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Vashingtondagi bonusli armiya yurishi

Vashingtondagi bonusli armiya yurishi

1932 yil boshida Kongress Herbert Xuverning veteranlarga kompensatsiya to'lash to'g'risidagi vetosini bekor qildi, bu sobiq harbiy xizmatchilarga biroz yengillik berdi, lekin to'lovlarni naqd pul bilan to'lash hissini kuchaytirdi. Bunday mas'uliyatsiz harakat xalqning qayg'usini yanada kuchaytiradi, deb ishongan respublikachilar rahbariyati bunday so'rovlarni tezda rad etdi.May oyining oxirida 1000 ga yaqin faxriylar guruhi o'z ishlarini qo'llab -quvvatlash uchun Vashingtonga kelishdi. 15-iyun kuni Vakillar palatasi faxriylarning bonus sertifikatlarini naqd qilish uchun 2,4 milliard dollarlik pulni chop etishga ruxsat beruvchi Patman Bonus qonunini qabul qildi. . Bu qoldiqni tarqatish uchun poytaxt politsiyasi chaqirildi va zo'ravonlik avj oldi, natijada ikki politsiyachi va ikki faxriy halok bo'ldi. Mamlakat to'dalar hukmronligiga o'tish arafasida va radikallar assortimenti birinchi o'ringa chiqib ketishidan qo'rqdi. harakat 28 -iyul kuni charchagan Bonus armiyasi Pensilvaniya shoh ko'chasi bo'ylab yurib,

Mellon hushtak chaldi,
Hover qo'ng'iroq qildi,
Uoll -strit signal berdi
Va mamlakat do'zaxga tushdi.

Guver etarli edi va federal qo'shinlarni chaqirdi. Uning ta'kidlashicha, "bir necha oylik sabr-toqatdan so'ng, hukumat o'zini o'zi boshqarish jarayonlari saqlanib qolsa, har doimgidek, ochiq-oydin qonunsizlikka duch keldi".

Armiya shtab boshlig'i Duglas MakArtur qo'mondonlik qildi, unga Duayt D. Eyzenxauer, Jorj S. Patton va boshqalar yordam berdi. Tanklar, otliqlar, piyodalar va avtomatlar guruhi namoyishchi faxriylarni ta'qib qilib, Bonus armiyasini shahar tashqarisiga chiqarib yubordi. Anacostia Flats -dagi yig'ilishni buzish uchun ko'z yosh oqizuvchi gaz ishlatilgan va uy -joy yonib ketgan. Uchrashuvda 100 dan ortiq faxriylar tan jarohati oldi va uch oylik chaqaloq ko'z yosh oqizuvchi gazdan vafot etdi. Prezidentning ta'kidlashicha, armiya o'z buyruqlaridan ortiq kuch ishlatgan, ammo bu tushuntirish jamoatchilikka unchalik ta'sir qilmagan. Agar 1932 yilning o'rtalarida Guvverni qayta saylashning uzoqdan ehtimoli saqlanib qolsa, u iyul kuni tugadi. Ko'pgina amerikaliklar, bir necha yil oldin o'z vatani uchun jang qilgan, sobiq harbiy xizmatchilarning Bonus armiyasiga qarshi harakat qilayotgan kuchli qurolli qo'shinlarning tomoshasidan nafratlanishdi.


*Butun mamlakat bo'ylab uysizlar va ishsizlar uy-joylari, odatda, xalqning kasalliklari uchun tobora ko'proq ayblanayotgan odamni e'tirof etish uchun, "Hoovervilles" deb nomlangan. Guvverning ichki siyosatining boshqa jihatlarini ko'ring.


Vashingtondagi bonusli armiya yurishi - tarix

Birinchi jahon urushi tugaganidan bir necha yil o'tgach, Kongress mojaro qatnashchilarini xizmatlari uchun pul mukofoti bilan taqdirlaydigan qonun loyihasini qabul qildi. Biroq, qonunchilikda faxriylar o'z mukofotlarini 1945 yilgacha olmasligi belgilab qo'yilgan edi.

Tanklar va otliqlar tayyorgarlik ko'rmoqda
Bonus armiyasini evakuatsiya qiling
1932 yil 28 -iyul
Bu kechiktirilgan qoniqish 20 -yillardagi Birinchi jahon urushi faxriylari uchun ma'qul edi, lekin Buyuk Depressiya hujumi ularning munosabatini o'zgartirdi. Ishsiz, kambag'al va oilalari boqayotgan faxriylar 1932 yil may oyida Vashingtonda yurish uyushtirib, Kongressni zudlik bilan bonusini to'lashga majbur qilishdi. Taxminan 15000 kishi mamlakat poytaxtiga yo'l olishdi va o'zlarini "Bonusli ekspeditsion kuch" deb atashdi.

Yog'och, temir va boshqa bo'shashmas materiallardan foydalanib, faxriylar butun shahar bo'ylab lagerlar qurdilar. Eng kattasi taxminan 10 ming kishiga mo'ljallangan. Ular behuda Kongressning harakatini kutishdi. 17-iyun kuni Senat Vakillar palatasi tomonidan qabul qilingan qonun loyihasiga qarshi ovoz berdi, bu Bonus qatnashchilariga o'z foydasini darhol to'lashga imkon beradi.

Boshqa boradigan joyi yo'q, Kongress yozga tanaffus qilganiga qaramay, Bonus armiyasining ko'p qismi shaharda qoldi. Nihoyat, prezident Guvver armiyaga faxriylarni majburan olib ketishni buyurdi. 28 iyul kuni general Duglas Makartur qo'mondonligi ostida tanklar va otliqlar lagerlariga bostirib kirib, faxriylarni quvib chiqarishdi. Keyin ularning vaqtinchalik uylari yondirildi.

"Men ularning yuzlarida ochlikning aniq dalillarini ko'rib, dahshatga tushdim."

