bilan qo'lga olindi. Peleliu boshqa masala edi. Yaponlar plyajlarda qarshilik ko'rsatish asosan befoyda degan xulosaga kelishdi. Amercianning dengiz va havo kuchlarining kuchli qo'llab -quvvatlashi amerikalik kuchlarni plyajda to'xtatish urinishlarini osonlikcha engib o'tdi. Buning o'rniga ular plyajlardan uzoqda joylashgan er osti g'orlarini o'z ichiga olgan kuchli himoya chizig'ini ishlab chiqdilar. Peleliu mudofaa kuchlari joylashtirilgan birinchi joy edi.

Orolni bombardimon qilish 12 sentyabrda boshlangan edi va dengiz floti qo'nish sohilidagi barcha to'siqlarni bartaraf etishga ulgurdi. Birinchi dengiz diviziyasi faxriylariga Guadakanal orolni egallash vazifasi yuklatilgan. Yaponlar chuqur mudofaa tizimiga ega bo'lsalar ham, qo'nishni to'xtatishga harakat qilishdi. D-Day kuni 210 dengiz piyodalari halok bo'ldi va 900 kishi yaralandi. Dengiz piyodalari 15 -kuni aerodromni egallab olishdi, lekin yaponlar uni ishlatishga juda yaqin edi. Dengiz piyodalari yaponlarni mag'lub etish uchun tankga o'rnatilgan olov otish moslamasi yordamida har bir g'orga birma -bir hujum qilishga majbur bo'lishdi. Faqat 24-25-tunga qadar oxirgi qarshilik mag'lubiyatga uchradi va yapon qo'mondoni polkovnik Nakagava o'z joniga qasd qildi.


Tarkibi

Nijmegendagi Waal daryosi muhim tabiiy to'siq bo'lib, uni 1879 yilgacha temir yo'l ko'prigi, 1936 yilda esa Val ko'prigi deb nomlanuvchi yo'l ko'prigi yopmagan. O'sha paytda Waal ko'prigi muhandislikning ajoyib yutug'i edi: bu Evropadagi eng uzun bog'langan kamar ko'prigi edi. 1940 yil 10 -mayda, Germaniyaning Gollandiyaga bostirib kirishi paytida, Wealmachtning tez oldinga siljishining oldini olish uchun Voll ko'prigi Gollandiyalik harbiy muhandislar tomonidan buzib tashlandi. [9] Nemis bosqini paytida ko'prik ta'mirlandi va 1943 yilda qayta ochildi.

1944 yil 22 -fevralda ittifoqchilar tomonidan Nijmegen portlashi sodir bo'ldi. Its intended target of opportunity was the railway station area (which the Germans used for weapons transport), but because the attack was carelessly executed, most bombs dropped on residential buildings in the city centre, killing about 800 civilians. [10] After the fact, the Nazis seized on the incident, and focused their propaganda on it, attempting to sway popular opinion against the Allies. Their efforts failed, however, and may have even been counterproductive. On the eve of Market Garden, most Nijmegeners were passionately awaiting Allied liberation, despite the bombardment. [11]

That liberation seemed to come soon when in late August Heeresgruppe B collapsed in Normandy and made a rushed, chaotic retreat to Germany, leaving the Allies to capture Northern France and Belgium in a matter of days. [12] Reports spread that the British had conquered Brussels and Antwerp on 3 and 4 September, and allegedly –but incorrectly– Breda as well. This gave rise to a euphoric ambiance throughout the Netherlands on the next day, later known as Mad Tuesday, when one exaggerated rumour after another fed the hope that liberation would occur in a matter of hours. However, the German forces managed to regroup, and would not be driven out of the Netherlands without a fight. British general Montgomery then designed the ambitious plan Market Garden, to surprise the Germans by the deployment of airborne forces. These would quickly seize several crucial bridges across major rivers, after which the heavy armour could advance straight through the Netherlands, along Eindhoven, Nijmegen and Arnhem, and reach the Ruhr, where a vital part of Germany's war industry was located. The airborne landings were given the codename "Market," and the ground force operation was given codename "Garden." The airborne drop would capture the bridges, and the ground forces would be the main invasion. The airborne drop would secure the bridges that were vulnerable to being blown up by the Germans and protect the invasion route. The operation may have been sufficient to finish the war before the end of 1944. [13]

The success of Market Garden depended on the timely and intact capture of a number of bridges in the southeastern Netherlands by American, British, Polish and Canadian airborne forces. These were to clear the way, Highway 69 or later nicknamed "Hell's Highway"– from Belgium to the north Nether Rhine bank for the advance of the heavily armed British XXX Corps (supported by the Guards Armoured Division), consisting of dozens of Sherman tanks and artillery. If this firepower could be moved across all major Dutch rivers in time, Germany might be defeated and the war ended before 1945.

