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Surrealizm

Surrealizm

1920 -yillarda Parijda Andre Breton boshchiligidagi syurrealistlar. Harakatga Man Ray kabi rassomlar va fotosuratchilar kirgan. Haddan tashqari bosib chiqarish va quyosh nurlanishi kabi usullar surrealist fotograflar tomonidan qo'llanilgan.


SURREALIZM-O'YINLAR

Surrealizm-o'yinlar-bu syurrealistik harakat tarixi va ijodiy ishlari, shuningdek, avangard teatrining an'analariga bag'ishlangan sayt. .

Surrealizm - 1920 -yillarda Parijda tashkil etilgan adabiy, badiiy va inqilobiy harakat. Uning asosiy maqsadi - inson erkinligini bostiruvchi ijtimoiy an'analarni yengish va tasavvur, orzular va istaklarning cheklangan chegaralarini hech qanday to'sqinliksiz o'rganish edi. Surrealizm uchun ikkita so'z kalit edi: ozodlik va kashfiyot.

Birinchi syurrealizm manifestini 1924 yilda yozgan Andre Breton, "o'z -o'zini inqilob qilish" haqida gapirdi - tashqi dunyo va uning ta'siridan ta'sirlanmagan holda, o'z -o'zidan "asosiy" narsaga tegishga urinish. .

Zigmund Freyd va uning ong osti tadqiqotlaridan ilhomlanib, syurrealistlar avtomatik yozish va tasodifiy o'yinlar bilan tajriba o'tkazdilar, an'anaviy mantiqdan tashqariga chiqib, aql bovar qilmaydigan, sirli va "kundalik hayotning ajoyib" dunyosiga chuqur kirib bordilar.

Surrealizm adabiyot, she'riyat, san'at, fotografiya, kino, falsafa va siyosat orqali namoyon bo'ldi. Eng mashhur syurrealist yozuvchilar orasida Andr é Breton, Lui Aragon, Pol Eluard, Robert Desnos, Benjamin P éret, Antonin Artaud va Ren é Krevel bor. Surrealist rassomlar orasida Salvador Dal í, Rene Magritte, Joan Mir ó, Iv Tanguy va Andr é Masson bor. Luis Bu ñuel, ehtimol, eng taniqli syurrealistik kinorejissyor, Man Rey esa suratga tushishi bilan shuhrat qozongan.

Avangard teatrining tarixi boy va xilma-xil bo'lib, simvolizm, absurdizm, ekspressionizm, kubizm, dada va syurrealizm kabi adabiy va dramatik harakatlarni o'z ichiga oladi. Alfred Jarri, Oskar Panitssa, Antonin Artaud, Bertolt Brext, Vladimir Mayakovskiy, Luigi Pirandello, Stanislav Vitkevich, Samuel Bekket, Evgeniy Ionesko va Tadeush Kantor kabi muhim ishtirokchilar bor.


Surrealizmning o'sishi

Surrealizmning paydo bo'lishi dadaizmning qulashi bilan bog'liq. Ikkinchisi - bu san'atkorlar va umuman hayotning an'anaviy yondashuvlaridan nafratlanishlarini bildirgan harakat. Dadaizm san'ati ko'pincha zo'ravonlik va norozilik munosabatiga ega edi.

Surrealizm asosan Evropada, asosan Parijda boshlangan. Garchi u dadaizmdan kelib chiqqan bo'lsa -da, aslida u zo'ravonlikdan ko'ra ko'proq san'atga asoslangan edi. Andre Breton, frantsuz shoiri mashhur "syurrealizm papasi". Harakat 1936 yilda boshlangan Britaniya syurrealizmini o'z ichiga olgan xalqaro miqyosda mashhur bo'lib ketdi.

Bunga psixoanaliz kashshofi Zigmund Freyd va uning ongsizlik haqidagi nazariyalari kuchli ta'sir ko'rsatdi. Surrealizm, asosan, ongsiz hayotni ochib, keyin ongli hayot bilan yarashishga qaratilgan edi.


1919-1950: syurrealizm siyosati

Surrealizm tarixi va uning siyosat bilan aloqalari, xususan, anarxizm va sotsializm.

& quot; Anarxizmning qora oynasida syurrealizm o'zini birinchi marta tanidi. & quot; Shunday qilib, 1952 yilda Andre Breton & quot; Surrealizm papasi & quot; ni aniq yozdi. 1947 yilda Breton Frantsiyaga qaytib keldi va o'sha yilning aprelida Andre Julien o'z sahifalarida qaytishini mamnuniyat bilan kutib oldi. Le Libertair Anarxist federatsiyasining haftalik nashri.

Lekin nega syurrealistlar o'zlarini 1947 yilgacha inqilobiy anarxizm g'oyalari bilan bog'lamaganlar? Hokimiyat va dindan qattiq nafratlangan bu radikal san'at harakati tabiiy ittifoqchi edi. Darhaqiqat, Dada badiiy harakati, ko'p jihatdan syurrealizmning prekursori va ta'siri, 1916 yilda Tsyurixda Jahon urushining vahshiyligi va qirg'iniga reaktsiya sifatida paydo bo'lgan. Bretonning o'ziga 1919 yilda uchrashgan shoir Jak Vache ta'sir ko'rsatdi. Breton o'sha 1952 yilgi maqolasida shunday ta'kidlagan edi: & quot; O'sha paytda syurrealistik rad javobi umuman siyosiy miqyosda o'zini ko'rsatishga mutlaqo qodir emas edi. Birinchi jahon urushida o'z qadr -qimmatini ko'rsatgan zamonaviy dunyo dam olgan barcha institutlar biz uchun noaniq va janjalli hisoblanardi. Boshidanoq, biz hujum qilayotgan jamiyatning butun mudofaa apparati edi: armiya, adolat, politsiya, din, psixiatriya va yuridik tibbiyot va maktabda o'qish. U talabni davom ettirdi: & quot; Nega bu vaqtda anarxist va syurrealistik elementlar o'rtasida organik sintez amalga oshirilmadi? & Quot Biz rus inqilobining g'alabasi va ishchilar davlatining paydo bo'lishi deb hisoblaganimiz dunyoqarashimizni tubdan o'zgartirishga olib keldi. 1921 yil 18 martdagi Kronshtadt qo'zg'olonining yo'q qilinishi rasmdagi yagona qora nuqta - o'chmas dog'ga aylandi.