Evalin Uolsh Maklin Vashington Postining egasining rafiqasi va Vashington jamiyatining ustuni edi. U Bonus armiyasi birinchi marta Vashingtonga kirib, o'zining oqlangan saroyi yonidan o'tganini tasvirlaydi:

& quot; 1932 yil iyun oyining bir kunida men chang bosgan yuk mashinasi sekin uyimdan o'tayotganini ko'rdim. Men minib o'tirgan erkaklarning qirqilmagan, charchagan yuzlarini tik turgan holda ko'rdim. Bir nechtasi orqa tomonda o'tirgan edilar, oyoqlari pastga tushgan taxtada osilgan. Yuk mashinasi yonida qora mato bilan bezatilgan oq mato bor edi, afsonasi BONUS ARMY edi.

Boshqa yuk mashinalari ketma -ket ketma -ket ergashdilar va. Vashingtondagi diplomatlarning ko'pchiligi va Vodaning boshqa moda odamlari sayohat qiladigan Massachusets shoh ko'chasi yo'laklarida eski kiyimlarning parchalarini kiyib olgan. Ular yurgan tayoqlar, tayoqchalarga qaraganda, tayoqlarga qaraganda kamroq edi. Ular do'stona ko'rinishga ega emas edilar va men ular qit'aning har bir burchagidan kelgan har bir radial yo'l bo'ylab poytaxtga piyoda va minayotganlarini bilib oldim. Mening katta uylarimdan hech kim o'tmagan o'sha erkaklar bunday boy boshpanalarda qandaydir qiyinchilikni ko'rishganini unutmaganman.

Men yonib ketdim, chunki men his qildimki, erkaklar, ayollar va bolalar olomoniga hech qachon qit'ada suzishga ruxsat berilmas edi. Ammo men eslayman, o'sha erkaklar, boshqalar bilan birga, Pensilvaniya xiyoboni bo'ylab yurishganda, quvnoq kayfiyatda bo'lishgan. Urush davridagi o'sha paradlarni eslar ekanman, men gazetalarda o'qiyotgan edim, Vashingtondagi armiya qo'shinlari och qolishdi.

O'sha kecha men bir soat uxlamasdan uyg'onib ketdim. Men poytaxt atrofida yurgan bechora jinlar haqida o'ylashim kerak edi. Keyin men bu yurishni ko'rish va tushunish uchun o'g'lim Jokning ta'limining bir qismi bo'lishi kerak deb qaror qildim. Soat bir edi, Kapitoliy chiroyli yoritilgan edi. Men kuchni chiroqlarni o'chirishni va shu orqali saqlangan pulni ochlarni ovqatlantirish uchun ishlatishni xohlardim.

Men va Jok ikkovlari bema'nilik qilgan odamlar orasida yurganimizda, ularning yuzlarida ochlik borligini ko'rsam, dahshatga tushardim, men ularning bir -biridan sigaret tortib olishlarini eshitdim. Ba'zilar yo'lakchalarda yotgan edilar, qo'llari yostiqsiz boshlari. Atrofda bir nechta klasterlar aralashib ketdi. Men ulardan biriga bordim, boshida chuqur ko'zlari bor odam.

'Ovqatlandingmi?' U bosh chayqadi.

O'sha paytda men Vashington politsiyasi boshlig'i general Glassfordni ko'rdim. U: «Men ularga qahva olib beraman», dedi.

- Yaxshi, - dedim men, - Childsga boraman.

Men oq restoranga kirganimda soat ikkilar edi. Buyurtmani qabul qilish uchun bir kishi keldi. - Siz sendvichlarga xizmat qilasizmi? Men ming so'rayman, - dedim men, - va ming quti sigaret.

- Men ularni darhol xohlayman. Menda nikel yo'q, lekin siz menga ishonishingiz mumkin. Men Maklin xonimman.

Xo'sh, u menejerni konferentsiyaga chaqirdi va ko'p o'tmay ular mashinani non bilan kesishdi, Glasfordning qahvasini ham (u o'z pulini sarf qilardi), biz ikkimiz ham ko'zlari och bo'lganlarni ovqatlantirdik.

Natijada - Kapitoliy bilan
fon, Bonusning kulbalari
Armiya yondi. 1932 yil 29 -iyul
. Bir kuni qo'mondon deb nomlangan Uoters mening uyimga kelib: «Men umidsizman. Bu odamlarga ovqat berilmaguncha, bu shahar bilan nima bo'lishini ayta olmayman ». Uning yonida, xuddi to'qson uch kilogrammli, xotini, erkak kiyingan, oyog'i va oyog'i yaltiroq etikda edi. Uning sariq sochlari yangi marcel edi.

- U bir necha kundan beri yo'lda, - dedi Uoters, - va hozirgina avtobus bilan keldi.

Men hammomni yoqimli o'zgarish deb o'yladim, shuning uchun men uni otam qirol Leopold uchun mo'ljallangan yotoqxonaga olib bordim. Men cho'milish uchun xizmatkorimni yubordim va yosh ayolga yotishni aytdim.

- Siz yechinasiz, - dedim men, - siz uxlab yotganingizda, men hamma narsangizni tozalab, bosaman.

- Yo'q, - dedi u, - men emas. Men bu kiyimlardan voz kechmayman. Men ularni boshqa ko'rmasligim mumkin ».

Uning lablari chiqib ketdi, shuning uchun men bahslashmadim. U o'zini to'shakka, etikka va hamma narsaga tashladi, men oyoq uchi bilan chiqib ketdim.

O'sha kuni men vitse-prezident Charli Kertisga telefon qildim. Men unga stul yonida turgan Uoters uchun gapirayotganimni aytdim. Men aytdim: "Bu odamlar juda qiyin ahvolda va agar ular uchun biror narsa qilinmasa, ovqatlanmasa, ko'p muammo bo'lishi mumkin. Ularda na pul bor, na ovqat ».

Charli Kertis menga senatorlarning maxfiy yig'ilishini chaqirayotganini va Xoell qonun loyihasi bo'yicha zudlik bilan choralar ko'rish uchun palataga delegatsiya yuborishini va bonus armiya a'zolarini uylariga qaytarish uchun pul berishini aytdi.

Manbalar:
Evalin Uolsh Maklinning hisobi quyidagicha ko'rinadi: "Ota uni boy qildi" (1936) Daniels, Rojer, "Bonus mart - Buyuk depressiya epizodi" (1971).