The 82nd Airborne Division – comprising the 504th, 505th and 508th Parachute Infantry Regiments (PIRs)– commanded by Brigadier General James Gavin, was tasked with taking all of the bridges between Grave and Arnhem. The bridges in question were the Grave Bridge, four bridges spanning the Maas–Waal Canal, the Railway Bridge and, most importantly of all, the Waal Bridge near Nijmegen. The 82nd's main body and the 504th PIR would land north and south of Grave to capture the first 5 bridges, while the 505th and 508th PIRs would jump at Groesbeek to secure the vital Groesbeek Heights to block any German counterattacks from the Klever Reichswald, [14] to advance towards Nijmegen and lastly to occupy the Waal Bridge.

The Grave, Canal and Road (Waal) bridges Edit

On 17 September at 12:30, Companies D, E and F of the 504th PIR (placed under the 82nd Division for the operation) were dropped near the Grave Bridge, which was seized and defended successfully against German counterattacks after a two to three hour firefight. [15] The 1st Battalion of the 504th, led by Major Harrison, had to seize the four Canal bridges, designated as no. 7, 8, 9 and 10. [16] Bridge 8 was destroyed by the Germans at 16:15 Bridge 9 near Hatert was blown up at 20:15 as well but at 19:00, Bridge 7 near Heumen was captured by the Americans. [17] At around 02:30 on 18 September, Companies F, D and HQ occupied Grave without any resistance they waited until the arrival of the British XXX Corps, which came at 08:30. [18]

At about 18:00 on 17 September, the 1st Battalion, 508th PIR (1/508th) left its half-dug trenches at Groesbeek and advanced towards Nijmegen to take the Road Bridge. [19] Ironically, this particular initiative may have resulted from miscommunication between Gavin and Colonel Roy E. Lindquist, commander of 1/508th PIR, allowing a delayed advance on the bridge giving German troops enough time to occupy the bridge. The 82nd Division's own website states:

"Immediately after the landing, Gavin ordered Colonel Lindquist’s 508th regiment to head for the bridge along the east side of the city, avoiding the built-up area. But due to a misunderstanding, Lindquist thought he was to advance only after he secured his other objectives. As a result, he moved towards Nijmegen late in the afternoon through the built-up area which Gavin had wanted him to avoid. The surprise effect of his attack was lost. German troops (some from Gräbner's squadron) prevented the Americans from taking the bridge." [20]

March on Nijmegen Edit

17 September: battle of Keizer Karelplein Edit

Around 22:00, Companies A and B of 1/508th advanced, whilst C waited. Company A was guided by a member of the Dutch resistance for about 8 km until a crossroads at the southern end of Nijmegen, where he suddenly disappeared and was never seen again. After long waiting, the American soldiers decided to march on. Several blocks before the Keizer Karelplein, a platoon came under fire by a German machine gun, which, however, was soon taken out. On the square, a major firefight broke out: German soldiers shot at the paratroopers from the square's centre and the houses surrounding it. [21]

Both the Germans and the Americans received reinforcements (the latter first Company B 1/508th, later other companies). However, when the German 406th Infantry Division attacked the landing zones near Groesbeek in the morning of 18 September, almost the entire 1/508th was pulled back. Only Company G 3/508th stayed in town in an attempt to capture the Road Bridge anyway. They relinquished the Keizer Karelplein, and tried a more eastern route, systematically cleaning up every German guard post underway, and almost reaching the bridge. [22]

Waal Bridge not demolished Edit

The Allies' greatest fear was that the Germans would blow up the Road Bridge, which would render Market Garden a failure. Indeed, the Germans had already installed explosives on the bridge, ready to be detonated when that would be deemed necessary, but this never happened during the entire battle. Generalfeldmarschall Walter Model, commander of the German forces in the Netherlands, counted on an Allied defeat at Arnhem. This meant the bridge could still be of use for a large-scale counteroffensive, and so it was not destroyed on 17 September. [8] On 18 September, resistance member Jan van Hoof allegedly sabotaged the explosives, but this remains uncertain. However, when he was arrested and executed by the Germans the next day, he was soon heroised as the "Saviour of the Waal Bridge". An official investigation after the war concluded the Germans would have had enough time to charge the bridge with explosives once more and demolish it anyway however, they again did not do so out of strategic considerations. [23] According to another hypothesis, the Germans supposedly failed to blow up the bridge on 20 September, because the ignition system malfunctioned. [8]

18 September: German reinforcements Edit

On 18 September, Model sent reinforcements from Arnhem to keep the Waal Bridge out of the Allies' hands. Because elements of the British 1st Airborne Division were still in control of the Arnhem bridge at the time, [24] the 1. Kompagnie SS-Panzer-Pionier-Abteilung commanded by SS-Untersturmführer Werner Baumgärtel and the 2. Bataillon SS-Panzergrenadier-Regiment 19 under leadership of SS-Hauptsturmführer Karl-Heinz Euling crossed the Rhine at Pannerden as the 500 man strong 'Kampfgruppe Euling', used the still intact Waal Bridge and dug in at the Hunnerpark. [6] These reinforcements enabled the SS to regroup under the command of Sturmbannführer Leo Reinhold, who set up his headquarters on the north Waal bank. Fallschirmjäger Oberst Henke prepared the Railway Bridge's defences. The two roundabouts and beltway were reinforced during the next 48 hours. The Americans would have to wait for the XXX Corps' help in taking the bridges, even though according to the planning, they should have been captured before the British arrival. [22]