Birdamlik
Surrealistlar 1923 yilda L'Action Francaise o'ta o'ng millatchilar partiyasi faolini o'ldirgan va anketachilar sudida ayblangan Germain Berton yosh anarxist ayol bilan birdamlik ko'rsatishda ikkilanmaganlar! Surrealistik guruhning yana bir a'zosi Robert Desnos Viktor Serj va Rirette Maitrejanning individualistik anarxist doiralari bilan aloqada bo'lgan, politsiya ma'lumotlariga ko'ra, syurrealist shoir Benjamin Peret Parij mintaqasidagi anarxist guruhda faol bo'lgan va o'z hissasini qo'shgan. anarxist qog'oziga Le Libertaire. Bu davrda barcha syurrealistlar anarxist matbuotni diqqat bilan o'qishdi. Biroq, ular frantsuz harakatining nomuvofiqligidan orqaga chekinishdi va ba'zilar Jahon urushida ittifoqchilarning sa'y -harakatlarini qanday qo'llab -quvvatlashganini esladilar. Breton sharh muharriri lavozimini egallaganida La inqilob surrealist Antonin Artauddan u inqilobchi kabi kollektiv matnlarning ko'pini yozgan Qamoqxonalarni oching! Armiyani tarqatib yuboring!

Surrealistlar, shuningdek, otasini zaharlagan yosh ayol Violette Nozyerning himoyasiga o'tdilar. Violette otasini 12 yoshidan boshlab tizimli ravishda zo'rlaganlikda aybladi. Surrealistlar suddan burjua oilasi va burjua ikkiyuzlamachiligini qoralash uchun foydalandilar.

1927 yil yanvar oyida syurrealistik guruhning 5 a'zosi Kommunistik partiyaga qo'shildi: Breton, Aragon, Eluard, Unik va Peret. Desnos va Miro kabi boshqalar qo'shilishdan bosh tortishdi. Hatto Bretonda ham partiya a'zoligi malakaga ega edi. U Kommunistik dasturni minimal dastur sifatida ko'rdi va partiya qog'ozini & quot; Proletar ta'limi rolini o'z zimmasiga olishga urinayotgan beg'ubor, befoyda dekretli, bema'ni, o'qilmaydigan & quot; deb tanqid qildi. Aragon "syurrealistlar guruhining eng erkin liberal ruhidan", rus maxfiy politsiyasi NKVD haqida she'rlar yozgan dahshatli Stalinist xakerga aylanar ekan, partiyaga qo'shilganlar Moskvadagi shou -sinovlardan o'zlarini noqulay his qila boshladilar. Bu syurrealistlar uchun bo'ronli davr edi, chunki ular ishchilar inqilobida ishtirok etishga harakat qilishdi, shu bilan birga o'z shaxsiy mashg'ulotlarini himoya qilishdi va partiya rahbariyatining ularni qattiq jilovda ushlab turish urinishlariga qarshi kurashishdi. Breton 1933 yilda haydaldi va partiya nazoratidagi madaniyatni himoya qilish xalqaro kongressida surrealistlar qoralandi va faqat oxirgi kuni ertalab soat 2 da gapirishga ruxsat berildi!

Trotskiy
Hozirgacha ba'zi syurrealistlar trotskizm va muxolif bolshevizm bilan ittifoqdosh edilar. Peret Frantsiya va Braziliyada Kommunistlar ittifoqi va Internatsionalist ishchilar partiyasi bilan aloqa o'rnatdi. Breton Meksikada, 1938 yilda Evropadagi she'riyat va rassomlik bo'yicha Meksika universitetida o'tkazilgan bir qator konferentsiyalarga mas'ul etib tayinlanganida, Trotskiy bilan aloqa o'rnatdi. Mustaqil inqilobiy san'at uchun "Inqilob intellektual ijodni markaziy rejalashtiradigan sotsialistik tuzumni o'rnatishga majbur, deb e'lon qildi, u hatto boshidanoq intellektual erkinlikning anarxist rejimini o'rnatishi kerak. Hech qanday cheklov yo'q, buyruq izi ham emas & quot. Bu qarama -qarshi va g'alati hujjatni Breton va ajablanarli darajada Trotskiy yozganga o'xshaydi, chunki oyog'i sovuq bo'lganida Rivera Trotskiyning imzosini almashtirdi. Trotskiy bu hujjatni yozishga qachon yordam bergani noma'lum, chunki u qilgan va aytgan hamma narsasiga zid edi.

Durruti
Peret, o'z navbatida, Ispaniyadagi fuqarolar urushi va inqilobiga ishchi -internatsionalist partiyasi delegati etib kelgan. Bu erda u anti-Stalinistik marksistik partiya POUMda radioeshittirishda ishlagan, lekin bu tashkilotni Kataloniya hukumatida ishtirok etgani uchun tanqid qilganida, bu lavozimni tark etgan. U Aragon frontidagi anarxist Durruti ustuniga qo'shildi. & quot; POUM bilan barcha hamkorlik imkonsiz edi, ular odamlarni o'ngga, lekin chap tomonga qabul qilishni juda xohlardilar. Men anarxist militsiyaga kirishga qaror qildim va bu erda men frontdaman, Pino de Ebroda, - deb yozdi u Bretonga. Ikki yil o'tgach, u Buenaventura Durrutiga hurmat bajo keltirdi, shundan keyin ustun nomi berildi. & quot; Men har doim Durrutida eng inqilobiy anarxist liderni ko'rganman, uning munosabati hukumatga kirgan anarxistlarning taslim bo'lishiga eng qattiq qarshilik ko'rsatgan va uning o'ldirilishi meni qattiq hayajonga solgan. O'ylaymanki, Durrutining hayotidan saboqni yo'qotmaslik kerak. & Quot; Frantsiyaga qaytish, urush boshlanishida uni chaqirishdi. U "anarxist xarakterdagi" varaqalarni tarqatgani uchun hibsga olingan va qamoqdan keyin Meksikaga qochishga muvaffaq bo'lgan. Bu erda u Trotskiylikni tanqid qildi va uning tashkilotlaridan uzoqlashdi. Keyinchalik frantsuz liberal -kommunistik jangari Jorj Fontenisga yozgan maktubida u shunday dedi: & quot; Agar davlatning yo'q bo'lib ketishini birdaniga tasavvur qilib bo'lmaydi. davlat azoblari & quot;

