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Qadimgi Trans-Atlantika savdosi uchun kimyoviy dalillar

Qadimgi Trans-Atlantika savdosi uchun kimyoviy dalillar

Esimda, bir necha yil oldin, Misr mumiyalaridan topilgan kokain izlaridan trans-Atlantika savdosining kimyoviy dalillari borligini da'vo qilgan kitob o'qigan edim. Bu qanday kitob bo'lganini eslay olmayman, yoki bu hurmatli manba yoki yolg'onlarning tarixiy to'plami bo'lsa.

Bunday tahlilni o'tkazgan haqiqiy ilmiy tadqiqotlar bormi yoki bu ko'pchilikni yo'ldan ozdirish uchun xayolparastlik qilgan boshqa xayolmi?


Ma'lum bo'lishicha, agar siz ovni etarlicha qattiq ovlasangiz, buni o'z ichiga olgan Vikipediya sahifasining bo'lagi bor.

Birinchidan, bir kishi tomonidan Misr mumiyalaridan olingan koka va nikotin izlari topildi. Hech kim koka topilmasini takrorlamagan (bir necha urinishlardan keyin), lekin boshqa odamlar mumiyada nikotin izlarini topgan.

Shuni ta'kidlash kerakki, bu namunalarning hech biri aniq nazorat qilinadigan namunalar emas edi. Masalan, sinovdan o'tgan mumiyaning yuz yillari davomida uning odami va qabri bir necha bor talon -taroj qilingan. Hozirgi vaqtda umumiy fikrga ko'ra, bu natijalar, agar aniq bo'lsa (katta bo'lsa), ehtimol nikotin uchun boshqa mahalliy manbadir.

Albatta, alternativa - Shimoliy Amerika va Afrika o'rtasida transatlantik sayohatlar sodir bo'layotganini taxmin qilish. Muammo shundaki, o'sha paytda hech kim bu qobiliyatga ega bo'lgan navigatsiya texnologiyasiga ega emas edi (va deyarli bunday bo'lmaydi) 3000 yillar). Transatlantik sayohat - bu kimdir topib, unutib yuborishi mumkin bo'lgan bilimlar haqida. Bu o'zaro ta'sir qiladigan texnologiyaning butun majmuasini talab qiladi.

Hozircha men uni "qiziqarli sir" toifasida qoldirgan bo'lardim. Ehtimol, oxir -oqibat aniqlanadi.


Qadimgi Trans -Atlantika savdosi uchun kimyoviy dalillar - Tarix

Rim yoqali qullar, marmar kabartma, Smyrna (hozirgi Izmir, Turkiya), milodiy 200, Ashmolean muzeyining ruxsati bilan.

XVI asrda trans-Atlantik qul savdosi rivojlanmaguncha, butun dunyoda qullik, qullik yoki majburiy mehnatning turli shakllari mavjud edi. Tarixchi Devid Eltis tushuntirganidek, "deyarli barcha xalqlar o'z tarixlarida bir vaqtning o'zida ham qul, ham qul bo'lgan". Shunday bo'lsa-da, Atlantika dunyosida ilgari majbur qilingan mehnat tizimlari XVIII-XIX asrlarda Yangi Dunyo jamiyatlarini rivojlantirgan va shakllantirgan trans-Atlantik chattel qullik tizimidan miqyosi, huquqiy holati va irqiy ta'riflari bo'yicha umuman farq qilardi.

Mansa Musa kirdi Kataloniya atlasi, Britaniya kutubxonasi ruxsati bilan, 1375 yil Mayorka shahridan Ibrohim Kresklar tomonidan chizilgan. Mansa Musa XIV asrda Mali imperiyasining Afrika hukmdori edi. Mansa Musa, musulmon, 1324 yilda Makka ziyoratiga borganida, u 60 ming kishi va 12000 quldan iborat kortej olib kelgani aytiladi.

G'arbiy va markaziy afrikada qullik

Qullik G'arbiy va Markaziy Afrikaning ko'plab jamiyatlarida trans-Atlantik qul savdosidan oldin va uning davrida keng tarqalgan edi. Har xil Afrika imperiyalari, kichik va o'rta xalqlar yoki qarindoshlik guruhlari turli siyosiy va iqtisodiy sabablarga ko'ra to'qnashuvlarga duch kelganda, bir Afrika guruhidan bo'lgan shaxslar, ularni begona deb bilganlari uchun, boshqa guruh asirlarini muntazam ravishda qul qilib kelgan. Bu quldorlik jamiyatlarining hukmdorlari, keyinchalik asirlar sifatida harbiy ehtiyojlar uchun qarindoshlar guruhini yoki millatini kengaytirish, ma'naviy e'tiqodga ta'sir ko'rsatish va tarqatish, yoki iqtisodiy manfaatlar uchun savdo qilish uchun kuch ishlatishlari mumkin edi. Bu kontekstda Yoruba yoki Mandinka kabi Afrikaning umumiy etnik identifikatorlari ta'sirli bo'lishi mumkin bo'lsa -da, birlashgan qora irqiy identifikatsiya yoki individual erkinliklar va mehnat huquqlari kontseptsiyasi hali mazmunli emas edi.

Trans-Atlantika qul savdosi rivojlanmaguncha, O'rta asr Afrikasida qul savdosining asosiy yo'llari xaritasi, 2012.

G'arbiy va Markaziy Afrikaning elitalari va quldorlik jamiyatlarining royalti, hatto boylik va mavqeini saqlash va saqlab qolish uchun oila a'zolaridan qullargacha bo'lgan o'z qarindoshlik guruhiga tayangan. G'arbiy va markaziy Afrika elitalari o'zlarining qarindoshlik guruhlarining huquqlarini nazorat qilib, o'z mehnatlari mahsulotlariga egalik qilishdi. Bundan farqli o'laroq, trans-Atlantika savdosidan oldin G'arbiy Evropa elitalari o'z boyliklarini ta'minlash uchun erni xususiy mulk sifatida egallashga e'tibor qaratdilar. Bu elita o'z ishchilariga chattel mulk sifatida emas, balki turli xil mehnat tizimlari orqali ishlab chiqarilgan mahsulotlarga bo'lgan huquqlarga ega edi. Bundan farqli o'laroq, g'arbiy va markaziy Afrikaning qishloq mintaqalaridagi erlar (aholi zich joylashgan yoki daryo bo'yli hududlar tashqarisida) ko'pincha shaxsiy er uchastkalariga bo'linmasdan, ishlov berishga ochiq bo'lgan, shuning uchun mehnatni nazorat qilish ustuvor vazifa bo'lgan. Ikkala mintaqaviy tizimning ham yakuniy natijasi shundan iboratki, elita ishchilar va er orqali etishtirilgan mahsulotlardan olinadigan daromadni nazorat qilgan. Bu daromadlar bo'yicha kim yoki kimga tegishli bo'lgan huquqlarga kafolat berishga har xil urg'u berish, trans-Atlantika savdosidan oldin bu mintaqalarda qullikning rolini belgilab berdi.

Olimlarning ta'kidlashicha, G'arbiy Afrikada bir nechta siyosiy markazlashmagan yoki fuqaroligi bo'lmagan jamiyatlar mavjud. Bunday jamiyatlarda qishloq yoki qishloqlar konfederatsiyasi eng katta siyosiy birlik edi. Bu qishloqlarda bir qancha hokimiyat lavozimlari mavjud edi, lekin hech kim yoki guruh hukmdor yoki monarxiya lavozimlariga da'vo qilmagan. Tarixchi Uolter Xotornning so'zlariga ko'ra, shu nuqtai nazardan, hukumat guruh konsensusi orqali ishlagan. Bundan tashqari, bu kichik miqyosli, markazlashtirilmagan jamiyatlarning ko'pchiligi qullikdan voz kechdi.

XVI-XIX asrlardan boshlab evropaliklar bilan trans-Atlantika qul savdosi kengaygani sari, G'arbiy va Markaziy Afrika jamiyatlari ham qullikka ega bo'lmagan, ham qullikka asoslangan mehnatga bo'lgan talabning bosimini boshdan kechirdilar. Keyinchalik Yangi Dunyoda rivojlangan chattel qulligidan farqli o'laroq, G'arbiy va Markaziy Afrikada qul bo'lgan odam ancha moslashuvchan qarindoshlik guruhi tizimida yashagan. Trans-Atlantika savdosi umr bo'yi erkin bo'lish imkoniyatiga ega bo'lgunga qadar, bu mintaqada qul deb hisoblangan har bir kishi, odatda, irqiy toifalar bilan belgilanmagan va qul bo'lgan odam har doim oilaviy oilaviy tarmoqlardan yoki tanish uy landshaftlaridan doimiy ravishda ajralib turmagan.