19 September: battle of Keizer Lodewijkplein Edit

The British and American commanders Browning (British 1st Airborne Division), Gavin (82nd Airborne Division), Horrocks (XXX Corps) and Adair (British Guards Armoured Division) held a meeting in the morning of 19 September in Molenhoek to determine their strategy. The binational force was split in two groups: the western group would take the Railway Bridge, and the eastern group the Road Bridge. The arrival of the British gave Gavin the necessary sense of security to send some of his troops from the Groesbeek Heights to join the assault.

At 16:00, the Anglo-American combat forces moved into town, resulting in a heavy firefight at the Keizer Lodewijkplein. The British tanks and armour exchanged fire with the German anti-tank cannons and infantry entrenched at the Valkhof fortress, while the American paratroopers fortified themselves in residential buildings on the square's south side. Meanwhile, heavy German artillery bombarded the attackers from Lent across the river Waal. [25]

Soon it became apparent that a mere head-on assault on the German positions might take several more days. However, the Allies did not have that much time to spare in relieving the British troops in Arnhem. It necessitated capturing the north end of both bridges to isolate the German forces on the south bank. To accomplish this, infantry would have to cross the river under fire. [26] The 3rd Battalion, 504th PIR crossed the Heumen bridge in the evening of 19 September, and set up camp in the Jonkerbos at 21:15. Brigadier General Gavin ordered Captain Julian Cook to find boats to cross the Waal. Initially, Cook had no idea where to get them. Eventually, canvas boats had to be transported from Belgium, delaying the Waal crossing by a day. [27] Originally, these would be 32 boats, but underway a truck carrying six boats was destroyed, and so only 26 reached their destination. [28]

20 September: battle of Nijmegen centre Edit

To make the river crossing a success, a renewed attack on the bridge's south sides was needed to divert the enemy's attention and firepower. Nijmegen's city centre had to be swept clean systematically first, block by block. This operation began in the morning of 20 September at 08:30, succeeding unexpectedly quickly. The occupying force was easily pushed back, as long as it could delay the Allies. Much of the combat took place on rooftops, where parachutists rapidly hopped from one rooftop to the next. Only in the Kronenburgerpark, where the elite SS troops of Kampfgruppe Henke had a clear field of fire, did the advance go slowly. Meanwhile, the II. Fallschirmjäger Corps of General Eugen Meindl charged the U.S. formations at Groesbeek and Mook, but failed to force a breakthrough. [29]

20 September 15:00 : Waal Crossing Edit

The planned crossing at 8:00 had to be delayed time and again because of logistical problems: the supply of canvas boats by truck from Belgium was difficult, since Hell's Highway was narrow, and constantly blocked by burnt-out vehicles. [30]

The crossing finally took place at 15:00, about two kilometres downstream from the Waal Bridge, near the old Gelderland Power Plant. [6] Two British Spitfires were to provide air support, but flak shot one down, after which the other returned to England. [3] The men of the 3/504th were fired on by German tanks, artillery and small arms, suffering heavy losses (48 paratroopers were killed with several dozens more were wounded). Some boats capsized or sank during the crossing.

Despite the losses, at least 16 boats survived the initial crossing. A field telephone line was laid on the riverbed for communication across the river. [31]

In several waves, most of the assault force from 3/504th succeeded in crossing the river.

By the late afternoon, 3/504th had taken the northern end of the railway bridge, and began preparations for a German counterattack. Instead, however, at dusk about 200 to 300 German soldiers approached the Americans to surrender. Around the same time, the Waal Bridge's northern end was seized by another group after heavy fighting. The 1st Battalion then relieved the 3rd to guard the railway bridge. [32]

Time was ticking away for the British tanks and artillery on the south bank of the Waal, as their munitions were running low. This and unforeseen delays in supply logistics presented a long-term problem, because of the munitions required by XXX Corps to complete its advance to the Rhine. [33]

In the battle for the Waal Bridge in the Hunnerpark and on the Keizer Lodewijkplein, over 300 of Kampfgruppe Euling's 500 soldiers lost their lives, 60 were taken prisoners, and the rest were able to escape. [6]