Takabburlik
Urushdan keyin surrealistlar Anarxist federatsiyasi bilan hamkorlik qila boshladilar. Fontenis va FAning yana bir jangarisi Serj Nin surrealistlar bilan yaxshi aloqada bo'lishdi, birinchisi Bretonning do'sti bo'lishdi. 1951 yilda syurrealist har haftada muntazam ravishda ustun yozishni boshladi Le Libertaire - Le Billet Surrealiste. Shuningdek, Peretning bir qator maqolalari nashr etilgan Le Libertair kasaba uyushmalarini aksil-inqilobchi organizmlar sifatida tavsiflab, unga alternativa sifatida ishchilar kengashlarini taklif qildi. FA bu borada u bilan kelisha olmadi va javobni gazetada e'lon qildi. Bu savolga Peret, albatta, frantsuz anarxistlaridan oldin edi. Bu erda tortishuvlar birodarlik bilan bog'liq edi, lekin keyinchalik Billuretda syurrealist Jan Shuster anrexistlar iqtisodiy va ijtimoiy kurashni davom ettirar ekan, intellektual kurashni surrealistlar o'z zimmalariga olishlari kerakligini ta'kidladilar. Bu elitist takabburlik ko'p muammolarni keltirib chiqardi va surrealistlar va anarxistlar o'rtasidagi munosabatlar sovuqlasha boshladi va oxirgi Ignabargli ichida paydo bo'ldi Le Libertaire 1953 yil yanvarda

Maqola Shoir, ya'ni inqilobiy 1951 yilda gazetada paydo bo'lgan, syurrealistlarning eng siyosatlashgan va inqilobchisi Peret tomonidan yozilgan. U she'rning inqilobiy ekanligini ko'rsatdi, lekin u qo'shib qo'ydi: "Bu (shoir) she'riyatni inqilobiy bo'lsa ham, siyosiy harakatlar xizmatiga qo'yadi", degani emas. davr). "Ammo uning shoirlik fazilati uni inqilobchiga aylantiradi, u har qanday sharoitda kurashishi kerak: she'riyatning o'zi va ijtimoiy harakatlar maydonida, bu ikki harakat maydonini chalkashtirib yubormasdan".

Sintez
Breton va Peretdan tashqari, boshqa syurrealistlar hech qachon ijtimoiy harakatlar maydonida ko'rinmagan. Breton Anarxist federatsiyasini qo'llab -quvvatladi va Fontenis atrofidagi platformachilar FAni Kommunistik Liberter federatsiyasiga aylantirganidan keyin ham u o'z birdamligini taqdim etishda davom etdi. U Jazoir urushi paytida, FCL qattiq qatag'onlarga uchragan va er ostiga majbur qilingan paytda, FCLga yordam berishni davom ettirgan kam sonli ziyolilardan biri edi. U yashirinayotgan paytda Fontenisni panoh topgan. U frantsuz anarxist harakatining bo'linishida taraf bo'lishdan bosh tortdi va u ham, Peret ham sintezist anarxistlar tomonidan tashkil etilgan va FA bilan birga 60 -yillarning antifashistik qo'mitalarida ishlagan FA bilan birdamligini bildirdi.

Ba'zilar anarxizm va syurrealizmni individual darajada sintez qila oldilar, garchi u kollektiv darajada bo'lmagan bo'lsa ham. Peretning katta do'sti, anarxistlar va antimilitaristlarning o'g'li shoir Jehan Mayoux surrealistlarga qo'shildi. 20s. Urush boshlanishida chaqirilgan, u AWOLga borib, qamoqqa tashlangan. Qochib, u nemislar tomonidan asirga olindi va 1945 yilda ozod qilingan kontslagerga yuborildi. U o'limigacha liberteriya faoliyatida qatnashishni davom ettirdi. Jan-Klod Tertrais 50-yillarda Breton tirikligida syurrealistik tadbirlarda qatnashgan. Jazoir urushi paytida chaqirilgan, u AWOLga borib, jahannamga & quot; Disiplinli batalyonlar & quot; ga yuborilgan. U FA nashriga surrealizm haqidagi maqolalarni qo'shib, ozodlikka chiqqach, FAga qo'shildi Le Monde Libertaire.

Biroq, Fontenis aytganidek: & quot; To'g'ri, ko'pincha shoirlar inqilob qilmasdan, faqat shoir bo'lib, B. Peretni haqorat qilmaydilar va agar ular ba'zan o'zlarini ko'pchilik harakatiga qo'shib qo'ysalar. har kungi mashaqqatli kurashlardan ko'ra, individual yuksak ishlar, ajoyib buzg'unchilik, noqonuniy xatti -harakatlar. Ozodlik harakati shoirlarning qo'zg'olon ruhi bilan chambarchas bog'liq bo'lishi qanchalik ma'qul bo'lsa, uning inqilobiy qarashlarini adabiy odamlarning xayolotiga bo'ysundirish ham zararli. Ha, murosasiz isyonga, ha isyonga, ha erkinlik ruhiga. Lekin bu anarxist fikr va uni oziqlantiruvchi va ilhomlantiruvchi sinfiy harakatni chetda qoldirish uchun sababmi? & quot.

Boshqa eslatmalar
Boshqa tanqidlar syurrealizm - Bretonning individual intoleransi va avtoritarligi, sexizm va gomofobiya, frodizm, jinsiy zo'ravonlikning shubhali bayrami bo'lishi mumkin, lekin buning uchun o'z -o'zidan maqola kerak bo'ladi.

Siz nima qilsangiz ham Bretonni o'qing Kler sayohati - uning anarxizmga bo'lgan ishtiyoqi. U ingliz tiliga tarjima qilingan Mast qayiqdagi mayoq, Ozodlik va AK Pressda mavjud bo'lgan anarxizm va san'at haqidagi yozuvlar antologiyasi.


Surrealistik san'at uslublari

Surrealizm harakatining vizual rassomlari har xil guruh edi. Evropalik syurrealistlarning dastlabki asarlari, odatda, Dada an'anasini ta'qib qilib, tanish narsalarni satirik va bema'nilik san'at asarlariga aylantiradi. Surrealizm harakati rivojlanib borgan sari rassomlar ongsiz ongning irratsional dunyosini o'rganish uchun yangi tizimlar va metodlarni ishlab chiqdilar. Ikki tendentsiya paydo bo'ldi: biomorfik (yoki, mavhum) va majoziy.