O'n oltinchi -to'qqizinchi asrlarda Atlantika dunyosi iqtisodiyotining markaziy qismi bo'lgan plantatsiyali qishloq xo'jaligining ko'tarilishi chattel qulligining umuman o'ta ekstremal tizimiga olib keldi. bu tizimda odamlar katta miqdordagi geografik masofalarda ommaviy ravishda sotib olinadigan va sotiladigan ko'char tovarlarga aylandilar va ularning maqomi irqiy befarqlik tushunchalari bilan shakllanib, o'z avlodlariga o'tishi mumkin edi. Yangi Dunyo plantatsiyalari, odatda, avvalgi mehnat tizimiga qaraganda ko'proq kuch sarflashni talab qilar, shuning uchun qul egalari raqobatbardosh trans-Atlantika bozorlarida daromad olishlari mumkin edi.

Yaxshilan shahridagi piramida xarobalari, Meksikaning Chiapas shahridagi qadimgi mayya shahri, 2005. Mayya ierarxik mezoamerikalik tsivilizatsiyasi edi. Miloddan avvalgi 1500-2000 yillar. Maya ijtimoiy ierarxiyasiga piramidalar kabi tuzilmalarni qurishda yordam bergan asir yoki o'lpon ishchilari kirgan.

AMERIKADAGI QULLIK

Evropalik tadqiqotchilar kelishidan bir necha asr oldin, turli xil amerikalik hind guruhlari turli xil ijtimoiy tuzilmalarda yashagan. Bu ijtimoiy-siyosiy tuzilmalarning ko'pchiligi turli xil qullik yoki majburiy mehnatni o'z ichiga olgan bo'lib, ular ziddiyatli guruhlar o'rtasidagi harbiy asirlarni qulga aylantirish, imperiya sinf ierarxiyasida qullikni kuchaytirish yoki rahbarga bo'ysunishni namoyish etish uchun tovar yoki ish haqini majburiy to'lashni o'z ichiga olgan. . Biroq, G'arbiy va Markaziy Afrikalik quldorlik singari, amerikalik hind qulligi, keyinchalik Yangi Dunyoda rivojlanganidan farqli o'laroq, qarindosh -urug 'munosabatlari tizimida ishlaydi.

Oxir -oqibat, zulmkor va ekspluatatsion mehnat tizimi sifatida qullik amaliyoti G'arbiy Afrikada ham, Amerikada ham evropaliklar ta'siridan ancha oldin tarqalgan edi. Shunday bo'lsa-da, qullikning ijtimoiy, siyosiy va iqtisodiy maqsadlari va ko'lamini aniqlaydigan omillar Evropaning kengayishi natijasida boshlangan trans-Atlantik qul savdosi va Amerika plantatsiyalari qishloq xo'jaligining rivojlanishi bilan sezilarli darajada o'zgardi, kengaydi va kuchaydi. Shu sabablarga ko'ra, Atlantika okeani savdosidan oldin Afrika va Amerika hindu quldorligi keyinchalik Atlantika dunyosida rivojlanadigan chattel qullik tizimidan ancha farq qilar edi.

Milliy arxeologiya muzeyining ruxsati bilan miloddan avvalgi 470-460 yillar, qadimgi Yunoniston, vaza, Eretriya, onasiga bolasini sovg'a qilgan yunon quli.

Angliyadagi feodal serflar, avgust oyi taqvim sahifasida, qirolicha Maryamning Psalteri, taxminan. 1310, Britaniya kutubxonasi qo'lyozmalarining onlayn katalogi.

G'arbiy Evropada QULLIK QILISHI

Atlantika olamining boshqa mintaqalaridan farqli o'laroq, qullik G'arbiy Evropada trans-Atlantik qul savdosidan oldingi asrlarda keng tarqalgan emas edi. Buning o'rniga mehnat shartnomalari, sudlangan mehnat va krepostnoylik hukmron edi. Bu har doim ham shunday bo'lmagan. Rim imperiyasi davrida va O'rta asrlarning boshlariga kelib, bu subkontinentning har bir hududida qul bo'lgan evropaliklarni uchratish mumkin edi. Rim imperiyasi qulaganidan keyin (milodiy 400 -yildan boshlab shimoliy Evropada), yevropaliklarning alohida yevropaliklarga chattel mulk sifatida egalik qilish odati pasaya boshladi.

Keyingi bo'limlarda tasvirlanganidek, bu pasayish G'arbiy Evropadagi o'ziga xos diniy, geografik va siyosiy sharoitlar tufayli ro'y berdi. 1200 yilga kelib chattel qulligi Evropaning shimoli -g'arbiy qismida butunlay yo'q bo'lib ketdi. O'rta er dengizi bo'yidagi janubiy evropaliklar Sharqiy Evropa, Osiyo, Yaqin Sharq va Afrikaning turli qismlaridan qul sotib olishni davom ettirdilar. Masalan, Lissabonda 1460 -yillarda afrikalik qullar aholining o'ndan bir qismini tashkil qilgan. Umuman olganda, Evropaning janubiga qul savdosi, keyinchalik Yangi Dunyoda rivojlanganlarga qaraganda, nisbatan kichik edi.

Rim imperiyasi qulaganidan so'ng, G'arbiy Evropa elitalari ishchilarni tovar to'plash uchun qullik orqali boshqarishdan ko'ra, erlarni va ular egallagan erlarda ishlab chiqariladigan mahsulotlarni egallash va nazorat qilishga e'tibor qarata boshladilar. Qullik o'rnini bosa boshlagan Evropa mehnat tizimlarini zamonaviy erkin mehnat bilan aralashtirib yubormaslik kerak, lekin krepostnoylik, sudlangan mehnat va shartnoma tizimlari ishchilarga qullarga rad etilgan huquqlardan foydalanish imkoniyatini berdi. Masalan, evropalik serflar manor xo'jayini uchun ishlashlari kerak edi, lekin buning evaziga xo'jayin o'z himoyasi va erini serflar o'z tirikchiligi uchun etishtirishi mumkin bo'lgan er bilan ta'minladi. Serflar o'zlari ishlagan erga egalik qilmagan bo'lsalar -da, ularni qul kabi sotish mumkin emas edi. Buning o'rniga, serflar qaysi xo'jayin hozirda malikanaga tegishli bo'lishidan qat'i nazar. XIV -XV asrlarga kelib G'arbiy Evropada aholining o'zgarishi va Qora o'limdan kelib chiqqan iqtisodiy siljishlar tufayli krepostnoylik pasayib ketdi. Shartnoma bo'yicha ishchilarni yollash G'arbiy Evropadagi er egalari uchun yanada daromadli bo'lib qoldi va natijada evropalik ishchilar o'z mehnatlari va harakatchanligi ustidan nazoratni kuchaytirdilar.


Transatlantik qullik Amerikaga yuqumli kasalliklarni olib kirdi

Meksikadagi uchta afrikalik qulning qoldiqlarida topilgan virusli va bakterial DNK, transatlantik qullik savdosi Amerikaga yangi yuqumli kasalliklarni olib kelgan bo'lishi mumkinligini ko'rsatadi.

Bu kashfiyot, qul savdosining mustamlakachilik davrida, 1500-1800 yillar oralig'idagi kasalliklarning tarqalishiga ta'sirini ko'rsatadi, - deydi Rodrigo Barquera, Germaniyaning Maks Plank Inson tarixi fanlari institutidan.

Barquera va uning hamkasblari 1990 -yillarning boshlarida, hozirgi Mexiko shahridagi San -Xose de los Naturales qirollik shifoxonasi yaqinida birinchi marta topilgan ommaviy qabrga dafn etilgan odamlarning qoldiqlarini tahlil qilishdi. Qoldiqlarning DNK va kimyoviy tahlili shuni ko'rsatdiki, uch kishining tub aholisi amerikalik emas, afrikalik edi va ular erkak ekanligini ko'rsatdi.