AQSh armiyasi tomonidan chiqarilgan bonusli yurishlar

Buyuk Depressiya davrida prezident Herbert Xuver general Duglas Makartur boshchiligidagi AQSh armiyasini Bonus yurishchilarini mamlakat poytaxtidan majburan chiqarib yuborishni buyurdi.

Ikki oy oldin, Vashington shahriga 𠇋onus Ekspeditsion Quvvati, ”, Birinchi Jahon urushi faxriylari uchun naqd pul va#x2019 bonus sertifikatlari so'ralgan 1000 ga yaqin guruh kelgan edi. moliyaviy qiyin ahvolda. Iyun oyida boshqa faxriy guruhlar o'z -o'zidan mamlakat poytaxtiga yo'l olishdi va Bonus yurishchilarining soni 20 mingga yaqinlashdi. Bo'sh turgan hukumat binolarida va Kolumbiya okrugi politsiyasi boshlig'i Pelham D. Glassford tomonidan berilgan ochiq maydonlarda lager qilish, ular faxriylarning o'tishini va vakil Rayt Patman tomonidan kiritilgan#x2019 to'lov hisobini talab qilishdi.

Bu masala bo'yicha ovoz berishni kutayotgan faxriylar o'zlarini tartibli va osoyishta tarzda olib borishdi va 15 iyun kuni Vakillar palatasida Patman to'g'risidagi qonun qabul qilindi. Biroq, oradan ikki kun o'tib, Senatdagi mag'lubiyati yurishchilarni g'azablantirdi, ular uylariga qaytishdan bosh tortishdi. Vaziyat tobora keskinlashayotgan bir paytda federal hukumat namoyishchilarga uyga yo'l olish uchun pul ajratdi, lekin 2000 kishi taklifni rad etdi va norozilik namoyishlarini davom ettirdi. 28 iyul kuni prezident Gerbert Guvver armiyaga ularni majburan chiqarib yuborishni buyurdi. General MacArthur ’ yigitlari o'z lagerlarini yoqib yuborishdi va faxriylar shahardan haydab chiqarildi. Ko'pchilik kambag'al xalqning ehtiyojlariga tobora befarq qaralayotgan Guvver, jamoatchilik va matbuot tomonidan uning javobining jiddiyligi uchun qattiq tanqid qilindi.


Amerika tajribasi

Buyuk tushkunlikdan bir nechta tasvirlar Bonus yurishlarining marshrutidan ko'ra o'chirilmas. O'sha paytda federal hukumat o'z fuqarolarining - faxriylarning, hech bo'lmaganda, respublika taqdiriga shubha uyg'otdi. O'nlab yillar o'tgach, u hali ham zarba berishga qodir.

1932 yil 5 -iyulda Vashingtondagi Kapitoliyga qo'shinlar qo'shinlari. Kongress kutubxonasi

1932 yil boshidanoq, depressiya chuqurlashib, umidsizliklar kuchaygani sayin, mamlakat uchun og'ir yil bo'lishini va'da qildi. 1931 yil dekabr oyida, bir necha hafta o'tgach, Vashingtonda kommunistlar boshchiligida kichik ochlik yurishi bo'lib o'tdi, Pitsburg ruhoniysi ishsizlar to'g'risidagi qonunni targ'ib qilish uchun u erda 12000 ishsiz erkaklar armiyasini boshqargan. Mart oyida Michigan shtatidagi Fordning Ruj -Ruj zavodidagi g'alayon to'rt kishining umriga zomin bo'ldi, ellikdan ortiq odam yaralandi. Shunday qilib, Valter V. Uoters ismli konserva zavodining sobiq ishchisi boshchiligidagi ishsiz faxriylar guruhi may oyida poytaxtga kela boshlagach, keskinlik yuqori edi. Ular o'zlarini "Bonusli ekspeditsion kuchlar" deb atab, Kongress Birinchi Jahon urushidagi xizmatlari uchun va'da qilgan bonusni erta to'lashni talab qilishdi.

Armiya bosh shtabi boshlig'i MakArtur bu yurish AQSh hukumatiga putur etkazish uchun qilingan kommunistik fitna ekanligiga va "harakat deyarli tugagan federal xazinadan mablag 'olish harakatidan ko'ra ancha chuqurroq va xavfli bo'lganiga" amin edi. Lekin bu shunchaki emas edi. Iyun oyida MakArturning Bosh shtab razvedka bo'linmasi "Bonus yurishi" ning yigirma oltita etakchisidan faqat uchtasi kommunist bo'lganligi haqida xabar berdi. Bir qator qo'mondonlar MacArthurga xabar berishlaricha, oddiy odamlarning aksariyati, aksincha, kommunizmga qarshi bo'lganlar. Jurnalist va guvoh Jozef Xarschning so'zlariga ko'ra, "Bu inqilobiy vaziyat emas edi. Bu juda og'ir ahvolda bo'lgan, yordamga muhtoj odamlar edi. Bular Birinchi jahon urushi faxriylari edi, ular omadsiz, pulsiz va muhtoj edilar. bonus olish uchun - va ularga o'sha paytda pul kerak edi. "

Avvaliga tartib saqlanib qolganday tuyuldi. Uolters harbiy yo'nalish bo'yicha har xil qarorgohlarni uyushtirib, "jang qilish, ichish, radikalizm bo'lmasligini" va yurish qatnashchilari "faxriylar hisobi qabul qilinmaguncha qolishlarini" e'lon qilishdi. Hukumat ham o'z hissasini qo'shdi, chunki Vashington politsiyasi boshlig'i Pelham D. Glassford vatandoshlariga katta hurmat va g'amxo'rlik bilan munosabatda bo'lgan. Ammo iyun oyining oxiriga kelib, harakat 20 mingdan ortiq charchagan, och va umidsiz erkaklarga tarqaldi. Qarama -qarshilik muqarrar edi.