March halted Edit

Around the same time the Nijmegen bridges were captured, the British paratroopers under John Frost had to surrender the Arnhem Bridge to the Germans. A rapid advance from Nijmegen to Arnhem to retake the bridge, was blocked by a combination of factors, including sunset, unfamiliarity with the terrain ahead (the Betuwe), German reinforcements near Ressen coming from Arnhem (3 Tiger tanks and 2 infantry companies), ongoing firefights and chaos in Nijmegen, and continuous logistical problems on "Hell's Highway", due to events such as the German counterattacks near Veghel. The march of XXX Corps was delayed for another 18 hours after the Waal Bridge's conquest, [34] but eventually it was so worn out after 5 days of combat, that the offensive could not be resumed. On 21 September, a battle near Elst obstructed further progress of the XXX Corps and the Guards Armoured Division on the road to Arnhem. The 43rd (Wessex) Infantry Division played an important role on 22 September by creating a side corridor to Oosterbeek (where the British parachutists under Roy Urquhart had fortified themselves against a superior German enemy that vastly outnumbered them) via Driel (just liberated by the Polish 1st Independent Parachute Brigade under Stanisław Sosabowski). [35] Attempts were made to still turn the Battle of Arnhem into an Allied success now that the forces were linked up, but these were thwarted on 23 September. On 24 September, the XXX Corps' generals decided in the Valburg Conference to abandon Market Garden, pull the troops out of Arnhem, and let the frontline fall back to Nijmegen. Remaining British troops tried to escape to the south, or hide in occupied territory. During Operation Berlin (25–26 September), more than 2,400 of them could be evacuated with Canadian help. [36] Operation Pegasus (22–23 October) managed to save another 100.

Nijmegen front city Edit

After the Allied withdrawal from Arnhem and the Betuwe, the frontline was again at Nijmegen, which would be bombarded regularly for the next five months. Historians wonder why Nijmegen was not evacuated right after liberation –just like Arnhem would be by the Germans on 23 September – which could have prevented hundreds of extra civilian casualties. [37] The German forces especially tried to destroy the Waal Bridge on several occasions in numerous ways, but they failed every time. The best attempt took place on 29 September, just before 17:30. A group of German Kampfschwimmer ("combat swimmers") succeeded in placing floating mines on both bridges, managing to destroy the middle section of the Railway Bridge, and blowing a hole in the road deck of the Road Bridge. However, the latter could be saved with a British bailey bridge. [8]

Political revolution Edit

On 17 September NSB burgemeester Marius van Lokhorst and the more moderate NSB locum burgemeester Harmanus Hondius were put out of office by the Allies. Hondius fled to Arnhem, whilst Van Lokhorst had already fled to Groningen around Mad Tuesday. [38] Petrus van der Velden was installed as the new burgemeester on 19 September. This aroused a lot of criticism from the Nijmegeners, because during his previous tenure as burgemeester (1 May 1942 – 24 February 1943) he had complied more with the commands of the German occupiers than his predecessor. On 16 October 1944, he was succeeded by Charles Hustinx, who would remain burgemeester of Nijmegen until 1 January 1968.

The Supreme Court of the Netherlands, which the Germans temporarily moved from The Hague to Nijmegen in 1943, was partially purged after the liberation. Justice Minister Gerrit Jan van Heuven Goedhart, who still resided in London, ordered the dismissal of all pro-Nazi judges appointed by the Germans, but also the temporary suspension of all other judges of the Supreme Court, including those who had already been appointed before the war, which was unconstitutional. [39] Besides, although Nijmegen already lay in liberated territory, most judges who were fired by the Zuivering-Decreet were still in occupied areas, leading to a complex legal situation. [40]

Historiography and memory Edit

"I have no idea what Nijmegen used to look like there was probably quite a sweet old part to the city, judging from some of the ruins (. ) but due to uninterrupted shelling for a month or more the place looks now as if it had been abandoned years ago, following an earthquake and a flood. Today Nijmegen is a town where people sleep in cellars and walk with care on the streets, listening hard for incoming shells."
Martha Gellhorn, October 1944 [41]

During the Battle of Nijmegen, there were only two reporters with the 82nd Airborne Division at hotel Sionshof, and they were both busy covering the actions on the Groesbeek Heights. Therefore, contemporary British and American press did not pay much attention to what was happening in Nijmegen, which had to be reconstructed from other sources later. [42]

Historian Joost Rosendaal found out that the Bombing of Nijmegen of 22 February 1944 has been registered in collective memory much more clearly than the liberation and the five months as a front line city, even though these caused roughly the same number of casualties. The city suffered about 7% (over two thousand) of all war deaths in the Netherlands, which is far out of proportion. Moreover, many of the fallen were not commemorated officially for many years, because they were 'pointless' civilian casualties the nationalistic commemorations preferred to give attention to 'heroic sacrifices' such as soldiers and resistance members who 'died for the fatherland'. [37]

In the course of the war, 10,000 Nijmegeners were wounded, 5,500 of whom were permanently disabled. 5,000 houses (nearly a quarter) were destroyed, and another 13,000 homes were more or less heavily damaged. With 12,000 homeless people and another 3,000 evacuees from the surrounding areas, there was an extreme post-war housing crisis. [9]


Today in World War II History—September 15, 1939 & 1944

80 Years Ago—September 15, 1939: Aviator Charles Lindbergh makes his first radio broadcast opposing US involvement in the war.