Reklama

Ularning skeletlari topilgan uglerod bilan tanishish shuni ko'rsatdiki, ular Meksikada mustamlakachilik davri boshlanganidan ko'p o'tmay vafot etishgan, bu ularni qul bo'lgan odamlar deb taxmin qilish imkonini beradi, chunki bu vaqtda afrikaliklarning mintaqaga kelishining asosiy usuli edi. Ularning suyaklarida skeletning o'zgarishi, og'ir mehnat va og'ir qo'l harakati, o'q otish yaralari va to'yib ovqatlanmaslik belgilari aniqlandi.

Tadqiqotchilar har uch kishining tishlaridan virusli va bakterial DNKni chiqarib olishdi. Ular DNKni gepatit B virusidan (HBV) va yaws deb ataladigan kasallik uchun javob beradigan bakteriyalardan topdilar, bu sifilisga o'xshaydi va Meksikada mustamlaka davrida keng tarqalgan edi.

Ko'proq o'qing: Imperiyalar va qul savdosi bizning genlarimizda o'z izini qoldirdi

"Biz bunday muhim patogenlardan genomlarni tiklashni kutmagan edik", deydi Barquera. "Bu Amerika qit'asining eng qadimgi qoldiqlari bo'lib, ularda HBV va yaws aniqlangan, bu qul savdosi Lotin Amerikasiga mustamlakachilik davrida juda erta kirib kelgan bo'lishi mumkin".

Ushbu qo'zg'atuvchilarning DNK ketma -ketligi G'arbiy Afrikaning hozirgi populyatsiyasida tarqalgan shtammlar bilan yaqin aloqalarini ochib berdi, bu shuni ko'rsatadiki, uch kishi kasallikni majburan Meksikaga olib kelishidan oldin yuqtirgan.

"Biz bu patogenlar uchun faqat ikkita dalil topdik, lekin boshqa bakteriyalar, parazitlar va viruslar, masalan," sariq isitma "bilan kasallangan bo'lishi mumkin", deydi Barquera.

London universiteti kollejidagi Lyusi van Dorpning aytishicha, bu topilmalar bezgak Amerikaga mustamlaka davrida tarqalgan bo'lishi mumkinligi haqidagi oldingi dalillarga mos keladi.

"Bu asar odamlarning global harakatlari, vositachiligida, dunyoning boshqa qismlariga yuqumli kasalliklarning tarqalishida qanday katta rol o'ynayotganiga yana bir misol beradi", deydi u.


Genetika ma'lumotlari qadimgi trans-Atlantika migratsiyasini qo'llab-quvvatlamaydi, deydi professor

Bu Amerika xaritasida qadimgi tubjoy amerikaliklarning genetikasi qayd etilgan va ularning barchasi Evropadan yoki Yaqin Sharqdan emas, balki Sibirdan sayohat qilgan ajdodlardan kelganligini ko'rsatish uchun mo'ljallangan.

Yaqinda chop etilgan bir nechta nashrlar va hujjatli filmlar qadimgi evropaliklar yoki qadimgi isroilliklar ko'pincha "muzlik davri Kolumb" deb nomlangan tubjoy amerikaliklar hissasini qo'shgan degan ma'noni anglatishi mumkin.

Biroq, Kanzas universiteti antropologiya kafedrasi dotsenti Jennifer Raffning aytishicha, olimlar topgan mitoxondriyal va genomik ma'lumotlar migrantlarning bunday erta to'lqinini qo'llab -quvvatlamaydi.

"Bu gipoteza faqat arxeologik hamjamiyatning ozgina qismi tomonidan saqlanadi, lekin shunga qaramay, u Amerika arxeologiyasiga befarq bo'lmagan odamlarning e'tiborini tortadi", - deydi PaleoAmerica jurnalida yaqinda chop etilgan maqolaning bosh muallifi Raff. masala. "Biz genetik natijalarni umumlashtirganimizda, biz bu gipotezalangan trans-Atlantika migratsiyasiga mos keladigan narsani topa olmaymiz."

Raff va hammuallif muallifi, Ostindagi Texas universiteti antropologiya kafedrasi dotsenti Debora Bolnik, bu farazlarni qadimgi va hozirgi tub amerikaliklarning hozirgi genetik dalillari asosida baholagan. Ular genetik ma'lumotlar olimlari hozirgacha topib olgan, degan xulosaga kelishdi, faqat Sibirdan Amerikaga ko'chishni qo'llab -quvvatlaydilar va qadimgi isroilliklar yoki hozirgi Evropada yashovchilarning oldingi migratsiyasi haqida dalil ko'rsatmaydi. Keyingi bir oy ichida jurnal maqolasi hammaga ochiq kirish orqali taqdim etiladi, dedi Raff.

Yaqinda Solutre gipotezasi deb nomlanuvchi trans-Atlantika migratsiyasi haqidagi argumentning genetik qismi, mahalliy amerikaliklar populyatsiyasida mitoxondriyal X2a gaplogrupining mavjudligi Evropadan yoki Yaqin Sharqdan Shimoliy Amerikaga genlarning oqimi to'g'risida dalillar keltirgan. Gipoteza shuni ko'rsatadiki, taxminan 13000 yil oldingi Shimoliy Amerika klovislari madaniyati to'g'ridan -to'g'ri janubi -g'arbiy Evropaning Solutrean madaniyatidan taxminan 23000 yil oldin kelib chiqqan.

Ammo, Raff va Bolnikning aytishicha, so'nggi amerikaliklarning genetik tadqiqotlarini tahlil qilishda, ular trans-Atlantika migratsiyasiga mos keladigan hech narsa topa olishmagan. Masalan, yaqinda 1996 yilda Vashington shtatida topilgan 8500 yoshli Kennewik Manning to'liq genomining nashr etilishi uning X2a haplogrupiga mansubligini, ammo qolgan genomida yevropaliklarning yaqin kelib chiqishi haqida hech qanday ma'lumot yo'qligini ko'rsatdi. Maykl Krouford, KU biologik antropologiya laboratoriyasi boshlig'i va antropologiya professori, o'sha genetik loyihaning hammuallifi edi.

Raffning aytishicha, Kennewik Man G'arbiy Sohilda bo'lganligi muhim edi, chunki u geografik mintaqada topilgan X2a ning eng qadimgi va eng ajdodlari, Bibiriya deb nomlanuvchi quruqlik ko'prigi orqali Sibirdan ko'chib o'tishga mos keladi. Alyaska va Sibir o'rtasida, Atlantika bo'ylab migratsiyadan ko'ra. O'z genomining ketma-ketligini belgilashdan oldin, Kennewik Man Sibirdan bo'lmagan nasl-nasabni qo'llab-quvvatlash uchun dalil sifatida ishlatilgan, chunki uning bosh suyagi keyingi amerikaliklarnikidan farq qilar edi. Ammo uning va bosh suyagining o'ziga xos shakllari bo'lgan boshqa qadimgi amerikaliklarning genomlari bu haqiqat emasligini ko'rsatdi.

"Siz shu paytgacha tubjoy amerikaliklarning to'liq genomiga nazar tashlasangiz, biz qadimgi evropaliklarning kelib chiqishi to'g'risida hech qanday dalil ko'rmaymiz", dedi u.

Erta trans-Atlantika migratsiyasi tarafdorlari, odatda, Klovis odamlari-qadimgi tubjoy amerikaliklar-Evropadagi Solutrean ovchilari-yig'uvchilar bilan o'xshashliklarini ta'kidlaydilar.

Biroq, ko'pchilik antropologlar va arxeologlar tasodif deb hisoblaydilar, ayniqsa genetik dalillar erta Atlantika ko'chishini qo'llab-quvvatlamaydi.

Raffning aytishicha, Amerika aholisini aniq tekshirish juda muhim, ayniqsa, Amerika tarixida ko'p vaqtlar tubjoy amerikaliklarga Evropaning ta'siri g'oyasini yoqtirganlar buni o'z qabilaviy suvereniteti va madaniy yutuqlaridan mahrum qilish uchun ishlatgan.

"Bu nafaqat yomon fan, balki zamonaviy tubjoy amerikaliklarni o'z tarixidan ajratishga urinayotgani uchun ham tashvishlantiradi", dedi Raff. "Garchi men Solutrean gipotezasi mualliflari bunday maqsadga erishganiga ishonmasam ham, bu tubjoy amerikaliklarni ajdodlaridan ajratish harakatining yana bir jihati."