15 iyun kuni Vakillar palatasi Patman faxriylari to'g'risidagi qonunni qabul qilganida, prezident Guvverning veto qo'yishga va'da berganiga qaramay, yurish ishtirokchilari rag'batlantirildi. Ammo 17 -iyun kuni qonun Senatda mag'lubiyatga uchradi va har ikki tomondan ham jahl ko'tarila boshladi. 21 iyul kuni, armiya istalgan vaqtda kirishga tayyorlanayotganida, Glassfordga, ​​agar kerak bo'lsa, kuch ishlatib, Pensilvaniya prospektidagi bir nechta binolarni evakuatsiya qilishni boshlash buyurilgan edi. Bir hafta o'tgach, 28 iyul kuni ertalab, bir necha yurish qatnashchilari Glassford politsiyasini yugurib, g'isht tashlashni boshlashdi. Prezident Guvver urush vaziriga "zarar ko'rgan hududni o'rab olishni va uni kechiktirmay tozalashni" buyurdi.

Ko'rinib turibdiki, MakArtur boshchiligida armiya qo'shinlari (shu jumladan, kichik Jorj S. Patton, kichik) piyoda askarlarini qurib, faxriylarni quvib chiqara boshladilar va ular ketayotgan lagerlarini vayron qilishdi. Hech qanday qurol o'qqa tutilmagan bo'lsa -da, otliq askarlar qilich ko'tarib oldilar va ozgina qon to'kildi. Kechga yaqin yuzlab odamlar gaz (shu jumladan vafot etgan chaqaloq), g'isht, tayoqlar, nayzalar va qabrlardan yaralangan.

Keyingi ishning eng ziddiyatli lahzasi keldi - bu lahzada general Makartur bevosita ishtirok etdi. Urush kotibi Xurli Makarturga ikki marta buyruq yubordi, bu shuni ko'rsatadiki, prezident hukumatning reaktsiyasi haddan tashqari qo'pol ko'rinishi mumkinligidan xavotirlanib, armiya Anakostiya daryosining narigi qirg'og'idagi ko'prik bo'ylab Bonus yurishlarini ta'qib qilishni xohlamagan. Ammo MacArthur, yordamchisi Duayt Eyzenxauerning so'zlariga ko'ra, "u juda band edi", "odamlar pastga tushib, buyruq berayotgandek bezovta bo'lishni xohlamadi" va bir necha soat pauza qilib, odamlarini ko'prik orqali yubordi. iloji boricha ko'proq odamlarni evakuatsiya qilishga ruxsat bering. Tez orada lagerda yong'in chiqdi. Yong'in qaysi tomondan boshlangani noma'lum bo'lsa -da, buyuk olovning ko'rinishi mamlakatimiz poytaxti bilmagan eng buyuk tartibsizliklar tasviriga aylandi.

Garchi ko'plab amerikaliklar hukumatning harakatini baxtsiz, ammo tartibni saqlash uchun zarur harakat sifatida olqishlagan bo'lsalar -da, aksariyat matbuot hamdardlik bildirmagan. "Kechasi yarim tunda Anakostiyaning kimsasiz kvartiralari ustidan olov baland ko'tarildi", - deb yozadi "Nyu -York Tayms" gazetasining birinchi jumlasida, "va oxirgi ikki oylik Jahon urushi qochqinlarining achinarli oqimi uyidan chiqib ketdi. ular qaerga ketayotganini bilishmasdi ».


1932 yil 28 -iyul: Bonus armiyasi hujumga uchradi

1932 yil 28 -iyulda AQSh hukumati darsliklar qahramonlari Duglas Makartur, Jorj Patton va Duayt D. Eyzenxauer boshchiligida Birinchi jahon urushi qatnashchilariga tanklar, nayzalar va ko'zdan yosh oqizuvchi gaz bilan hujum qildi. Ikkinchi Jahon urushi veterinarlari Vashingtonga urush yillarida va'da qilingan bonuslarni talab qilish uchun kelgan Bonus armiyasining bir qismi edi.

Bonus armiyasi yurishlarini quvib chiqarish uchun qo'shinlar gaz niqoblarini, mahkamlangan nayzalarni taqib olishdi va o'qlarini olib, Pensilvaniya shoh ko'chasi bo'ylab harakatlanishdi. Manba: Milliy arxiv

Miki Z. quyidagi maqolada tushuntirganidek,

Garchi ular Evropada alohida armiya sifatida jang qilgan bo'lsalar -da, Bonus armiyasi Jim Krouni bu jangga taklif qilmagan. Butun mamlakatdan yolg'iz yoki xotinlari va bolalari bilan kelgan qora va oq faxriylar, asosan Kapitoliydan Potomak daryosi bo'ylab, "hurmatli prezident sharafiga" va "Hoovervilles" deb nomlangan yig'ilishda yig'ilishdi. ularning iltimoslarini eshitishdan bosh tortdilar.

Miki Z. tomonidan

“ Har doim buyuk urushdan keyingi qayg'uli oqibatlarda, ularni jamoat bezovtalanishi deb bilganlarida, qaytib kelgan askarlarning ajablanishidan boshqa qayg'uli narsa yo'q. Va juda halol emas. ” - H.L. Mencken

"Harbiy kuchlarni qo'llab-quvvatlash" qichqirig'i AQShning har bir shafqatsiz harbiy aralashuvi paytida odatiy holga aylanishidan ancha oldin, kuchlar o'z maslahatlariga qanchalik amal qilishlarini aniq aytishdi.

1787 yildagi Shays qo'zg'olonidan to chorak million uysiz veterinarlargacha, AQSh harbiy xizmatchilarining avlodlari o'z hukumati tomonidan qo'llab-quvvatlanmagan. Birinchi jahon urushida qatnashgan amerikalik askarlar ham bundan mustasno emas edi. 1924 yilda Ikkinchi jahon urushi veterinarlari Kongress tomonidan "tuzatilgan kompensatsiya" va "8221" ovoz berishdi: chet elda xizmat qilgan har bir kun uchun $ 1,25, shtatlarda xizmat qilgan har bir kun uchun $ 1,00. “doughboys uchun ” bu bonus sifatida ko'rildi.

Faxriylarning 50 dollar yoki undan kam qarzi bor edi, ular darhol to'langan. Qolgan har bir kishiga sertifikat berildi, u 4 foizlik foizni yig'adi, qo'shimcha 25 foizini to'lashda. Biroq, bir narsa bor edi: sertifikatni 1945 yilgacha sotib olish mumkin emas edi. . va ufqda “Depressiya ” deb nomlangan ozgina narsa bor edi.