Tasviriy syurrealistlar taniqli tasviriy san'atni yaratdilar. Ko'plab majoziy syurrealistlarga italiyalik rassom Jorjio de Chiriko (1888–1978) chuqur ta'sir ko'rsatgan. Metafisikayoki metafizik harakat. Ular kamar, uzoq poyezdlar va arvohli figurali de Chirikoning kimsasiz shahar maydonlarining hayoliy sifatini maqtashdi. De Chiriko singari, majoziy syurrealistlar ham realizm texnikasidan foydalanib, hayratlanarli va gallyutsinatsion sahnalarni ko'rsatdilar.

Biomorfik (mavhum) syurrealistlar konventsiyadan butunlay ozod bo'lishni xohlashdi. Ular yangi ommaviy axborot vositalarini kashf etdilar va aniqlanmagan, ko'pincha tanib bo'lmaydigan shakl va ramzlardan tashkil topgan mavhum asarlar yaratdilar. 1920 va 1930 -yillarning boshlarida Evropada o'tkazilgan syurrealizm ko'rgazmalarida tasviriy va biomorfik uslublar, shuningdek, dadaist deb tasniflanishi mumkin bo'lgan asarlar namoyish etilgan.


Guillaume Apollinaire birinchi marta syurrealist so'zini ishlatadi.
Rassomlar Andre Breton va Lui Aragon uchrashadilar.

Mart: Andre Breton, Lui Aragon va Filipp Soupault tomonidan boshqariladigan Littérature jurnali o'zining birinchi sonini chiqaradi.
May: Avtomatik yozuv "Magnit maydonlar" ni chizish paytida Andre Breton va Filipp Soupault qo'lidan tug'ilgan.

Yanvar 17th: rassom Tristan Tzara Parijda ketadi.
Yanvar 23rd: Parijdagi Le Palais des fêtes birinchi adabiyot juma kuni.
May 30th: Sans Pareildagi magnit maydonlarning nashr etilishi.

Aprel 14th: Dadaizmning oxirgi namoyishi paytida Andre Breton va Tristan Tsaraning ajralishi.
May 13th: O'rganilgan jamiyatlarning Barres sud zalidagi janjal.
Dekabr: Parijda Joan Miro va Man Ray asarlari ko'rgazmasi mavjud

1924 yilda syurrealizmga aylanadigan "harakatni xiralashtirish" ni yaratish
Mars: Littérature -ning yangi nashri
Aprel: Andre Breton nihoyat Dada harakatini to'xtatdi

Iyul: Tristan Tsara Mishel teatrida rus shoiri Iliazd bilan kechani uyushtiradi.
Sentyabr: Rassom Andre Breton shoir Sen-Pol-Ru bilan uchrashadi.

Oktyabr 15th: Yozuvchi Andre Breton syurrealistik manifestni nashr etadi
Dekabr 1st: Surrealistik inqilobning birinchi nusxasi nashr etildi

Iyun: Per galereyasi Parijda rassom Joan Mironing ko'rgazmasini o'tkazadi
Avgust: Marokashdagi urush munosabati bilan syurrealizm harakati kommunizmga o'tadi

Mart: Man Rey Parijda ko'rgazmaga qo'yilgan o'zining okean haykallari bilan janjal yaratadi

Yanvar: syurrealizm asoschisi Andre Breton Kommunistik partiyaga qo'shildi.
Iyun: Surrealistlar galereyasida Iv Tanguy rasmlari ko'rgazmasi o'tkaziladi.

Salvador Dali va Luis Buyuelning mashhur syurrealistik filmi "Un Chien Andalou" birinchi marta ommaga namoyish etilmoqda.

Iyun: Variety jurnali "1929 yildagi syurrealizm" maxsus sonini chiqaradi.
Oktyabr: Salvador Dali va Luis Buyuelning "Un Chien Andalou" filmi Parijning 28 -studiyasida namoyish etildi.

Mart: Robert Desnosning uchinchi syurrealistik manifesti nashr etildi
Iyun: Edition Kra tomonidan ikkinchi syurrealistik manifest e'lon qilindi.
Iyul: Andre Breton boshchiligidagi inqilob xizmatidagi syurrealizmning birinchi soni nashrdan chiqdi.

AQShning Xartford shahrida surrealist rassomlarning birinchi ko'rgazmasi (Dali, De Chirico, Ernst, Miro).
Salvador Dali va Luis Buyuel "Oltin asr" filmi bilan qaytishdi

Inqilobiy yozuvchilar va rassomlar uyushmasi tuzildi
Nyu -Yorkda syurrealistik ko'rgazma bo'lib o'tdi

May: Praga Devestil guruhi syurrealistik harakatga qo'shiladi.
Iyun: Minotaure syurrealist jurnali o'zining birinchi sonini chiqaradi

Salvador Dali Nyu -York shahriga tashrif buyurdi
Qirollik muzeyi Bryusselda syurrealistik asarlar ko'rgazmasini o'tkazadi

Fevral: Rassom Alberto Giakometti guruhdan chetlatildi.
Aprel 9th: Xalqaro syurrealist byulletenining birinchi soni.
18 -iyun: Parijda yozuvchi Rene Krevelning fojiali o'limi
Oktyabr: Contre Attaque syurrealistik guruhining asosi.
Noyabr: Per galereyasida Viktor Braunerning asarlari ko'rgazmasi bo'lib o'tadi

Mart: Contre Attaque syurrealistik guruhi bo'linishga qaror qildi.
May: Charlz Ratton galereyasi Parijda syurrealistik ko'rgazma o'tkazadi
Iyul: Londonda Duchamp, Giacometti, Pikasso kabi rassomlar ishtirokida ikkinchi xalqaro syurrealistik ko'rgazma o'tkaziladi.
Dekabr: MoMa muzeyi Nyu -Yorkda syurrealist va dada san'ati ko'rgazmasini o'tkazadi

1937 yil Andre Breton GLM "De l'humor noir" (Qora hazil) kitobini nashr etdi.