Natijalar

Biz marosim to'plamidan ikkita artefaktni tanladik (men): tulkiga solingan sumkaning ichki qismi qoldiqlardan kichik namunani olish uchun muloyimlik bilan qirib tashlangan vaii) o'simlik arxeologik ildiz to'qimalarining katta qismidan yuzaki qism yig'ilgan. Tulkiga solingan sumkachadan ko'plab psixotrop birikmalar topilgan, bu shuni ko'rsatadiki, ular tarkibida psixoaktiv xususiyatlari uchun yutilgan ko'plab o'simliklar bor. Xususan, sumka xromatogrammalari kamida beshta psixotrop birikmalar mavjudligini ko'rsatdi: kokain, benzoilekgonin (BZE), harmin, bufotenin, dimetiltriptamin (DMT) va ehtimol psilotsin bilan bog'liq cho'qqisi (3 -rasm).

LC-MS/MS kokain, BZE, harmin, bufotenin, DMT va potentsial psilosinga mos keladigan tepalik borligini ko'rsatuvchi tulki sumkasidan olingan.

Arxeologik o'simlik poyasiga kelsak, xromatogramma kokain, BZE va bufotenin borligiga mos keladigan cho'qqilarni ko'rsatdi (4 -rasm). Bu erda ko'rib chiqilgan zamonaviy o'simliklarning hech birida bu uchta moddani o'z ichiga olmaydi va biz bu uchta birikmani o'z ichiga olgan turlarni bilmaymiz. Shuning uchun, bu kimyoviy birikmalarning ba'zilari va, ehtimol, hammasi ekzogen bo'lishi mumkin. Kimyoviy tahlilning halokatli tabiati tufayli biz faqat arxeologik o'simlikning juda kichik sirt namunasini yig'dik. Shuning uchun sinovdan o'tgan namuna o'simlikning biogen signalidan ko'ra, o'simlik yuzasi bilan aloqada bo'lgan narsalarning kimyosini aks ettirishi mumkin. Ikki talqin bu anomaliyani tushuntirishi mumkin (men): bu birikmalarning bir qismi magistraldagi arxeologik o'simlik uchun biogen hisoblanadi yokiii) barcha birikmalar ekzogendir.

LC-MS/MS kokain, BZE va bufotenin borligini ko'rsatadigan o'simlik to'qimalarining kattaroq qismidan kelib chiqadi.


Tegishli maqolalar

Arxeologlar shoh Hirodning bonsai bog'i borligini aniqladilar

Arxeologlar dunyodagi eng qadimiy rasmni topdilar. Bu cho'chqa

Qoldiqlarni bo'rilar bilan bo'lishish odamning eng yaqin do'stini yaratgan bo'lishi mumkin

Olimlar tariximizdagi bo'shliqlarni to'ldirishda katta xato qilishgan

Amurru ham, Xetlarning qadimgi imperiyalari bilan birga, qadimgi Misr, Ugarit va boshqalar miloddan avvalgi 1200 -yil portlashi natijasida vayron bo'lgan.

Ugaritda qulashdan oldin nima bo'ldi, agar bu haqiqatan ham sodir bo'lgan bo'lsa, savdo tartibini o'zgartirdi? Biz bilmaymiz. Miloddan avvalgi 13 -asrning boshlari va oxiri o'rtasida, Yunonistonga kemalarni olib kelgan savdo markazlarining o'zaro munosabatlarida katta o'zgarishlar ro'y bergan bo'lishi kerak. Bu xulosa juda kutilmagan edi, - deydi Geydelberg universiteti professori Jozef Maran.

Yiqilishdan oldin muhim ahamiyatga ega bo'lgan langarlardan biri Tel-Abu Havam edi, u hozirgi Hayfa shahrining etagida joylashgan. Abu-Xovamda Isroilda topilgan eng mashhur miken sopol buyumlari mavjud. Bu, shuningdek, Egey dengizi bilan qulashdan oldingi muhim savdo gipotezasini kuchaytiradi.

Tirin Mariya Kostoula

Tel-Aviv universitetining kulolchilik bo'yicha mutaxassisi, doktor Paula Vayman-Barak, "Tel-Abu-Havam" dan topilgan idishlar bronza davridagi mikenadan kelib chiqqanini tasdiqlaydi.

Yana bir dalil - miloddan avvalgi 14 -asrga tegishli bo'lgan va Tirins topilmalari bilan zamonaviy bo'lgan Uluburun kema halokati. 1982 yilda Turkiya janubi sohilida topilgan, bortida 149 ta kan'on bankalari, shuningdek, kan'on zargarlik buyumlari va boshqalar bor edi. Ba'zi bankalarda sharobda va dorivor maqsadlarda konservant sifatida ishlatilgan terebinth daraxtining qatroni bor edi. Albatta, kema qayerga borgani noma'lum, lekin u qadimgi Yunoniston va Amurru qirolligi o'rtasida muhim savdo mavjudligini qo'llab -quvvatlaydi.

Keyingi yordam sifatida arxeologlar miloddan avvalgi XIII va XIII asrlarda Tell-Abu-Xovamdan chet el kulollarini topdilar. Hozir Tirinda e'lon qilingan kan'onlik idishlarning ba'zilari Xayfa, Jizril vodiysi, Akko (Akr), Tir va Livanning shimolidan kelib chiqqan bo'lishi mumkin, Buyuk Britaniya va Sheffild universiteti va Afinadagi Demokritos ilmiy tadqiqot milliy markazidan Piter Day yozgan.

Bosqin yoki savdo

Ba'zilarning fikricha, Isroil shimoli bo'yidagi qadimiy shaharlardan topilgan Miken sopol idishlari haqiqiy Miken borligini isbotlaydi. Vayman-Barak sopol idishlar bosqin emas, savdo dalilidir, deb hisoblaydi.

Tirinlardan Kan'on kavanozining ingichka qismini fotomikrografi. Mineral va tosh parchalari shuni ko'rsatadiki, u Hayfa ko'rfazi yoki Quyi Jizril vodiysida qilingan. Piter M. kuni

& ldquoMikena keramikalari Levantin qirg'og'i bo'ylab topilgan, chindan ham o'sha paytdagi dengiz aloqalarining faolligi natijasidir. Biz mikenaliklar va yollanma askarlarning uyushgan kelishi haqida o'ylamasligimiz kerak, deydi u.

Ugarit bronza davrida asosiy savdo markazi bo'lgan Kipr orolining shimoli -sharqiy chekkasida joylashgan edi. O'shanda xalqaro tijoratda Ugarit va rsquos maqomini tasdiqlash, ugarlik savdogar Sinaranuning maktubi, u qayiqlari Kritdan qaytganida, qirolga import solig'ini to'lamaganligi haqida xabar bergan. & ldquoHozirgi vaqtdan boshlab Ugarit qiroli Niqmepa o'g'li Ammistamru Siginu o'g'li Sinaranuni ozod qiladi, uning donini, pivosini, oliv) yog'ini u bermaydi. Uning kemasi Kritdan kelganda ozod qilinadi. & Rdquo & ndash Ras Shamra planshetlari 16.238+254 Quyosh ostida hech qanday yangilik yo'q, bu juda boylar uchun ham soliq imtiyozlari uchun amal qiladi.

Ugarit o'zining barcha moddiy boyliklariga qaramay, boshidan oxirigacha vassal podsholik edi. Tarixdan oldingi davrdan boshlab u Misr imperiyasining eng shimoliy forpostiga aylangan. Keyinchalik, miloddan avvalgi 14-asrda, u Anatoliyada joylashgan Xet imperiyasi tarkibiga kirdi. Miloddan avvalgi 12 -asrning oxirida butun mintaqa inqirozga uchradi. Misrning kuchli imperiyalari, xetliklar va boshqalar portlashdi va dengiz xalqlari deb nomlangan bo'shliqqa suzib ketishdi.

Egey dengizining bir joyidan kelib, ular Misrga bostirib kirmoqchi bo'lishdi, ammo muvaffaqiyatsizlikka uchradilar. Turkiyaning janubidagi baxtsiz xetliklar qo'shinlari va flotini o'z vassallari Ugaritdan rekvizitsiya qilib, shaharni ojiz qoldirdilar.

Va u himoyasiz o'tirganida, u haqiqatan ham miloddan avvalgi 1200 yilda butunlay vayron bo'lgan.

Xayfa hududida (mil. Avv. 1230–1180 yillar) Tirinlardan kelib chiqqan Kan'on kavanozining bo'lagi.