African-American Marines on Peleliu, 15 September 1944 (US National Archives)

75 Years Ago—Sept. 15, 1944: US Marine 1 st Division land on Peleliu in the Palau Islands in the Pacific.

Allied forces from Operation Dragoon (landings in southern France) are transferred from the Mediterranean Theater of Operations (MTO) to the European Theater of Operations (ETO).


HistoryLink.org

On September 15, 1944, the Port of Seattle Commission votes to rename the new Seattle-Tacoma Airport “Johnson Field” in honor of Philip G. Johnson (1891-1944), Boeing’s wartime president, who died the previous day. Tacoma officials quickly block the plan and the name-change is cancelled.

Phil Johnson was a popular and energetic executive who joined Boeing in 1919 and rose to become president of the company’s United Aircraft and Transport conglomerate. When federal regulators forced UAT’s dissolution in 1934, Johnson departed for Canada where he organized and led the government's Trans-Canada Airlines. He was called back to Seattle after Pearl Harbor to lead Boeing’s war production effort. Johnson died of a sudden brain hemorrhage while visiting Wichita, Kansas, on September 14, 1944.

Naming Rights & Wrongs

In 1942, Tacoma’s Port Commission, city government, and Pierce County lobbied for selection of Bow Lake for a new regional airport and pledged $100,000 towards construction costs (which topped $4 million by 1944) in exchange for sharing the facility's name with Seattle. They objected immediately and loudly to the new name, and Seattle’s Port Commission reversed itself on September 21, 1944, settling for a memorial plaque to honor Johnson. Sea-Tac was completed the following month and civilian operations began in 1946. The Port added "International" to the airport's name in 1949 when it dedicated a modernistic control center and terminal.

The "name game" scenario was replayed 39 years later when the Port of Seattle proposed to rename Seattle-Tacoma International Airport to honor U.S. Senator Henry M. Jackson, who died on September 1, 1983, in his Everett home. Again, Tacoma’s opposition led the Port to reconsider.

King County Landmarks & Heritage Commission
Hotel/Motel Tax Fund

Sea-Tac Airport window decal, 1950s

Philip G. Johnson (1891-1944), Boeing executive

Manbalar:

Seattle Post-Intelligencer, September 15 and 21, 1944 The Seattle Times, September 21, 1944 Robert J. Serling, Legend & Legacy: The Story of Boeing and Its People (New York: St. Martins, 1992), p. 68 Robert G. Kaufman, Henry M. Jackson: A Life in Politics (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2000), pp. 431 and 434.


One Man's War -Part 15: September 1, 1944 -- September 30, 1944 continued

This story appears courtesy of and with thanks to Robert H Allison.

Probably the most humorous thing that took place for the group while we were at Holtville was an outing of the squadron officers and the spouses of the married officers. The whole group journeyed to Mexicali, Mexico, just across the border from Calexico, Ca., to take in a bull fight. After the Gringos witnessed a few sessions with the bulls, they become bored and restless. To liven things up the skipper volunteered to ride the bull while the Matador stuck it. The skipper was so far gone on booze he could hardly walk but he made it to the railing and promptly fell on his face into the arena. The security guards pushed him back in the stands. He bowed to applause of the Gringos but was the subject of scorn by the Mexican fans. Never the less, during the next event he was back, flat on his face again in the arena. This time the security escorted him all the way out. At the end of the festivities, the gang went looking for him and found him outside the gates to where the dead bulls are dragged from the arena. He was down on his hands and knees with a bunch of poor Mexicans trying to cut a steak from a dead bull with his pocket knife. His wife was furious. Conduct unbecoming an officer, well, maybe so, but you would never convince the officers of that squadron he was guilty of bad conduct. It was one of the most memorable fun days we were to have. In fact, the skipper was probably the best squadron commander in the Navy. He was a gentleman and a truly compassionate man. Even when he had a little too much to drink on too many occasions.

It seemss like everywhere you go there is always some guy who has to shoo the females off like they were flies. Ninety nine percent of the men have to work their butts off just to be even glanced at. Then there was the Roy Kinnard type of guy. Roy was tall, blonde, well built and good looking, who, when he entered a room or bar all female eyes just gravitated to him and many of the girls left their companions to make a play for him. He truly did shoo them off. He would actually be bored and even annoyed with them. Pissed most of the rest of us no end. Us ugly guys were used to being ignored.

Another aspect of our training was the "Dilbert Dunker". This was a contraption that was constructed to resemble the cockpit of a plane. We were each required to strap ourselves in the seat, the Dunker was lifted to about 10 feet high over the swimming pool and dropped in the deep-end of the pool. Now you are under water. You can't see any thing and you are expected to unhook yourself and get out before you drown. There are instructors there to make sure you don't drown. The object of this exercise is to become familiar with a water landing and possibly save someone from panicking in the event of the real thing. Little would I know that I would have a first hand experience with the real McCoy, not once but twice.