Bunday ahvolga tushib qolgan askarlardan biri Nyu -Jersi shtatining Kamden shahridan Jo T. Anjelo edi. 1918 yilda oddiy Anjelo Frantsiyadagi jang maydonida ma'lum bir mayor Jorj S. Pattonning hayotini saqlab qoldi (Anjelo Patton va tartibli edi). Uning sa'y -harakatlari uchun u "Xizmat ko'rsatgan xoch" ordeni bilan taqdirlangan.

1932 yilning bahor va yozida, norozi, singan va ishsiz Anjelo kabi faxriylar kelajakda yuqorida aytib o'tilgan sertifikatlar uchun to'lashni talab qilishdi. Hamma joyda 17000 dan 25000 gacha sobiq xamirlar Bonus ekspeditsion kuchini (BEF) tuzdilar, aks holda "Bonus armiyasi" va "qo'lda bonus sertifikatlari" - ular Vashingtonga Kongress va prezident Gerbert Guverga chiqish uchun yurish qilishdi.

Garchi ular Evropada alohida armiya sifatida jang qilgan bo'lsalar -da, BEF odamlari Jim Krouni bu jangga taklif qilishmagan. Butun mamlakatdan yolg'iz yoki xotinlari va bolalari bilan kelgan qora va oq faxriylar, asosan Kapitoliydan Potomak daryosi bo'ylab, "hurmatli prezident sharafiga" va "8200Hoovervilles" deb nomlangan yig'ilishda kelishdi. ularning iltimoslarini eshitishdan bosh tortdilar.

Vakillar palatasi 1932 yil 15 -iyunda faxriylar uchun Patman qonunini qabul qildi, ammo qonun loyihasi ikki kundan keyin Senatda mag'lubiyatga uchradi. Ko'proq veterinarlar mamlakat poytaxtiga kirib kelishdi. Hamma joyda kulbalar, chodirlar va oromgohlar paydo bo'la boshladi va hukumat va gazetalar o'n oltinchi marta kommunistik truba kartasini o'ynashga qaror qilishdi. BEF 95 foiz faxriylardan tashkil topgan bo'lsa -da, butun guruhga "#8220Qizil tashviqotchilar" va "8221" - Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari fuqarolarining mazlum guruhida ochiq mavsum e'lon qilish bilan tenglashtirilgan. Birdaniga Guvver qo'shinlarni chaqirdi. . . yaqinda bo'ladigan uchta darslik qahramoni boshchiligida.

Bonusli yuruvchilar politsiya va armiya bilan yuzma -yuz, 1932. Manba: Milliy arxiv

Operatsiya qo'mondoni armiya shtabi boshlig'i Duglas Makartur edi, u hukumatni ag'darishga moyil bo'lgan BEF xoinlarini belgiladi. . . e'lon qilib, “Patsifizm va uning komfun kommunizmi atrofimizdadir. ” MacArthurning yosh yordamchisi Duayt D. Eyzenxauerdan boshqa hech kim emas edi, Patton esa Uchinchi otliqni boshqargan - Bonus armiyasini oxirigacha olib chiqishga boshchilik qilgan. Patton MacArthur -ning "8220 qizil" va "8221" nafratini baham ko'rdi va o'z qo'shinlariga BEF bilan qanday kurashish kerakligini o'rgatdi: "Agar siz otishni yaxshi bajarishingiz kerak bo'lsa - bir necha qurbonlar shahid bo'lishadi, katta soni - bu dars. . . . Qachonki olomon harakat qila boshlasa, uni qochib ketavering. . . . Uning orqaga chekinishini rag'batlantirish uchun nayzadan foydalaning. Agar ular yugurishsa, dumba qismidagi bir nechta yaxshi yaralar ularni rag'batlantiradi. Agar qarshilik qilsalar, ularni o'ldirish kerak. ”

Uch harbiy belgi 1932 yil 28 -iyulda BEF va shahar politsiyasi o'rtasidagi janjal ikki faxriyning o'limiga olib kelganida o'z imkoniyatini qo'lga kiritdi. AQSh armiyasining hujumi to'rtta otliq qo'shinni, to'rtta piyoda askarlarini, pulemyot eskadronini va oltita tankni birlashtirdi. BEF rahbari Uolter Votersdan Guvervilles lageriga ustunlar tuzish, narsalarini qutqarish va tartibli chekinish imkoniyatini berishini so'rashganida, MacArtur javob berdi: “ Ha, do'stim, albatta. ” Ammo, Pensilvaniya shoh ko'chasi bo'ylab yurganidan so'ng, MacArthur askarlari ba'zi chodirlarni yoqib yuborganlarida, ko'z yoshartuvchi gaz va nayzali miltiq ishlatdilar. Bir zumda BEF lagerining butun qismi yonib ketdi.

“Buyurtmalarni e'tiborsiz qoldirish - uning karerasini davom ettiradigan umumiy mavzu - MakArtur Bonus armiyasini butunlay yo'q qilib, ishni tugatishga qaror qildi, ” tarixchi Kennet C. Devis yozadi. “Kech tushgach, tanklar va otliqlar chodirlar va o'rash qutilarining yig'ilgan lagerlarini tekislashdi. Bu mash'ala yondirildi. ”

Hujum oqibatida ikki faxriy halok bo'ldi va o'n bir haftalik chaqaloq gaz bilan bog'liq kasallikdan vafot etdi. Bundan tashqari, sakkiz yoshli bola gazdan qisman ko'r bo'lib qolgan, ikki politsiyachining bosh suyagi singan, ming nafar faxriy gazdan jarohat olgan.

Yonib ketganidan so'ng, dangasa, temir yo'ldan ozgan Jo Anjelo eski xo'jayiniga yaqinlashdi, lekin qattiq tanbeh oldi. “Men bu odamni tanimayman, ” mayor Patton xirilladi. “Uni olib keting va hech qanday holatda qaytishiga ruxsat bermang. ”

Ertasi kuni, New York Times sarlavha ostida maqola chop etildi: “A Go'lgo'da mayor o'z hayotini jangda qutqargan faxriyni uydan chiqarib yubordi. ”

Bu ajoyib harbiy muvaffaqiyatdan so'ng, BEF a'zolari Vashingtonni tark etishga majbur bo'lishdi va ularning ko'plari Buyuk Depressiya paytida o'z hayotlarini yo'lda o'tkazgan boshqa ikki millionga yaqin amerikaliklarga qo'shilishdi.