Biroq, Tiryns jamoasi va rsquos tahlillari shuni ko'rsatadiki, bu kataklizmdan bir avlod oldin, Ugarit mintaqasida ishlab chiqarilgan transport konteynerlarining aylanishi Egeyda kamdan -kam uchraydi.

Sababi, Anatoliyada joylashgan Xetlar va Mesopotamiyada joylashgan Ossuriya o'rtasidagi munosabatlar va raqobatda bo'lishi mumkin. Ular bir -birlari bilan savdo -sotiq qilishgan, shekilli, ossuriyaliklardan yozishni o'rgandilar, ular ham jang qilishdi.

Xet imperiyasi o'z yo'lini taxminan 3700 yil oldin boshlagan va o'zining gullab -yashnagan davrida butun Anadoluni, Levant va Yuqori Mesopotamiyaning shimoliy qismlarini qamrab olgan. Ossuriya imperiyasi bundan ham kattaroq edi va Mesopotamiyada Xetlarning sharqida joylashgan edi.

& LdquoHujjatli dalillar shuni ko'rsatadiki, xetliklar Mikeniya va Ossuriya o'rtasidagi savdo -sotiqni oldini olish uchun shimoliy Levant (Amurru qirolligi) hukmdorlarini Egey dengizidan kemalar uchun o'z portlariga kirishni cheklashga undagan. & rdquo Day deydi. Lekin, ehtimol, bu & ldquoembargo & rdquo Ugaritning hayot qoni: biznesiga qimmatga tushdi.


Gollandiyalik qullikning hajmi va qul savdosi hajmi

Gollandiyalik qullarning umumiy soni va yillik qul savdosining katta o'zgaruvchanligi yil sayin o'zgarib turardi. Ochlik, urushlar, epidemiyalar va tabiiy ofatlar mahalliy qul aholi orasida vayronagarchiliklarni keltirib chiqarishi mumkin edi, chunki ular o'lim darajasi yuqori, o'z-o'zini ko'paytirish yoki kreolizatsiyaning past darajasi, manumissiya va keng tarqalish tufayli erib ketishga moyil edi. Ko'plab olimlar ta'kidlaganidek, demografik muvozanatning uzoq muddatli buzilishi tufayli qul savdosiz qullik bo'lmaydi. Janubi -Sharqiy Osiyodagi kompaniyalarning aksariyat aholi punktlarida o'lim ko'rsatkichlari Keypdagi aholiga qaraganda ancha yuqori edi va Janubiy Osiyoda yanada yuqori darajada edi. [80]

Ambonda shafqatsiz urushlar (1618, 1625, 1636–37, 1641–46, 1650–56, 1658–61, 1680–81) va takrorlanuvchi bezgak epidemiyalari (1633–34, 1651, 1656–58, 1666, 1671–72) , 1677–78, 1682–84, 1689–91) vaqti -vaqti bilan aholining barcha guruhlarini, shu jumladan qullarni ham vayron qilgan. Alfurese “headhunters ” tomonidan Ceramning janubi -g'arbiy qismida doimiy reyd, tashqi migratsiya va kuchli zilzila, keyin to'lqin (1674) mavjud demografik muammolarni yanada kuchaytirdi. 1643-1671 yillar oralig'ida Ambon (Xitu, Larike, Xitu Tenggara va Leitimor), Lizing orollari (Haruku, Saparua va Nusalaut), G'arbiy orollar (Ambelau, Buru, Boano, Manipa va Kelang) aholisi va janubi -g'arbiy Ceram qariyb 30,000 yoki 37% rad etdi, faqat 1691 yilgacha o'rtacha tiklandi (har yili taxminan 1% o'sish) va keyingi davrda (1692–1708) barqarorlashdi. [81]

Banda, asl aholi 1621 yilda deportatsiya qilingan, haydab yuborilgan, ochlikdan o'ldirilgan yoki kompaniya tomonidan qatl etilgan, ularning o'rniga Gollandiya kolonistlari yoki qul ishchilaridan foydalangan perkeniylar kelgan. Bezgakning eng yomon epidemiyasi, odatda, vulqon otilishidan keyin sodir bo'lgan. 1638 yilda faqat Neyra shahrida 375 kishi vafot etdi. 1678 yilda Gollandiyaning Banda hukumatida 376 kishi vafot etdi. 1693 yilda 771 kishi vafot etdi, shu jumladan muskat yong'og'i bog'larida juda ko'p qullar. 1702 yilda 351 nafar erkin burger quli o'ldi, keyinchalik 356 Indoneziyaning sharqidan ularni almashtirish uchun olib kelindi. [82]

Tseylonning janubi -g'arbiy qismida Kandining ichki qirolligi (1670–75) bilan vaqti -vaqti bilan davom etayotgan urushlar va urushlar, qurg'oqchilik yoki toshqinlar (1659, 1661, 1664, 1669 va 1673) boshlanib, butun orol bo'ylab ochlik va kasallik tarqaldi. Masalan, 1661 yilda 900 ta qul, shu jumladan 400 va 8220 eski va deyarli eskirgan odamlar vafot etdi. ” 1669 yilda Kolombo erlarida ko'p odamlar o'ldi. Ma'lumotlarga ko'ra, 100 ta gollandiyalik va 800 ta qul mahalliy kompaniyalar shifoxonalarida davolanar edi, chunki ularning ahvoli yaxshi emas edi, chunki bu ob'ektlar ko'pincha virtual o'lim tuzoqlari edi. [83]

Bataviya va uning atrofi Yava davlatlari Mataram (1628–29, 1677–81) va Bantam (1619, 1633–39, 1656–59, 1680–83) va tobora kuchayib borayotgan kasalliklar (ayniqsa bezgak) ishtirokidagi bir qancha urushlar sahnasi bo'lgan. ) mahalliy muhitning tabiiy va inson ta'siridan kelib chiqadigan o'zgarishi tufayli. Masalan, 1676-1677 yillar mobaynida, Mataram ishtirokidagi janglar paytida, Bataviya ichidagi qullar soni 17.279 dan 15.776 gacha kamaydi. 1688 va 1690 yillar orasida kasalliklar shahar ichidagi qullar sonini (Zuidervoorstaddan tashqari) 12125 dan 11172 gacha kamaytirdi. Faqat 1688 yil avgust va sentyabr oylarida Bataviyada 1000 dan ortiq odamlar va barcha millatlardan qizamiq va chechak kasalligi tufayli vafot etdi. uy qullarini havo aylanmagan xonalarda joylashtirish. [84]

Kutilmagan yuqori o'lim holatlari bo'lmaganda, kompaniya qullarining soni umuman barqaror edi. Biroq, ba'zida siyosat qarorlari natijasida keskin o'zgarishlar yuz berishi mumkin. Mahalliy istehkomlar qurib bitkazilgandan so'ng, 1664 yildan 1671 yilgacha Bataviyada xizmatkor qullar soni uchdan bir qismga kamayib, 1519 dan 1008 gacha kamaydi. Ko'rinib turibdiki, qisqartirishlar juda chuqur edi va keyinchalik kompaniya xususiy shaxslardan 500 ta qulni yollashga majbur bo'ldi. Xarajatlarni kamaytirish uchun oliy hukumat 1678 yil yanvarda ko'proq kompaniya qullarini ishga qabul qilishga qaror qildi. [85]

Bir qator byudjet chora -tadbirlari doirasida Seylonda xizmatkorlar sonini kamaytirish to'g'risidagi qaror yanada barqaror bo'ldi. 1677 va 1679 yillar oralig'ida Seylonda xizmatkorlar soni deyarli yarmiga qisqarib, 3932 dan 2000 ga yaqinlashdi. Ba'zi eski qullar to'lashdan ozod qilingan, qolganlari Bataviya va Malakka yuborilgan. Hatto Kolombo shahrida ham kompaniya keyinchalik Seylon istehkomlarini mustahkamlashga yordam berish uchun Hindistonning janubi -sharqidan 500 ta xristian Paravani yollashga majbur bo'ldi. [86]

Kompaniyaning qul aholisi va uning mansabdor shaxslari nisbatan barqaror bo'lgan bo'lsa, Evropa va Osiyo sub'ektlarining kompaniyalar yurisdiktsiyasidagi hududlari XVII -XVIII asrlarning boshlarida o'sib borayotgan aniq dunyoviy tendentsiyani ko'rsatdi. Only in the late eighteenth century did the number of slaves in Dutch “conquests” drop dramatically along with the declining fortunes of the VOC.