Tasviriy san'at galereyasi Parijda surrealizmning xalqaro ko'rgazmasini taqdim etadi. Andre Breton Meksikada Leon Trotskiy bilan uchrashib, mustaqil inqilobiy san'at manifestini yozdi.

Surrealistlarning AQShga surgun qilinishi
To'satdan rassom Salvador Dali syurrealizmdan voz kechdi

Mexiko shahrida Xalqaro syurrealizm ko'rgazmasi bo'lib o'tdi
Frantsiyaning janubida syurrealist rassomlar yig'ilishadi.

Iyul: Urush tufayli Andre Breton o'zini Nyu -Yorkka surgun qildi

Peggi Guggenxaymning bu asr san'ati galereyasi Nyu -Yorkda ochilishini nishonlamoqda.

Parijda Maks Ernst asarlarining retrospektivasi bo'lib o'tdi

Andre Breton Frantsiyaga qaytdi

Xalqaro syurrealizm ko'rgazmasi

Drouin galereyasida Parijda Frensis Pikabiyaning rasmlari retrospektivasi saqlanadi

Drouin galereyasida Parijda Maks Ernst asarlari ko'rgazmasi bo'lib o'tadi

Noyabr 18th: Frantsiyadagi Charenton-le-Pontda Pol Eluardning o'limi

Noyabr 30th: Parijda rassom Frensis Pikabiyaning o'limi

Venetsiya biennalesi laureati - Maks Ernst, Jan Arp va Joan Miro

Yanvar 15th: Parijda frantsuz rassomi Iv Tanguyning o'limi

Maks Ernst asarlarining retrospektivasi Berlinda bo'lib o'tdi

Yanvar 1st: Parijda rassom Oskar Dominuezning fojiali o'limi

Zamonaviy san'at muzeyida Parijdagi Maks Ernst asarlari retrospektivasi saqlanadi

Parijda syurrealizm bo'yicha yirik xalqaro ko'rgazma bo'lib o'tdi

25 dekabr: Frantsiyaning Parij shahrida mashhur Tristan Tsaraning o'limi

Charpentier galereyasida Parijdagi syurrealizm haqidagi retrospektiv mavjud

Zamonaviy san'at muzeyida Parijdagi Andre Massonning retrospektivasi saqlanadi

Surrealizmning tarixiy oxiri.
7 -iyun: Shveytsariyaning Bazel shahrida Jan Arpning o'limi
Sentyabr 28th: ​​Parijda shoir Andre Bretonning o'limi


Surrealizm va ayollar

Ayollar syurrealistik san'atning markaziy mavzusi edi. Erkak syurrealist rassomlar ko'pincha parchalangan, deformatsiyalangan va bo'laklarga bo'lingan ayol tanalarini zo'ravon erotik tasavvurlar ob'ekti sifatida tasvirlashgan. Bu, hech bo'lmaganda, qisman, surrealistlarning Freyd psixoanalitik nazariyalari bilan bog'liqligi bilan bog'liq bo'lishi mumkin, bunda ayol tanasi erkak heteroseksual istakning asosiy ob'ekti va erkaklarning kastratsiya qo'rquvidan kelib chiqadigan katta tashvish manbai hisoblanadi. Ayollar erotik qoniqishning eng katta manbai, shu bilan birga nafrat va qo'rquvni uyg'otadi.

Xans Bellmer, Qo'g'irchoq, 1935-37, kumush jelatinli bosma (MoMA)

Gans Bellmerning fetishistik qo'g'irchog'ini cheksiz tuyulishi va tana qismlarining ko'payishi bilan bu kuchli va qarama -qarshi his -tuyg'ularning ob'ekti sifatida ko'rish mumkin. Surrealistlarning ayollarni dahshatli, ammo erotik narsalar sifatida qabul qilishlari, ular ham mantiya ibodat qilishdan zavqlanishlarida namoyon bo'ladi. 1930 -yillarda ko'plab syurrealist rassomlar bu hasharotni tasvirlashgan, uning urg'ochi boshini kesib, erkakni yupatish paytida yoki undan keyin yeydi. Maks Ernstning istehzoli nomi bor Hayot zavqi hasharotlarni yarim yashirin, tahdidli maxluqlar bilan to'la dahshatli o'rmon manzarasining oldingi qismida ko'rsatadi.

Maks Ernst, Hayot zavqi, 1936, tuval ustidagi yog ', 73,5 x 93 sm (Shotlandiya zamonaviy san'at milliy galereyasi)

Ayollar ilhom manbai sifatida

Tanganing ikkinchi tomoni ayollarni go'zal, sirli ilhom manbalari sifatida idealizatsiya qilish tendentsiyasi edi. Buzilgan va xiralashgan ayol tanasi syurrealistik san'atning odatiy holati bo'lib, syurrealistlarning ishqiy muhabbatga bag'ishlangani ajablanarli bo'lib tuyulishi mumkin. Bu tasviriy san'atga qaraganda syurrealistik yozuvda yaqqolroq, lekin bu munosabat rassomlar va yozuvchilarning shaxsiy hayotiga ta'sir ko'rsatdi.

Man Rey, Nusch Eluard fotosurati, 1935, jelatin kumush bosma, 23 x 17,8 sm (MoMA)

Man Rey syurrealist shoir Pol Eluardning ikkinchi xotini Nushni ko'plab sevgi she'rlarini bag'ishlagan sevimli musiqa sifatida suratga oldi. Erkak syurrealistlarning xotinlari va sevishganlari, agar ular o'zlari rassom yoki yozuvchi bo'lmasa ham, ko'pincha harakatning asosiy figuralari bo'lishgan. Ular syurrealistik san'at va yozuvlarda nishonlanar edi va ko'pincha harakatlarda to'g'ridan -to'g'ri manifestlarga imzo chekish, ob'ektlar yasash va nafis murdalar va boshqa guruh ishlariga hissa qo'shish orqali qatnashardilar. Gala Dali eng mashhuri edi. Birinchidan, syurrealistik shoir Pol Eluardning rafiqasi, keyin Maks Ernstning sevgilisi, u oxir -oqibat Salvador Dalining rafiqasi bo'ldi, u butun ishini unga bag'ishladi, hatto uni rasmlariga ilhom bergani uchun ham o'z ismini qo'ydi.