Kaliforniya singari ba'zi shtatlar, Devisning yozishicha, qashshoqlarni qaytarish uchun qo'riqchilar yuborilgan. ”

O'n yildan kam vaqt o'tgach, MakArtur, Patton va Eyzenxauer, xuddi shunday huquqsiz qolgan kambag'allarning ko'pini Evropa va Tinch okeani jang maydonlarida dahshatli o'limga yuborib, tarix kitoblaridan joy olishadi.

Franklin Delano Ruzvelt 1932 yilda prezidentlikka nomzod bo'lgan. Aytilishicha, BEF ko'chirilganidan bir kun o'tib, u yordamchisiga Gerbert Xuverga qarshi kampaniya o'tkazishning hojati yo'qligini aytgan. Balki u haq edi. . . lekin uning keyingi saylanishi Ikkinchi jahon urushi qatnashchilariga hech qanday yordam bermadi. FDR nafaqat bonuslarni to'lashdan bosh tortdi, balki MakArturni armiya bosh shtabi boshlig'i etib qayta tayinladi.

Ruzvelt ba'zi faxriylarga yangi taklifni berdi, qachonki bonus izlovchilarga Florida Keysdagi kabi "veteranlar reabilitatsiya lagerlarida" ishlash imkoniyati berilsa. U erda ular 1935 yil Mehnat kunida dahshatli halokat bilan uchrashishdi va u AQShda hech qachon kuzatilmagan dovul bo'lgan.

“ Shamolning shamollari soatiga ikki yuz mil tezlikda Floridadagi ishchi lagerlarga urilib, qum granulalarini odamlarning yuzidan go'shtni portlatib yuboradigan kichik raketalarga aylantirdi, - deb yozadi Pol Dikson va Tomas B. Allen Bonus armiyasi: Amerika dostoni. “Bo'ron kamida 259 faxriyning o'limiga olib keldi. Oxirgi xafagarchilik ommaviy krematsiya edi. ”

Bunday davolanishga qaramay, Bonus armiyasining merosi nafaqat G.I. Bill 1944 yilda, lekin har bir o'tirgan ish tashlashda, har bir yurish va iqtisodiy adolat uchun har bir namoyishda. Kabi Vashington Evening Star Bonus qo'shinlari shaharda qolganda yozgan, “Bu odamlar vatanparvarlik haqida yangi bob yozishdi, ular o'z yurtdoshlari bilan faxrlanishi mumkin. ”

PBS hujjatli filmiga qarang, “Bonusli armiya yurishi va#8221 va quyida boshqa tegishli manbalarni toping.


Bonus armiyasi: GI qonuniga norozilik qanday olib keldi

1932 yilda Portlendda (Ore shtati) Ikkinchi Jahon urushi qatnashchilaridan bir guruhi Vashingtondagi Bonus armiyasini va'da qilingan bonuslarni muddatidan oldin to'lash uchun to'plashdi. Ular may oyida Anakostiya daryosi bo'yida lager qurdilar. Ammo iyul oyiga kelib, amaldorlar sabr -toqatini yo'qotib, lagerni haydab chiqarish uchun lagerga kirishdi. Bu zo'ravonlikka aylandi. Bir askar chodirni yoqdi va armiya turgan hamma narsani yoqishni boshladi. AP taglavhani yashirish

1932 yilda Portlendda (Ore shtati) Ikkinchi Jahon urushi qatnashchilaridan bir guruhi Vashingtondagi Bonus armiyasini va'da qilingan bonuslarni muddatidan oldin to'lash uchun to'plashdi. Ular may oyida Anakostiya daryosi bo'yida lager qurdilar. Ammo iyul oyiga kelib, amaldorlar sabr -toqatini yo'qotib, lagerni haydab chiqarish uchun lagerga kirishdi. Bu zo'ravonlikka aylandi. Bir askar chodirni yoqdi va armiya turgan hamma narsani yoqishni boshladi.

Uoll -stritni ishg'ol eting, AQShning barcha shaharlarida va butun dunyoda norozilik namoyishlari boshlandi. Ularning umumiy xususiyati - namoyishchilarning qolish va lagerga chiqish majburiyati. Ular chodir tikib, katta jamoalarni qurdilar.

Bu Amerika tarixida aks sado beradigan norozilik shakli.

1932 yilda namoyishchilarning yana bir guruhi qarorgoh qurib, ovozlari eshitilmaguncha qolishga va'da berishdi.

Bonus armiyasi

1918 yilda Birinchi jahon urushi tugashi bilan millionlab amerikalik faxriylar o'z uylariga naqd bonus - chet eldagi xizmatlari uchun tovon puli va'da qilib qaytishdi.

Ammo bir narsa bor edi: pul 1945 yilgacha to'lanmasdi.

Keyin Buyuk Depressiya boshlandi. Millionlab amerikaliklar och va uysiz qoldi. Urush faxriylari yordamdan qutulib qolishdi.

Shunday qilib, 1932 yilda Portlendda (Or.) Bir guruh faxriylar Valter Uoters ismli odam boshchiligida Vashingtonga va'da qilingan bonusni erta to'lash uchun lobbichilik qilishga borishga qaror qilishdi.

1932 yil 13 iyulda Brig. General Pelham D. Glassford, Vashingtondagi politsiya nazoratchisi, Kapitoliy hududida bir guruh urush qatnashchilari, agar ular Frantsiyada xizmat qilgan bo'lsa va 100 foiz amerikalik bo'lsa, qo'llarini ko'tarishni so'ragan. AP taglavhani yashirish

1932 yil 13 iyulda Brig. General Pelham D. Glassford, Vashingtondagi politsiya nazoratchisi, Kapitoliy hududida bir guruh urush qatnashchilari, agar ular Frantsiyada xizmat qilgan bo'lsa va 100 foiz amerikalik bo'lsa, qo'llarini ko'tarishni so'ragan.