A sample from the late seventeenth century provides some valuable insights into the number of company and total Dutch slaves and the accompanying volume of the annual slave trades. The numbers presented here are, to borrow a phrase from Ralph Austen, in the form of a “tentative census.”[87] Future archival research will refine the estimates for various VOC settlements. In 1688, there were about 4,000 company slaves and perhaps 66,000 total Dutch slaves in the various settlements spread out across the Indian Ocean basin (see Table 4 ). Not surprisingly, the two most important VOC settlements, Ceylon (1,500) and Batavia (1,400), accounted for the bulk of the 4,000 company slaves, with the Cape of Good Hope (382), Banda (166), Malacca (161), and Makassar (112) as important secondary centers of forced labor. Batavia (26,000) and Ambon (10,500) made up over half of the total of 66,000 Dutch slaves, with Ceylon (4,000), Banda (3,700), Malacca (1,800), and Makassar (1,500) as significant second-rank slaveholding societies. The number of slaves in South Asia was much smaller than in Southeast Asia and greater South Africa due to the ability to compel “free” populations to perform labor services as part of their caste obligations or to demand extraordinary services from resident foreign communities.

To replenish or increase these numbers, 200–400 company slaves and 3,730–6,430 total Dutch slaves had to be imported each year. Assuming average mortality rates en route of circa 20% on slaving voyages, 240–480 company and 4,476–7,716 total Dutch slaves were exported annually from their respective catchment area.[88]

To place these numbers in a comparative global perspective, 9,500 slaves were exported each year in the trans-Saharan slave trade in the seventeenth century 3,000 slaves were shipped annually from the Swahili and Red Sea coasts during the same time period. In addition, 29,124 slaves were exported each year in the Atlantic slave trade during the last quarter of the seventeenth century, 2,888 of which transported by the Dutch West India Company. The exact volume of the Crimean Tatar trade in Polish and Russian slaves is impossible to gauge, though one (inflated) estimate suggests that in the seventeenth century Poland lost an average of 20,000 captives yearly. In the period 1607–17 the Tatars may have seized 100,000 Russians and in the next 30 years another 100,000.[89] The volume of the total Dutch Indian Ocean slave trade was therefore 15–30% of the Atlantic slave trade, slightly smaller than the trans-Saharan slave trade, and one-and-a-half to three times the size of the Swahili and Red Sea coast and the Dutch West India Company slave trades.


Plenty of psychoactive substances

While the bundle contained some dried plant remains, Capriles and his international research team weren’t able to determine their identity with certainty. Still, wondering what other plants the shaman once stored in his bag, the researchers tested the chemical signature from the inside of the fox-snout pouch against those of a variety of plants.

It turns out the pouch once contained a number of psychoactive substances. The analysis revealed traces of bufotenine, benzoylecgonine (BZE) and cocaine (likely from coca leaf), dimethyltryptamine (DMT), harmine, and possibly psilocin, a chemical component of psychedelic mushrooms.

The pouch’s owner was either well-traveled or connected to a vast trade network, as not all of the plants once present in the pouch are native to southwestern Bolivia. Harmine is abundant in the yage plant, which comes from tropical parts of northern South America, hundreds of miles away. And the team thinks the DMT may have been from chacruna, a plant from the Amazonian lowlands. “This person was moving very large distances or had access to people who were,” says Capriles.

The suspected shaman also had access to powerful psychedelic experiences, likely thanks to a combination of harmine and DMT. Harmine-containing yage is the primary ingredient in modern-day ayahuasca, and is often combined with DMT-containing chacruna. Together, the substances interact to cause powerful hallucinations along with nausea and vomiting.


Seeing Through the History of Ancient Roman Glass

Glass was a valuable and highly prized commodity within the Roman Empire, ancient China, and along the trade routes known collectively as the Silk Road. And yet archaeologists and scientists have been unable to come to a consensus on the origins and techniques for making various types of luxury glassware cherished during the Roman imperial period. Of particular interest is the location of workshops which created the crystal clear glass referred to as “Alexandrian glass.” Emerging technologies used for chemical and isotopic analysis combined with new archaeological discoveries are uncovering the sources, craftsmanship, and long-distance trade of this delicate commodity.

Ancient glass production required the heating of sand and lime with a flux (a substance which lowers the high melting point of the silica in the sand) in a kiln. Until the 9th century CE, this was usually a type of soda ash called natron. The technology has been around since the third millennium BCE within the ancient Levant (the area of modern Iraq and northern Syria, specifically at the Syrian site of Tell Brak) however, there remains many mysteries surrounding its primary production location. Although there is debate about the origins of the material, Mesopotamian artisans likely first crafted glass in order to make beads, glaze jewelry, and produce other small objects. By 1550 BCE, archaeological evidence surfaces for Egyptian glassworkers producing similar glass objects which would come to be particularly prized by pharaohs. Many of these vessels were a cobalt blue in imitation of stones such as lapis lazuli. Transparent glass was also a source of beauty and utility, being used for cosmetics bottles and decorative containers such as fruit bowls, but also used in ancient optics experiments and mechanical devices.

Back in 2005, archaeologists Thilo Rehren and Edgar B. Pusch, discovered a large number of artifacts with predominantly red-colored glass (a hue produced using copper) in them at a site on the Egypt’s Nile Delta called Qantir-Piramesses dating to 1250 BCE. The artifacts pointed to the fact that glass workers in the large, factory-like space would first heat raw materials within recycled beer jars. Next, the glass was colored and finally heated inside the crucibles in order to create round ingots.

These glass ingots could then be shipped elsewhere and later be turned into a litany of various glass containers, mosaic tiles, or window panes by glassblowers. The translucent “Alexandrian glass” mentioned in a Roman inscription describing prices for goods and services called the Price Edict of Diocletian (301 CE) notes this clear glass was the most expensive of the types listed. While some modern scholars have long believed “Alexandrian glass” was shorthand for all clear glass, scientists are now discovering through new processes of analysis connected to the isotopes found in sand that it is likely tied directly to the Egyptian city of Alexandria itself.

The use of isotope analysis is now allowing for new insights into this distinct, transparent type of glass with antimony added. Geoscientists from Aarhus University led by Gry Hoffmann Barfod and archaeologists from University College London and the Institute of Classical Archaeology in Münster recently published findings using ancient glass from the northern Jordanian site of Gerasa. The study indicates the utility of using the element hafnium (Hf) in tracing the provenance of ancient glass in order to isolate where it originally came from.

The isotopic analysis of the Gerasan glass allowed the scientists to pinpoint and separate out glass made in Egypt from that made in the Levant, and, in particular, to identify and document the production of antimony (Sb) — i.e. transparent — Roman glass to the area of Egypt. Manganese and antimony are the two elements that were regularly used in glass production in order to decolorize it. As the study concludes, the Nile and Atbara rivers brought minerals to the Nile Delta from Ethiopia, which controls the Neodymium (Nd) isotopic compositions of Nile sands. Analysis of these compositions can then allow for more certitude in identifying primary glass production sites in the Eastern Mediterranean.

This summer has seen a number of different approaches to sourcing the provenance of ancient and medieval glassware that are changing the field altogether. In a particular study from archaeologists at the University of Nottingham and the University of Science and Technology Beijing, scientists performed an isotopic investigation of sands, plants ashes, and Islamic glasses from Turkey and Syro-Palestine, this time using neodymium and strontium isotopes. The study addresses the provenance of the glass found in a famed 11th century CE shipwreck of a Byzantine merchant vessel at Serçe Limanı, a harbor on the southern coast of Turkey near Rhodes. The authors note they have used isotopic and chemical analysis to locate the origins of the glass found within the submerged Byzantine ship:

For the first time we have been able to provide a more secure provenance for the late 11th century CE Serçe Limani raw glass. It was made from Levantine coastal sand, or an equivalent source of geologically young sand, and has a Sr signature that suggests a production provenance in the Palestinian area, but not in established centres such as Tyre as has been suggested.

The Nottingham study has now established isotopic provenances for 9th- to 12th-century Islamic glass vessel fragments from al-Raqqa, Beirut and Damascus and demonstrated they “probably [coincide] with an area in or near Damascus. Two al-Raqqa vessel glasses with elevated potassium oxide levels and distinctive Nd and Sr signatures may have a central Asian origin.”