Salvador Dali, Gala va tariq farishtasi konusli anamorfozlar kelishidan oldin, 1933, tuval ustidagi yog ', 24,2 x 19,2 sm (Kanada milliy galereyasi, Ottava)

Ayollar syurrealist rassomlar

Li Miller, Kosmos portreti, 1937, kumush jelatinli bosma, (J. Pol Getti muzeyi, Los -Anjeles)

Surrealizmning dastlabki yillarida ayol rassomlar guruhga a'zo bo'lmaganlar, lekin vaqt o'tishi bilan bu harakat hajmi va ta'sirining o'sishi bilan o'zgargan. Surrealizm bilan bog'liq bo'lgan taniqli ayollarning ko'pchiligi bu harakatga syurrealist erkaklar bilan bo'lgan shaxsiy munosabatlari orqali qo'shildi. Meret Oppenxaym va Li Miller ikkalasi ham Man Rey bilan birga surrealistik asarlar yaratdilar. Leonora Karrington va Doroteya Tanning surrealizm bilan Maks Ernst Remedios Varo orqali syurrealist shoir Benjamin Per va Kay Saj orqali Iv Tanguy orqali shug'ullanishdi.

Kay Sage, Baraban ustidagi barmoq, 1940, tuval ustidagi yog ', 15 x 21½ dyuym (Milliy san'at galereyasi, Vashington)

Leonor Fini 1930 -yillarda surrealistlar bilan, Chexiya syurrealist rassomi Toyen va fotosuratchilar Klod Kaxun va Dora Maar bilan birga namoyish etilgan.

Chapda: Toyen (Mariya Cerminova), O'rmon xabari, 1936, tuvaldagi yog ', 160 x 129 sm (Shotlandiya milliy galereyalari) o'ngda: Dora Maar, Le Simulator, 1936, jelatin kumush bosma, 30,2 × 23,5 sm (Tasviriy san'at muzeyi, Xyuston)

Ayollarni ifodalovchi syurrealist ayollar

Leonora Karrington, Avtoportret, c. 1938, tuval ustiga yog ', 25 5/8 x 32 dyuym (Metropolitan san'at muzeyi)

Erkak syurrealist rassomlarning ijodida ongsiz va Freyd mavzularining ahamiyatini namoyon etadigan san'atni yaratishga syurrealistlarning qiziqishi hisobga olinsa, muqarrar ravishda ba'zi savollar tug'iladi. Ayol -syurrealist rassomlar o'z orzularini va ongsiz istaklarini qanday ifodalagan va ular erkak syurrealist rassomlarning tasvirlaridan qanday farq qiladi? Bu savollarga javob berish qiyin, chunki qisman syurrealistlar muvofiqlikni qat'iyan rad etishgan. Garchi ba'zi syurrealist rassomlar o'rtasida o'xshashliklar mavjud bo'lsa -da, barcha erkak syurrealistlar haqida umumiy xulosalar chiqarish mumkin emas va bu ayollarga ham to'g'ri keladi.

Doroteya tannarxi, Tug'ilgan kun, 1942, tuval ustidagi yog ', 40 × 25 dyuym (Filadelfiya san'at muzeyi)

Surrealizm bilan bog'liq bo'lgan ayollarning ko'pchiligi erkak syurrealistlar kabi badiiy mavzu kabi ayollarga qiziqish bildirgan. Biroq, ularning ayollar haqidagi tasavvurlari boshqacha. Erkak syurrealist rassomlar ko'pincha yuzsiz, buzilgan va buzilgan ayol tanalarini tasvirlashsa, Karrington, Varo va Fini kabi rassomlar ayollarni, shu jumladan o'zlarini yosh va chiroyli qilib tasvirlashgan. Surrealizm bilan bog'liq ayol rassomlar o'z orzularini tasvirlashda va o'zlarini tasvirlashda, odatda, erkaklarning syurrealistik idealizatsiyasiga, ayollarni sehrli tushlar muhitida yashaydigan, bolaga o'xshash jonzotlar sifatida tasavvur qilishadi.

Remedios Varo, Qo'ng'iroq1961, masonit yog'i, 39 dyuym x 26 dyuym (San'atdagi ayollar milliy muzeyi, Vashington, Kolumbiya okrugi)

Ayollarning o'zini o'zi ifodalashi

Chapda: Frida Kahlo, Buzilgan ustun, 1944, masonit moyi, 30,5 x 39 sm (Musoo Dolores Olmedo) O'ngda: Frida Kahlo, Soch kesilgan avtoportret, 1940, tuvaldagi yog ', 15 x 11 dyuym (MoMA)

O'z-o'zini portretlash surrealist ayol rassomlar orasida erkaklarnikidan ko'ra muhimroq janr edi va guruh bilan bog'liq bo'lgan bir nechta rassom ayollar, ayniqsa, o'zini namoyon qilishning chuqurligi va murakkabligi bilan ajralib turadi. Ulardan eng mashhuri - Frida Kahlo, uni syurrealistik etakchi Andre Breton tabiiy syurrealist sifatida tabrikladi, lekin u o'zini hech qachon harakatning a'zosi deb hisoblamagan. Kahlo o'z obrazini asosiy mavzu sifatida ishlatgan, ko'pincha uni o'z fikrlari, his -tuyg'ulari va xotiralarini ifodalovchi ramziy narsalar va sahnalar bilan birlashtirgan. U, shuningdek, o'z qiyofasini e'lon qilish vositasi sifatida hayotdagi imidjini yaratish, erkaklar kiyimini kiyish yoki Meksikaning an'anaviy mintaqaviy liboslarini kiyish bilan shug'ullangan.

Leonor Fini, Alcove/Self Portrait, Niko Papatakis bilan, 1941 yil, tuval ustiga yog '

Leonor Fini, hech qachon guruhga qo'shilmagan, lekin ko'plab syurrealistlar bilan do'st bo'lgan va syurrealistik ko'rgazmalarda qatnashgan, xuddi shu tarzda san'at va hayotdagi o'z obrazi bilan band edi. U o'z rasmlarida chiroyli, hukmron va hissiy ayol sifatida namoyon bo'ladi, ko'pincha hayolli tasvirlar va muhit bilan o'ralgan. Uning rasmlaridagi o'ziga xos tasvir, u shaxsan taqdim etgan figuradan farq qilmagan. U dramatik kostyumlar kiygan va bir paytlar surrealistlarni ruhoniy libosda, ayniqsa erotik va transgressiv kiyimlar bilan qabul qilgan.