While at Holtville, the skipper would have trouble with one of the enlisted men. A black steward's mate whom I had encountered in North Bend. He was quite a pleasant, friendly guy at North Bend. I would never have expected trouble with him. Wouldn't you know his last name was Friend. His home was in Los Angeles and as we passed through LA on our way to Holtville he jumped the train. Was picked up by the shore patrol and given a reprimand. A couple of weeks after arriving at Holtville, he decided that he and the rest of the blacks were not going to be segregated in the mess hall. They were challenged by the whites and a riot ensued. Friend was court-marshaled and placed in the Marine brig in El Central, Ca. The report was that the marine guards nearly beat him to death. Too bad for "ole" Friend! He just lived before his time!

The squadron had been commissioned with 37 officers and 134 enlisted men. Before we were to leave Holtville for NAS Los Alamitos at Long Beach, California, the squadron was streamlined into a Composite squadron consisting of only flying officers and flying crewmen and about five administrative officers and a hand full of key ground enlisted men. The rest were released to the local CASU unit at Holtville for reassignment.

Continued.
'This story was submitted to the People’s War site by BBC Radio Merseyside’s People’s War team on behalf of the author and has been added to the site with his / her permission. The author fully understands the site's terms and conditions.'

© Ushbu arxivga qo'shilgan kontentning mualliflik huquqi muallifga tegishli. Buni qanday ishlatishingiz mumkinligini bilib oling.

Bu hikoya quyidagi toifalarga joylashtirilgan.

Bu sayt tarkibining ko'p qismi bizning foydalanuvchilarimiz tomonidan yaratilgan, ular jamoatchilik vakillari. Ko'rsatilgan fikrlar ularnikidir va agar aniq aytilmagan bo'lsa, BBCniki emas. BBC havola qilingan tashqi saytlarning mazmuni uchun javobgar emas. Agar siz ushbu sahifadagi biror narsani saytning uy qoidalariga zid deb hisoblasangiz, bu erni bosing. Boshqa har qanday sharhlar uchun biz bilan bog'laning.


Re: Development Of Hedgerow Breaching Tactics: July to September 1944

Muallif: Richard Stone » 02 Sep 2020, 03:39

Re: Development Of Hedgerow Breaching Tactics: July to September 1944

Muallif: Richard Stone » 04 Sep 2020, 03:58

Re: Development Of Hedgerow Breaching Tactics: July to September 1944

Muallif: Richard Stone » 05 Sep 2020, 19:59

Attached are several more reports that describe the evolution and variety of tactics used by the US Army infantry, artillery and armored units to overcome the German Army defenses located in the French Hedgerows during the summer of 1944.

The first report is a description of a German counterattack that used infantry and armor.

Re: Development Of Hedgerow Breaching Tactics: July to September 1944

Muallif: Richard Stone » 07 Sep 2020, 03:59

Attached are several more reports that describe the evolution and variety of tactics used by the US Army infantry, artillery and armored units to overcome the German Army defenses located in the French Hedgerows during the summer of 1944.

The last report is a comment by the British Army regarding the action patrols should take upon making enemy contact and receiving fire.

Re: Development Of Hedgerow Breaching Tactics: July to September 1944

Muallif: Richard Stone » 09 Sep 2020, 00:31

Re: Development Of Hedgerow Breaching Tactics: July to September 1944

Muallif: Richard Stone » 11 Sep 2020, 03:58

Attached are several more reports that describe the evolution and variety of tactics used by the US Army infantry, artillery and armored units to overcome the German Army defenses located in the French Hedgerows during the summer of 1944.

The text obscured by the ‘Declassified’ stamp can be read by enlarging the attachment.

Re: Development Of Hedgerow Breaching Tactics: July to September 1944

Muallif: Richard Stone » 13 Sep 2020, 04:54

Attached are several more reports that describe the evolution and variety of tactics used by the US Army infantry, artillery and armored units to overcome the German Army defenses located in the French Hedgerows during the summer of 1944.

The second report on the first attachment 'Rhino Saves Infantry’ discusses the advantage of using the Rhino device to breach the hedgerows.

The text obscured by the ‘Declassified’ stamp can be read by enlarging the attachment.

Re: Development Of Hedgerow Breaching Tactics: July to September 1944

Muallif: Richard Stone » 15 Sep 2020, 05:00

Attached are several more reports that describe the evolution and variety of tactics used by the US Army infantry, artillery and armored units to overcome the German Army defenses located in the French Hedgerows during the summer of 1944.

The text obscured by the ‘Declassified’ stamp can be read by enlarging the attachment.

Re: Development Of Hedgerow Breaching Tactics: July to September 1944

Muallif: Richard Stone » 16 Sep 2020, 19:18

Attached are several more reports that describe the evolution and variety of tactics used by the US Army infantry, artillery and armored units to overcome the German Army defenses located in the French Hedgerows during the summer of 1944.

The first report is a method the British Army adopted to handle snipers located in haystacks.