These newly published studies exemplify that knowledge of long-distance trade in antiquity and the middle ages is still evolving. Geochemists and archaeologists are now increasingly able to understand, chart, and then map out the isotopic “signatures” of various Mediterranean areas using glass, and in turn, to offer a broader understanding of the expansive trade networks at work in the Roman Empire and along the Silk Road. Who knew that one of the most fragile and luxurious of materials would become so valuable in exposing the bustling economy of the premodern world.


Reader Interactions

Izohlar

THIS is a pretty extensive article, and explains so much more than I realized!

Mike King’s “The Real History Channel” blog did a fine piece on this also. However, this article, here, has done a superb job of really putting together many of the missing pieces of this little-known chapter in US history.

There needs to be real answers and a real telling of history – if we as a people are to ever find ourselves being able to walk uprightly and with a sense of being, rather than browbeaten into helplessness through ignorance of the truth!

Though I may not fully subscribe to any religions, I do still acknowledge the importance of finding and knowing the truth – as a spiritual strength – and a better communion with God.

Please keep doing the godly work that you are doing!

Professor Tony Martin made this claim —> “Jewish historians who have analyzed the 1830 census have discovered that whereas something like 30-odd percent of the white population may have owned one or more slaves in the South, for Jewish households it was over 70 percent. So according to an analysis of the 1830 census by Jewish historians, Jews were more than twice as likely, on a percentage basis, to own slaves.”

There are two problems here.
–First, the 1830 census did NOT specify slaveholders and their religious affiliation.

–Second, if one says rawly that “75 percent of Jewish households owned slaves, according to the 1830 census”, was the possession of slaves due to the fact of being a Jew or being wealthy? One must delve into the number of Jewish families who were wealthy and owned slaves and who were wealthy and did not own slaves, and compare them to whites in the same two categories.

Winthrop D. Jordan’s article in the Atlantic, “Slavery and the Jews”, stated:

“In order to assess such a claim, one must resort to details. Martin’s purported actuality [the 75% statistic] is wrong on its face if applied to the “white population” of the United States “as a whole,” because in 1830 only a handful of white northerners still owned slaves. Jews were concentrated in the North, and they constituted a very small minority there. Even if the statement is taken as applying only to the states in the American South that had not adopted gradual emancipation laws, it remains badly flawed. A careful and honest footnote in The Secret Relationship reveals that “Jewish scholars” had concluded that Jews in the South lived mostly in towns and cities. Neither this book nor Martin’s explains the significance of this fact. In actuality, slave ownership was much more common in southern urban areas than in the southern countryside. The relatively high proportion of Jewish slaveholding was a function of the concentration of Jews in cities and towns, not of their descent or religion. It is also the case that urban slaveholders of whatever background owned fewer slaves on average than rural slaveholders, including those on large plantations. Thus the proportion of slaveholders has never been an accurate measure of the social or economic importance of slaveholding, unless it is assessed on a broadly regional or state-by-state basis. In this instance, as in so many others, the statistical data do not stand up and cry out their own true significance.”

Junius Rodriguez (The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery, Volume 1, ABC-CLIO, 1997) referenced…

“A few Jews even became prominent slave owning planters in the Old South…as successful as these Jewish Southerners were by Southern standards, they represent a very tiny percentage of the 20,000 Jews residing in the antebellum South who could, or would, ever aspire to own a slave. About 5,000 Jews owned one or more slaves – about 1.25 percent of all the slaveowners in the antebellum South…For those Jews who did own slaves, the records demonstrate that they were not significantly different from other masters in their treatments of their bondsmen.”

Historian Bertrand Korn made this conclusion–”Another statistical indication of Jewish ownership of slaves, probably more accurate in terms of proportions than the census returns, are references to slaves in Jewish wills. Over the years, Professor Jacob R. Marcus has assembled at the American Jewish Archives, one hundred and twenty-nine wills of identifiable Southern Jews who died during the period of interest. Of these, 33 refer to the ownership and disposition of slaves. [That would mean 96 did NOT own slaves] This would mean, if it is a reliable index, that perhaps one-fourth of Southern Jewish adults were slave owners. [That would mean three-fourths Southern Jewish adults were NOT slave owners]. It is instructive that this matches the federal figures for the 1860 census, namely, that three-fourths of the white population of the South were not slave owners. Equally important, however, is the fact that only one-seventh of Southern Negroes were domiciled in towns and cities.”

I am African American/Native and I will NEVER condone communism and the killing of a whole population (Holocaust) based on one or two of their wrong doings, for example Margret Sanger’s “The Negro Project”, but we are all human and should be brought to justice for what we do to one another. The fact that I was never taught that Jews owned slaves or were even in the US before the Civil War is sketchy. The fact that some white people like the history of slavery but hate all jews is typical. To be honest, so many are out of touch. The holocaust came after WW1 when Germany had to pay reparations to countries because they caused the war, then the Great Depression was felt in Europe too, so they were weak and desperate. They blamed all the problems on jews, Gypsies, Blacks, gays, the disabled, ect. for the problem. Now some people say “oh the jews were doing this and that”, but I’m sure not everyone was doing bad things especially the children.

They were also behind the Bolshevik revolution in Russia, communism in China, and slavery. Your true oppressors are the ones you can’t criticize.

Since the mid-20th century, the world has only ever heard one side of the most horrific war in human history. During the 75 years that have now passed, only a single narrative of the great conflict has been heard. This over simplistic narrative totally ignores the previous decades of critical history leading up to World War II, ignores vital information from the actual war years, and outright fabricates lie after lie after lie.

We are today living in the world of the victors of that war and without an objective, rational and balanced view of our history, we are doomed to repeat the mistakes. After World War Two, the victors of the war not only went on to write our history books, infiltrate our media and public education but even going so far as to criminalize the mere questioning of the official story’s orthodoxy. *The truth is, that our world today can only be understood through a correct understanding of World War II, the architects of it and the conflicts between Globalism and Nationalism. Between the old-and-new world order. The Traditional and the “Progressive”.*

Day in and day out, has the post-war propaganda been pounded into the minds of three subsequent generations. Every medium of mass indoctrination has been harnessed to the task of training the obedient masses as to what the proper and “acceptable” view of this event should be. Academia, news media, public education, book publishing, TV documentaries, Hollywood films and politicians of every stripe all sing the same song.

For very good reasons, most people don’t trust the mainstream media anymore. You have already heard the official history millions of times.

This new epic documentary gives an overview of how Europe has been shaped in modern history. In it, you will find the secret history, where you will find the real causes of the events. Watch this series and uncover the real root causes of World War II. It will take you on an epic timeline that will transport you back in time and lead you on the journey through the Bolshevik Revolution, the communist attempts to take over Germany hyperinflation during the Weimar Republic, widespread unemployment and misery, Adolf Hitler’s rise to power, World War I & II – all the way to the modern world. It presents the true historical events that lead to this world catastrophe known as the second world war, as well as the aftermath.

Do be forewarned though, your worldview will never be the same.

The atlantic slave trade was caused by the Jewish traders and this can never be denied.

109 nations is not enough, let’s make that a round even 110 across the world.

Yuppers, nobody wants to be called “anti-Semite”.
FYI – Semites are those from the offspring of Noah’s son Shem including Hebrews, Arabs & others from Africa. Not everyone who says they’re a Jew is a Jew. Instead they are a brood of vipers.

You are absolutely spot on. Thankfully a lot of people are now waking up to the Talmudic tyranny.

Since the mid-20th century, the world has only ever heard one side of the most horrific war in human history. During the 75 years that have now passed, only a single narrative of the great conflict has been heard. This over simplistic narrative totally ignores the previous decades of critical history leading up to World War II, ignores vital information from the actual war years, and outright fabricates lie after lie after lie.

We are today living in the world of the victors of that war and without an objective, rational and balanced view of our history, we are doomed to repeat the mistakes. After World War Two, the victors of the war not only went on to write our history books, infiltrate our media and public education but even going so far as to criminalize the mere questioning of the official story’s orthodoxy. *The truth is, that our world today can only be understood through a correct understanding of World War II, the architects of it and the conflicts between Globalism and Nationalism. Between the old-and-new world order. The Traditional and the “Progressive”.*

Day in and day out, has the post-war propaganda been pounded into the minds of three subsequent generations. Every medium of mass indoctrination has been harnessed to the task of training the obedient masses as to what the proper and “acceptable” view of this event should be. Academia, news media, public education, book publishing, TV documentaries, Hollywood films and politicians of every stripe all sing the same song.