Klod Kaxun, Avtoportret, 1928

Kahlo va Finidan farqli o'laroq, Klod Kaxun 1930 -yillarda surrealistik guruhlarning turli tadbirlarida qatnashgan. Surrealistik buyumlar yasashdan tashqari, u bir nechta suratdagi avtoportretlarni yaratdi, u o'zini tubdan bir tasvirdan ikkinchisiga o'zgartirdi, bir nechta niqob kiyib, qo'g'irchoq kiyingan. Ko'p avtoportretlaridagi gender noaniqliklari uning shaxsiy qiyofasi bilan bog'liq bo'lgan shaxsiy qiyofasini o'rganishni taklif qiladi.

Surrealizmda ayollarning roli murakkab va ziddiyatli edi. Harakat ayollarni ham infantilizatsiya qildi, ham ularga kuch berdi, ularga erotik ob'ektlar sifatida qaradi va jinsiy emansipatsiyasini qo'llab -quvvatladi, ularni erkak nigohiga bo'ysundirdi va o'zlarining shaxsiy tasvirlarini tasdiqladi. Shuni ta'kidlash kerakki, ayollar syurrealistlar guruhida ozchilik bo'lsa -da, ko'plab boshqa rassom ayollar surrealizm kontekstida zamonaviy san'atning boshqa yirik harakatlariga qaraganda ancha tan olingan.


Aleksandr Jodorovskiy

Alejandro Jodorovskiy "Haqiqat - bu ko'zgu.

Aleksandr Jodorovskiy filmlar

Aleksandr Jodorovskiy bilan suhbat (To'liq sessiya) | Film 2014 | SXSW

"Yarim kino" filmining afsonalaridan biri, yarim tunda filmning avangardi va xuddi u qilmagan filmlar bilan mashhur bo'lgani kabi, Jodorovskiy ham asarini oson tasvirlab beradigan rassom emas. Dunyo bo'ylab kinastalar 1989 yilda “Santa Sangre ” chiqqandan beri yangi narsalarni kutishmoqda va uning "Haqiqat raqsi" va#8221 SXSW bilan bir soatlik suhbatni g'urur bilan taqdim etishdi. syurrealistik kino ustalaridan biri Aleksandr Jodorovskiy. Suhbatni HitFix ’s Drew McWeeny boshqaradi.

Aleksandr Jodorovskiy bilan Tarot kartalarini o'qish | MoMA LIVE

Ko'p yillar davomida kinorejissyor Alejandro Jodorovskiy tarot amaliyotiga psixologik tushuncha va ijodiy ilhom manbai sifatida bag'ishlangan. Kechqurun maxsus dastur doirasida, MoMA PS1 direktori va Zamonaviy san'at muzeyining bosh kuratori Klaus Biesenbax va rassom Jodorovskiyning yaqinlashib kelayotgan filmi va "8220 cheksiz she'riyat" haqida suhbatga qo'shiling. 8221 the autobiographical sequel to “The Dance of Reality,” and a one-time public reading for select audience members.


Prague, Capital of the Twentieth Century: A Surrealist History

The sociologist and cultural historian Derek Sayer’s books on Czech history and art are characterized by their wittingly provocative titles, which refer to classic works. Sayer borrows the title The Coasts of Bohemia: A Czech History (1998) from Shakespeare’s The Winter’s Tale in order to ironically hint at the prevailing Western ignorance towards this “peripheral” country, which the author himself perceives as a model for understanding the changes of modern Europe. Although the reference to Walter Benjamin´s Paris, Capital of the 19 th Century, in the title of Prague, Capital of the Twentieth Century: A Surrealist History may sound absurd at first, Sayer delivers on the promise of his Benjaminian inspiration. He aims to contribute to uncovering the prehistory of post-modernity and to the unmasking of modernist illusions about the epoch called the short 20 th century. Sayer considers Prague to be a laboratory, where modernity – defined by Baudelaire as the transient, the fleeting, and the contingent – can be studied better than anywhere else in the world. The Prague experience leads to mistrust of grand narratives about progress and to the break with the homogenous, universal and teleological understanding of modernity, which is finally shown in its incompleteness.

Sayer’s book title surprises the reader in two ways: firstly, by appointing Prague as the world´s capital and secondly, by making it the capital of the 20 th century. The latter violates the literary tradition of treating Prague as “the capital of old Europe”, which Anja Tippner also notes: “…Iconography of Prague was focused on the city centre and its history already in the 19 th century…This tradition has continued until the mid-20 th century. In the end, the recapitulation of literary images depicting Prague led Peter Demetz to label Prague as ‘the capital of old Europe’ not as the capital of the 19 th century (such as Paris for Walter Benjamin) or the capital of the 20 th century such as New York or Los Angeles”. However, Prague, with its history, which unfolds unexpectedly, is much more inspiring for Sayer´s approach towards modernity than more obvious global cities or centres of economic power.

Incorporating different timelines into his text, Sayer follows the footsteps of Walter Benjamin, who perceives the relationship between history and present as a dialectical image that suddenly appears and creates new constellations. Nezval in The Prague Stroller touches upon similar experiences of blending of the past and present that are treasured by surrealists. In this book he argues that: “There is no doubt that the magic of the city stems from a strange connection of its archaic charms with the modern spirit.” Even for Breton Prague was the “magical metropolis of Europe”. This view was later appropriated by Angelo Maria Ripellino in his Magic Prague. Although in academia Ripellino is treated with vigilance for his views that question the difference between reality and imagination, Sayer defends him and proposes that a city is always an imagined world composed of signs and symbols, memories and wishes. At the same time, Sayer shares Demetz´s disgust towards the myth of “Magic Prague”, which shatters the city’s “true“ history.

However, inspired by surrealist thought and experience, Sayer seeks to study Prague’s modernity rather than the Rudolfine history of the city. Sayer again follows Benjamin, who made the unconscious a subject of history. He treated surrealism as one of the examples of a much broader revolution in the 20 th century that brings the concepts such as memory, subject or unconsciousness to the centre of attention. Sayer´s approach is characteristic of one of the basic principles of surrealism – the principle of objective chance, which Breton defined based on Engels’ and Freud’s teaching as “a form of manifestation of external necessity that makes its way into the human unconscious.”