Ular temir yo'l hovlilariga Amerika bayrog'i bilan tushib, yuk poezdlariga chiqishdi. Ular o'zlarini Bonus armiyasi deb atashdi.

Sharqqa qarab harakat qilishganda, ularning fikri amalga oshdi. Radiostansiyalar va gazetalar hikoyani tanlay boshladilar. Butun mamlakatdan kelgan faxriylar poyezdga qarab, yuk poyezdlarida sakray boshladilar.

Tom Allen, hammuallif Bonus armiyasi: Amerika dostoni, deydi harakat "hech narsa bo'lmagan faxriylar va ularning oilalari uchun magnit edi.

"To'satdan, butun tushkunlikdan, bolalar nimadir qilishadi", deydi u. "U erda umid bor edi. Ularning vazifasi bor, boradigan joyi bor - bu Vashington deb nomlangan."

1932 yilda Fred Blacher 16 yoshli Vashingtonlik edi.

"Ular yuk mashinalari va eski avtobuslarda kelishdi", deydi u. "Ular yuk vagonlariga osilgan edi, eski vayron bo'lgan Fordlarda 20 kishi osilgan edi."

Lili Linebarrier Bonus armiyasi haqida eshitganida, sobiq eri bilan Shimoliy Karolinada yashagan. Ular "Friendly Bonus Expeditionary Force String Band" guruhini tuzishdi va "biz faqat qalayli vannani, yuvinish idishini, ozgina kiyim -kechakni va mening banjomni yig'dik. Biz o'z musiqamizni chalib yubordik".

Yashash joylari

Birinchi Bonus yurishlari 25 may kuni Vashingtonga keldi va bonuslarini to'lashni talab qildi. Bir necha hafta ichida shaharda 20 ming faxriy bor edi.

Lilli Linebarrier va uning guruhi "Friendly Bonus Expeditionary Force String Band" Bonus martda chiqish qildi. Bill Linebarrier izni bilan taglavhani yashirish

Lilli Linebarrier va uning guruhi "Friendly Bonus Expeditionary Force String Band" Bonus martda chiqish qildi.

Bill Linebarrier izni bilan

Ular bo'sh joylarda, bo'sh binolarda va Anakostiya daryosi bo'yida armiya tipidagi lagerda lager qurdilar. Lagerning bir chekkasida faxriylar o'z uylarini qurish uchun materiallar - vayron bo'lgan mashinalar, tovuq qafaslari va yog'och bo'laklarini yig'ib olgan axlatxona bor edi.

Lager batafsil ishlab chiqilgan. U shtatlar nomidagi ko'chalar bilan yotqizilgan. Uning o'z kutubxonasi, pochta bo'limi va sartaroshxonalari bor edi. Bonus qatnashchilari o'zlarining shaxsiy gazetalarini chiqardilar BEF yangiliklari.

"Biz uydagidan ko'ra yaxshiroq ovqatlandik", deydi Linebarrier. "Ular bizni sabzavot, asal bulochkalari, donutlarga yuklashardi. Bizning uyimizda bunday to'plamni eyishga pulimiz yo'q edi".

Anakostiyadagi lager mamlakatdagi eng yirik Xuvervil shahri edi. Tashkilotchilar bomba bo'lmaslikka qat'iy qaror qilishdi. Ular qat'iy qoidalarni o'rnatdilar: spirtli ichimliklar, janglar, janglar va kommunistlar yo'q.

Faxriylarni ko'plab Vashingtonliklar qo'llab -quvvatlagan. Locals came down and brought them cigarettes and food, came to be entertained by the bands that played in the camp, or came down just to talk to the veterans.

Makes me so damn mad, a whole lot of people speak of you as tramps. By God, they didn't speak of you as tramps in 1917 and '18. Take it from me, this is the greatest demonstration of Americanism we have ever had.

Retired Marine Corps Gen. Smedley Butler

Retired Marine Corps Gen. Smedley Butler came to speak to the marchers.

"I never saw such fine Americanism as is exhibited by you people," he said. "You have just as much right to have a lobby here as any steel corporation. Makes me so damn mad, a whole lot of people speak of you as tramps. By God, they didn't speak of you as tramps in 1917 and '18.

"Take it from me, this is the greatest demonstration of Americanism we have ever had. Pure Americanism. Don't make any mistake about it: You've got the sympathy of the American people. Now don't you lose it," he said.

On June 15, the House of Representatives passed a bill to pay out the bonus. The Bonus marchers celebrated. But then the Senate turned it down and adjourned.

Army Attacks The Camp

Officials in Washington expected that the Bonus Marchers would all go home. But they didn't. The numbers dropped, but the hard core among them stayed. And there was no indication they were ever going to leave.

Waters, the organizer of the Bonus March, said, "We intend to maintain our Army in Washington, regardless of who goes home."

Herbert Hoover was in the White House, and his administration began to panic.

On July 28, officials sent in the Washington police to evict the marchers. The action was peaceful until someone threw a brick, the police reacted with force, and two bonus marchers were shot. The situation quickly spiraled out of control. The National Archives taglavhani yashirish

On July 28, officials sent in the Washington police to evict the marchers. The action was peaceful until someone threw a brick, the police reacted with force, and two bonus marchers were shot. The situation quickly spiraled out of control.

On July 28, officials sent in the Washington police to evict the marchers. The action was peaceful, until someone threw a brick, the police reacted with force, and two bonus marchers were shot.

The situation quickly spiraled out of control, and the Hoover administration sent in the Army, led by Gen. Douglas MacArthur.

At the time, Blacher was standing on the corner waiting for a trolley. All of a sudden, he says he saw cavalrymen coming up the avenue toward the National Mall.

"The horses were so beautiful, I thought it was a parade," he remembers. "I asked a gentleman standing there, 'Do you know what's going on? What holiday is this?' He says, 'It's no parade, bud. Army's coming in to wipe out all these bonus people down here.' "

A newsreel called it the greatest concentration of fighting troops in Washington since 1865.

"These guys start waving their sabers, chasing these veterans out," Blacher says. "And then they start shooting tear gas. There was so much noise and confusion, hollering. There was smoke and haze. People couldn't breathe."