The 362nd Infantry Regiment Attack the Futa Pass (10 – 21 September 1944)

During the month of September the 91st Division fought its most brilliant campaign, in which it smashed the most formidable defensive positions in Italy, the Gothic Line. It advanced through elaborately constructed fortifications over mountainous terrain made hazardous by rain and fog, with unflinching determination and unwearying courage. According to one infantryman the climactic days, 12-22 September, were a "lifetime of mud, rain, sweat, strain, fear, courage, and prayers.” But with brilliant leadership and magnificent courage, the 91st Division cracked the Gothic Line and established itself as one of the great fighting Divisions of World War II.

The 91st Division moved into position during the night of 9 September. The 362nd Infantry relieved the 2nd Brigade of the 1st British Division near Vaglia. The attack was launched Sept. 10, 1944.

While the 363rd Infantry was battling for Monticelli (Giogo Pass area) on the left and the 361st Infantry fought for Hill 844 and 856, the 362nd Infantry was advancing up Highway 65 toward M. Calvi and Futa Pass. As in the other two sectors, the fighting was very bitter and the advance painfully slow, 13-15 September. With unwearying courage the Regiment fought its way from pillbox to pillbox, through barbed wire and minefields, always through areas in which the enemy had excellent observation and prepared fields of fire. On 14 September the 2nd Battalion occupied Mt. Calvi but could not exploit its position because of the terrific mortar concentrations which fell from Hills 821 and 840. Nor could the Battalion advance rapidly to Hill 840, for although the forward slope of Mt. Calvi is a gentle incline, the reverse slope drops abruptly to the foot of Hill 840, at some points as much as 500 feet in 200 yards. Not only was it almost impossible terrain for the infantry to cross, but artillery fire is masked in many areas. Thus even high angle fire was unable to reach the mole-like Germans dug in below.

Shortly after noon 15 September the 1st Battalion attacked north to Morcoiano according to a plan which involved nine TOT's being delivered by the massed artillery in 15 minutes. Progress of this attack was slow but steady. Morcoiano was heavily defended, but on 18 September the town fell and the Battalion pressed on. The next morning under a "nearly perfect" rolling barrage fired by the 346th Field Artillery the assault" on Poggio began. The artillery fire did not smash the fortifications, but it forced the defenders to seek cover and "button up" completely. Then when the fire moved past a given point, before the enemy could jump out of holes to man their weapons, the infantry, just a scant 300 yards behind the barrage, was upon them. Two hundred prisoners were taken. In this way the attack literally walked through a strong point that would ordinarily have been a scene of bloody and prolonged fighting.

On the same day, 19 September, the 2nd Battalion, attacking from the southeast, captured both Hill 821 and Hill 840. Advancing rapidly to keep contact with the enemy, now driven from his Main Line of Resistance, the Battalion occupied Mt. Alto during the night of 19-20 September.

Although the collapse of the enemy lines in the 362nd sector was not so spectacular as it was in the 361st sector, Hill 896 was captured the next day, and by the morning of 21 September Company A had reached the Santerno and had set up machine guns trained on Futa Pass.


15 September 1944 - History

Artefacts - Pictures of the men from the units that served with the Division

The purpose of this page is to provide a source of pictures and other information relating to the men and units that served with the Division. It will change as and when items are available to be added to it. Please be patient as one or two pictures may take a little while to load. The main sections are

3 -chi qirollik ot artilleriyasi

The set below are from the collection by Capt G Lawrence (3RHA) courtesy of his son Ray Lawrence.

2 pdr Portee Crew resting by their vehicle

4th Royal Horse Artillery

Three Pictures of 4th RHA In the Desert

25pdr Gun, Limber and Crew, from 4th RHA ready for action in 1941.

Men from 4th RHA digging a gun pit, while the 25pdr Gun, Limber and Quad Tractor wait in the background.

Quad Tractor, Limber and 25pdr gun, of 4th RHA, on the move in 1942.

5th Royal Horse Artillery

K Battery AOP Cromwell and crew 29th November 1994. (James Allen is second from right). Courtesy of James Allen & David Allen..

K Battery Sexton called 'Dagwood'.

Sexton 5 RHA Europe 1944, from 'H' Troop, 'CC' Battery. NB. It is the '76' below the Divisional TAC sign, above the drivers hatch that denotes it as 5 RHA. The 'H' above denotes the troop which is different to normal practice. Courtesy of William Parfitt & Mark Smith.

Another Sexton from 'H' Troop, CC Battery, showing the compartment cover and the various items stowed above the engine

Men from CC Battery HQ in the snow by a AOP Cromwell, clearly showing the CC Bty Badge, with a local. This is in Hingenderstraat in Sint Joost the Netherlands in late 1944 or early 1945. My father is in the leather Jerkin, smoking a pipe.

The below set of photographs have kindly been given to me to added to the website by the family of L/Bdr W Archer. The all relate to G Battery (Mercer's Troop) RHA. Copyright W Archer and his family. Click on the image for a larger version.