Sayer primarily focuses on Prague´s interwar culture (highlighting its surrealistic nature), which he situates into an incredibly wide temporal and geographic context. The author easily flows through different artistic fields ranging from literature and fine arts to architecture, photography, film and music. Such an interdisciplinary approach and a wide temporal reach that runs into both past and future are also characteristic of Sayer´s earlier The Coasts of Bohemia: A Czech History, which highlights issues connected to the Czech quest for national revival in the 19 th and 20 th century. The new book goes beyond the national and includes an international dimension. Sayer does not only stick to portrayal of the direct links between international personas and the alleys of Prague (Apollinaire, Breton, Éluard, Le Corbusier, Kokoschka, Heartfield) or to descriptions of Czech experiences abroad (Sutnar, Martinů, Kaprálová). He also follows the life trajectories of other protagonists of European avant-garde, such as Max Ernst, and closely examines the artistic and political significance of big international exhibitions in Paris or in New York.

This time, the author has opted for a more radical structure as the book does not obey a strict scheme. Sayer surprises the reader with his extraordinary erudition, encyclopedic knowledge, bulletproof orientation in academic literature, memoires and correspondence as well as in fiction and art. However, he primarily amazes them through his invention and ability to offer a new perspective on seemingly well known events, tales or pieces of work. Sayer’s assemblage of styles again reminds one of Benjamin, who elevated one of the great discoveries of avant-garde – a photomontage – to a method and a form of knowledge and transferred and applied its principles to the study of history. Sayer too works with a great quantity of details, which are not as much used for embracing a chronological narrative or for author´s illustrations of theoretical arguments. The details and pieces of information are rather used to spark imagination. Sayer realizes that change in perspective – in history as well as in art – is impossible without the participation of the audience and successfully deals with the fragmentation of the visual field, thus contributing to enhanced understanding of the intensity of unexpected encounters in this surrealist account.

Sayer challenges readers who are not Czech or Bohemists – he is fond of Czech terminology and consistently uses Czech names, titles and expressions (the book therefore includes a dictionary). According to Benjamin, an article must contain as many names and titles as possible as this endorses reader´s imagination and creates a solid background for the book´s narrative. In Prague’s semiotic landscape, it is precisely the name changes of streets, waterfronts, bridges or stations, parallel to changes of regimes, which help the author to portray the elusiveness of modernity. The book is supplemented by very well chosen black and white illustrations: documentaries, snapshots, photos, collages, erotic drawings, paintings, architecture, envelopes or posters. A quarter of the book (almost 150 pages) is dedicated to author´s notes, the bibliography and index.

Sayer´s book has won numerous awards in the Czech Republic and abroad and the author plans to embark on the final part of a loose trilogy stemming from his extensive research on and in Czech culture. The third book, with the working title Postcards from Absurdistan: the End of History?, will be dedicated to the period from 1938 to the present. However, as most of us know, Sayer will certainly make references to other places and other times.

  • This review originally appeared in Umění/Art, Vol. LXII, No. 5, 2014. Translated by Markéta Wittichová and published with the permission of the author.

Lenka Bydžovská is the head of the Department of 19th to 21st Centuries Art at the Institute of Art History of Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic.

Derek Sayer is Professor of History at Lancaster University (UK) and is the author of Prague, Capital of the 20th Century: A Surrealist History (2013) and The Coasts of Bohemia: A Czech History (1998) both published by Princeton University Press. He is a Senior Editor at New Perspectives: Interdisciplinary Journal of Central & East European Politics and International Relations.


History Of Surreal Photography

Surrealism was a movement in the art and intellectual activities, emerged after World War I. Andre Breton, was the founder of the surrealistic concepts and he has gathered the influence from the Dande movement. Surrealism is actually the real expression of mental emotions, without any polishing. Andre Breton describes surrealism in Surrealist Manifesto, as the pure psychic automatism expressed in the real functionality of a person. Surrealistic art forms characteristically differ from the conventional forms in not having specific shape or idea. It can be the expression of basic human instinct and imaginative faculties of the unconscious mind. But, when surrealism comes to photography, the critics did not even imagine such a possibility. However, "Marquise Casati" by Man Ray, made a change to the belief, as it featured multiple eyes for the photograph. Even though, it was an accidental blurring, it proved the chances for the feasibility of surrealistic works.

Man Ray and Lee Miller are considered as legends in surrealistic photography as they were very successful to overcome the limitations of photography to create surrealistic images. Maurice Tabard is another famous surrealist, who had his own technique for surrealistic imaging. Hans Bellmer creatively used mechanical dolls to symbolize sexualized images, where as for Rene Magritte camera was the tool to make photographic equivalents of his paintings.

Surrealist photographs are described as the images, which symbolically represent dreams, night mares, intoxication, sexual ecstasy, hallucination and madness. The difficulty with photography medium is that it imbibes the reality, and often the real images cannot be sufficient to express such unconventional patterns. But, the famous surrealist photographers are able to fulfill the task since they can use the photographic techniques effectively. The ordinary snapshots, body photographs, anthropological photographs, medical photographs, movie stills, and even police photographs are manipulated to create the impression of surrealist images in the photographs.

Surrealism in photography is mainly performed using the different techniques. The differential techniques of light and lenses can itself be the primary technique for surrealism. Photomontage is one of the popular processing techniques, in which the several images are coupled together. In photogram, a photographic paper can be used instead of camera to imprint the image. The images produced by the flush of light can create amazing images that has a surrealistic look.

Multiple exposure is another technique for surrealism, in which the camera is clicked twice or more, without rolling the negative. The second image will be superimposed on the first image and the final product will be an undefined mixture of both. Cliche verre or glass negative is the surrealistic technique that uses negative coated from glass plate. Anyhow, solarization or Sabattier effect seems to be the most remarkable technique for surrealism. It produces dramatic effect of patterns through the flushing of the light on the photograph, while developing in the darkroom. It was discovered by Lee Miller, which have selective reversal of highlights and shadows. The light and dark areas with the distinct line of reversal make it most appropriate for surrealism.

Surrealism in photography has progressed much from its primitive stages. The new technology and lenses offer immense opportunity to the new generation photographers to portray their mental emotions in the frame of cameras.

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Videoni tomosha qiling: Surrealizm (Yanvar 2022).