For very good reasons, most people don’t trust the mainstream media anymore. You have already heard the official history millions of times.

This new epic documentary gives an overview of how Europe has been shaped in modern history. In it, you will find the secret history, where you will find the real causes of the events. Watch this series and uncover the real root causes of World War II. It will take you on an epic timeline that will transport you back in time and lead you on the journey through the Bolshevik Revolution, the communist attempts to take over Germany hyperinflation during the Weimar Republic, widespread unemployment and misery, Adolf Hitler’s rise to power, World War I & II – all the way to the modern world. It presents the true historical events that lead to this world catastrophe known as the second world war, as well as the aftermath.

Do be forewarned though, your worldview will never be the same.

You might want to study history a bit more. Jews pushed Europe into a war from higher up the chain. Germany was being starved to death by Jewish merchants and Bankers. They declared war on the Germans. Nobody is innocent, but many are behind the curtain. You can’t get out of it anymore, blaming White Christians, or Whites in general. You need to be educated or you’re just jumping through your own version of history and the full issues.

As always, when a skeptical eye turns the way of the Jewish community, the holocaust card gets played as a magick-get-out-of-jail-free card.

Interesting too how we never hear much about the fate of millions of Christians behind the iron curtain under Judeo-Bolshevism. Millions of Christians were killed off before Hitler even came to power. They were still finding bodies decades later. A poster on Breitbart mentioned that he was in Russia in the 1990s when the River Ob eroded its banks, releasing hundreds of frozen, perfectly preserved bodies that floated downstream. That’s just ONE example. Yet we never hear about that. Is it because the same Jewish minority which led Bolshevism now controls our media in the West?

This minority have used their control of the media to cover up their crimes behind the iron curtain, while simultaneously using this media control to endlessly preach the holocaust. Yet the truth is that anyone with an open mind will find a LOT that doesn’t add up about the holocaust story.

> Top Allied leaders Eisenhower, Churchill and De Gaulle never mentioned ‘gas chambers’ or ‘six million Jewish victims’ or an ‘extermination program’ in their entire war memoirs spanning 7,061 pages.
> Nor did Truman in his first SOTU after the war in Feb 1946.
> Nor did Patton, the top US General in Europe after the war.
These top Allied leaders hadn’t heard of the holocaust yet 70 years later it’s somehow the defining event of WWII.

Another example: in 2003 the state of Israel confirmed that 1,092,000 original Jewish survivors were still alive.
This means that MILLIONS survived sixty years earlier in 1945.
But you’re not allowed to ‘notice’ due to ‘Denial Laws’.

There are many other examples, too numerous to list here. Ultimately, there are no mass graves. No mass piles of ash. No photographic evidence.
> The neutral Red Cross performed thousands of inspections of German camps and NEVER mentioned ‘gas chambers’. Their three-volume, 1,600 page report has been totally memory-holed because it doesn’t fit the official view.
> In 1985, the world’s foremost holocaust historian, Dr Raul Hilberg, stated under oath that he couldn’t provide evidence that just one single Jew was [email protected] Under oath!
Holocaust denial laws were rolled out across the West soon after.

There’s an old saying, accuse the other side of that of which you’re guilty. Jewish author Ron Unz wrote an excellent article called ‘Holocaust Denial’ in which he shows that the holocaust story truly took off in popular culture an entire generation after the war, from the late 1960s/early 1970s. Among other things, the holocaust story served to deflect from the horrors of Bolshevism as the iron curtain came down.

The holocaust story also served to deflect from Israeli atrocities in the 1967 war.

Beyond that the holocaust story is the keystone of the postwar order. To quote Douglas Reed, the two victors of WWII were Communism and Zionism.

The ‘holocaust’ story is used to destroy nationalism in the European Christian West, and pave the way for global citizenship as admitted by the UN – ergo one world government.

The ‘holocaust’ is also used to justify Jewish nationalism/Zionism as well as the extortion of billions of dollars from the West to build up the new dirt poor state of Israel.

Well, I have yet too see a Jew who was killed during the Holocaust that was murdered by a blood agent. That’s the chemical the allies claimed was used in the gas chamber, all the photos of both rescued and victims of the Holocaust looked like they where either on the verge of starving to death or did starve to death.

And yeah I agree with you it seems crazy and racists to just point to the Jews and say it’s their fault, but I have been checking and I telling you Henry Ford is absolutely right every single problem America suffers from does have a group of Jews at the center. And at this point in my life I would be more surprised if the Jews had nothing to do with the slave ships.

Only thing is, (((they))) have done so much more than one or two acts of evil.
They killed millions of whites in the Holodomor, and started conflict between Poland and Germany, forcing Germany into war. After the war ended, and Jewish Soviets took over Europe, they raped and murdered more Germans than there were casualties of the war.
The list goes far beyond one or two wrongdoings…
Also, the camps were no different than the ones in America, intended for Japanese citizens, they were actually better than the U.S. camps.
The Holocaust never happened, but it should have.

You are misinformed in many of the points you brought up. There are a great may things you can Google or read about in an actual history book.
The 1st and most important is that the holocaust was during WW2 not WW1.
The actions of the jews in Germany at the end of WW1 caused the collapse of the German economy. In that conflict Germany is reported (by them) to have killed nearly 6million German Jews. A number that is dwarfed and made miniscule by the Russians having killed 20 million Russian Jews.
This cycle of expelling,prosecuting (not persecution), banishing and executions of the jewish people in Europe has happened many times and always for the exact same reasons.

Germans had to pay reparations after WWI not because they started the war but because they lost.
On slavery and Jewish behavior, google Tony Martin , oops, since all this Jewish sponsored censorship has occurred, all Martin videos concerning the Jewish slave trade and his personal harassment by a united Jewish community have been erased. Great videos for educating blacks that Jews are their friend now because its good for Jews and bad for whites. During the age of colonialism Jews were not their friend and Jews used whites to enslave blacks. (behind the curtain)
White racism basically was forced on the white community to ensure blacks and whites would not work together to undermine elite rule. It’s the elites that are behind race hate because during colonialism they wanted their white mercenaries to see blacks and other non-whites as the enemy. Not that world discovery has been done, they are blaming normal whites for being racists a reeligion taught at the point of gun by them to whites

All of my ancestors were 100% anglo-saxon, as far as geneological research shows. My age is 84, and for decades I have read or heard many such things as are in this forum. The masses of convoluted information leave me unconvinced because infallibly separating truth from non-truth is beyond my power. I will not devote my life trying to delve to the truth of who sinned the most. I have been a born-again, Bible-believing Christian since age 22. I did not seek God he sought me! I am a student of the Bible, which declares that all have sinned and come short of the glory of God (Romans 3:23). Our sin is why Jesus was sacrificed. He paid for all our sins — everybody’s! Although God the Holy Spirit convinces each of us of his need to repent and trust almighty God for salvation, most folk (Matthew 7:12-14) do not respond, thus slamming the door to heaven in their own faces. Although God is love and not willing that any perish, he also respects each man’s free will, his right to choose. Salvation is based neither on ethnicity nor good works, but rather on God’s work. His loving efforts draw but never force each of us to him and the salvation and eternal blessings he has prepared. Although those are free, it cost God an incalcuable price to make it available. If you have not done so, “say yes” to the Holy Spirit at a time he is convincing you of your lostness and need to be saved. Do so, and you’ll become a child of God. Spurn his offer, and your destiny is set: Eternal fire (Jude 1:7 Revelation 20:10, 14, 15). He loves all of us, whether Jew or non-Jew, so “say yes.”

Well spoken Reverend. Thank you for your Godly wisdom.

The point of the entire historical record is that if the lies and misinformation are so thick normal people ignore all…..including the truth.
It is true that as a Christian you are not to mind the affairs of the world and follow in the footsteps of Jesus.
But only since the collection and editing by the commission King James appointed.
Up till then the constant appraisal of the state if things was a duty of the Christian as it was through the wants and needs of the people they were to find their work and calling.
The jews do not share our sense of forgiveness, charity or love for our neighbors.
They adhere to the ancient beliefs that an eye for an eye and that it is ok to take land,money,property eslave,and kill those who are in possession of what they need or coveted……..

And what does revelation 2.9 and 3.9 tell us? Their deceptions even had Jesus killed and true to form even today the mossad has the motto “by way of deception thou shall so war! Can we agree it is the devil who employs deception on such a scale?

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