Men of 'C' Sub-Section feeling browned off at Alamein

Quad and some of the men of C Sub-section waiting to go into action. Libya 1943

More of the Village of Cancello, 7th November 1943.

Men of Battery HQ, Italy 1943

A few items belonging to Sergeant Rodger Newton May, CC Battery, who was awarded the Military Medal after fighting west of Agheila on December 15th 1942. Courtesy of Pierre Price.

Three photographs of 'K' Battery, 5th Royal Horse Artillery.

Pre-war photograph of some of the men and officers of the Battery.

Photograph from Bill Jones, courtesy of 'Jock' (Rob) Ler che (K Bty) and Barry Forbes

Back Row: Talbot, Jack Boyd, Tilling, McFadden, (?), Cpt Wells, Lt Chris North, (?), Squires, Bill Slack, (?), Cornwall.

Middle Row: Tugwell, Pashby, Winstanley, Ellin, McPherson. Moyes, (?), Briggs.

Front Row: Jock (Bob Lerche), Bowman, Bill Jones, Pritchard, (?), Geordie Hodgeson

Men of K Battery, 5th RHA in Surrey 1942. Courtesy of 'Jo ck' (Rob) Lerche (K Bty) and Barry Forbes

Journey's end. Men of K Battery, 5th RHA in Berlin 1945. Courtesy of 'Jock' (Rob) Lerche (K Bty) and Barry Forbes

'CC' Battery, 5th Royal Horse Artillery, Berlin, October 1945.

Men of CC Battery, 5th RHA in Berlin October 1945. Courtesy of Alexander Paterson

If you are in any of the three pictures of 'K 'and 'CC' Batteries above or know someone who is (or would like a higher definition copy of them) please contact me as my own father is in the one of CC Battery.

Roll of Honour for 5th Regiment, Royal Horse Artillery (1939 - 1945)

Please click on the image below to view the larger image which may take a little while to open

There are more pictures of 5th RHA during the Victory Parade in July 1945 on the Italian and Northern Europe Page. Click here to go there now.

The set of photographs below are from the collection of Sergeant W. Paul DuPre, courtesy of his son Peter DuPre. These cover from the pre-war period to 1945.

Tanks of 8th Hussars waiting to cross the Rhine at Brunen

Recovering a Challenger Tank Destroyer from a river

Chaffee and Honey Tanks of 8th Hussars HQ (Recce) Squadron, outside Hamburg, 1945

There are more pictures of 8th Hussars during the Victory Parade in July 1945 on the Italian and Northern Europe Page. Click here to go there now.

Please also see these photographs on flickr, from Noel Taylor, whose grandfather Henry Hessey was in 8th Hussars.

Pictures of the 11th Hussars

Rolls Royce Armoured Car in the desert in 1940.

Morris Armoured Car crossing the frontier wire into Libya in 1940

A Fordson Armoured Car of 'D' Squadron (RAF), 11th Hussars, fitted with an extra pair of light machine-guns mounted on a 'Scarff Ring', on the turret as additional protection against air attack. The two crew in 'side caps' are RAF personnel, with a Hussars instructor behind them.

Moving upto the front in Humber Armoured Cars

11th Hussars HQ, making use of an umbrella, liberated from a Cairo bar or restaurant

Marmon-Herrington Armoured Cars. Some have the turret removed and are fitted with a 20mm Breda guns

The crew of this Humber II Armoured Car from 'B' Squadron were the first vehicle into Tripoli

Being inspected by Winston Churchill and Montgomery

A Troop equipped with French 75mm guns mounted on US Halftracks in Italy

C' Squadron Outside Ghent September 1944, in Daimler Armoured Cars

No. 1 Troop, D Squadron, in Germany. The White Scout Car carried troops that could dismount and fight on foot, to carry out patrols, out flank enemy positions, etc.

Daimler 'Dingo' Scout Car armed with twin Vickers K Machine Guns

Humber Scout Cars of D Squadron outside the Town Hall, in Hamburg, 3rd May 1945

Men of No.1 Troop, C Squadron, with a Daimler Armoured Car, September 1944

Vehicles of D Squadron in the main square of Tonning after VE Day

Daimler Armoured Cars of 11th Hussars, entering Berlin with Major General Lyne, the Divisional Commander, taking the salute.

Daimler Armoured Cars of 11th Hussars, during the Victory Parade in Berlin, 21st July 1945

Sgt (later Sgt Major) Bernard McGuire, 'B' Squadron, 11th Hussars, receiving his Military Medal from Field Marshall Montgomery

List of site sources >>>


Videoni tomosha qiling: ПОДРОБНЫЙ РАССКАЗ ОБ ОДНОМ ИЗ САМЫХ ВАЖНЫХ СРАЖЕНИЙ ВОВ! СТАЛИНГРАД. ПОБЕДА, ИЗМЕНИВШАЯ МИР. (Dekabr 2021).