As night began to fall, the Army crossed into the Anacostia camp. MacArthur gave the marchers 20 minutes to vacate. Thousands of veterans and their families fled. A soldier took a torch and ignited one of the tents. And the Army began torching everything that was still standing.

John diJoseph was a wire service photographer in Washington. He remembers the night they burned everything.

"The sky was red," he says. "You could see the blaze all over Washington."

Within a week, the images of that night were all over the country. In every little town, people watched the newsreels, and they saw the tanks in the street, the tear gas, and MacArthur driving out the troops that had won the first World War.

"The reaction to it was, we can't let that happen again," author Tom Allen says.

Four years later, the WWI vets received their bonuses. And in 1944, Congress passed the GI Bill to help military veterans transition to civilian life, and to acknowledge the debt owed to those who risk their lives for their country.

This story was produced by Joe Richman and Samara Freemark of Radio Diaries, and edited by Deborah George. Thanks to Alexis Gillespie.


Bibliography

Barber, Lucy G. Marching on Washington: the Forging of an American Political Tradition. Berkeley: University of California, 2002.

Daniels, Rojer. The Bonus March: An Episode of the Great Depression. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1971.

Keene, Jennifer D. Doughboys, the Great War and the Remaking of America. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001.

Lisio, Donald J. The President and Protest: Hoover, Conspiracy, and the Bonus Riot. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1974.


Soldier Against Soldier: The Story of the Bonus Army

Soldiers who served in World War I were paid $1 a day, plus a 25-cent stipend for every day spent overseas. In 1924, Congress passed a law calling for every veteran of The Great War to receive an additional dollar for every day served. But the payment was not due for 20 years.

With the advent of the Great Depression, frustration over the delayed bonus turned to anger. A new bill was introduced in Congress to pay the bonus immediately. And thousands of veterans gathered in the nation's capital to demand their money.

Author Paul Dickson says the violence that followed has often been overlooked, and the impact on the 1932 presidential election underestimated. He is the co-author of a new book entitled The Bonus Army: An American Epic .

Dickson believes that what happened to the Bonus Army made politicians think long and hard when WWII veterans began to return. The result was the GI Bill, which Dickson credits with propelling millions into the middle class and changing the very fabric of the United States.

Revisiting the scene of the soldiers' camp on the Anacostia River, Dickson recounts the tale for Sheilah Kast.


Bonus Army March in Washington - History

In May of that year, some 15,000 veterans, many unemployed and destitute, descended on Washington, D.C. to demand immediate payment of their bonus. They proclaimed themselves the Bonus Expeditionary Force but the public dubbed them the "Bonus Army." Raising ramshackle camps at various places around the city, they waited.

The veterans made their largest camp at Anacostia Flats across the river from the Capitol. Approximately 10,000 veterans, women and children lived in the shelters built from materials dragged out of a junk pile nearby - old lumber, packing boxes and scrap tin covered with roofs of thatched straw.

Discipline in the camp was good, despite the fears of many city residents who spread unfounded "Red Scare" rumors. Streets were laid out, latrines dug, and formations held daily. Newcomers were required to register and prove they were bonafide veterans who had been honorably discharged. Their leader, Walter Waters, stated, "We're here for the duration and we're not going to starve. We're going to keep ourselves a simon-pure veteran's organization. If the Bonus is paid it will relieve to a large extent the deplorable economic condition."

June 17 was described by a local newspaper as "the tensest day in the capital since the war." The Senate was voting on the bill already passed by the House to immediately give the vets their bonus money. By dusk, 10,000 marchers crowded the Capitol grounds expectantly awaiting the outcome. Walter Waters, leader of the Bonus Expeditionary Force, appeared with bad news. The Senate had defeated the bill by a vote of 62 to 18. The crowd reacted with stunned silence. "Sing America and go back to your billets" he commanded, and they did. A silent "Death March" began in front of the Capitol and lasted until July 17, when Congress adjourned.

A month later, on July 28, Attorney General Mitchell ordered the evacuation of the veterans from all government property, Entrusted with the job, the Washington police met with resistance, shots were fired and two marchers killed. Learning of the shooting at lunch, President Hoover ordered the army to clear out the veterans. Infantry

Troops prepare to evacuate the
Bonus Army
July 28, 1932
and cavalry supported by six tanks were dispatched with Chief of Staff General Douglas MacArthur in command. Major Dwight D. Eisenhower served as his liaison with Washington police and Major George Patton led the cavalry.

By 4:45 P.M. the troops were massed on Pennsylvania Ave. below the Capitol. Thousands of Civil Service employees spilled out of work and lined the streets to watch. The veterans, assuming the military display was in their honor, cheered. Suddenly Patton's troopers turned and charged. "Shame, Shame" the spectators cried. Soldiers with fixed bayonets followed, hurling tear gas into the crowd.

By nightfall the BEF had retreated across the Anacostia River where Hoover ordered MacArthur to stop. Ignoring the command, the general led his infantry to the main camp. By early morning the 10,000 inhabitants were routed and the camp in flames. Two babies died and nearby hospitals overwhelmed with casualties. Eisenhower later wrote, "the whole scene was pitiful. The veterans were ragged, ill-fed, and felt themselves badly abused. To suddenly see the whole encampment going up in flames just added to the pity."

References:
Bartlett, John Henry, The Bonus March and the New Deal (1937) Daniels, Roger, The Bonus March an Episode of the Great Depression (1971).


When Patton Rolled Tanks Over Veterans in Washington, D.C.

Every generation of soldiers has problems, but most haven’t left the military only to later be attacked tomonidan u But that’s what happened to thousands of veterans who served in the trenches of World War I.

In 1932, 17,000 former soldiers marched on Washington, D.C. to demand wartime pay owed to them. The Great Depression ravaged the country, and a president took desperate measures to disperse the angry veterans.

Tanks rolled down the streets. Soldiers held people at bayonet-point. Veterans and their families took lungs full of tear gas. People died.

The fight between veterans and the White House had been brewing for more than a decade. Since the Revolutionary War, American soldiers received a bonus for serving during wartime.

Basically, this was some extra cash to make up the difference in pay the soldiers bo'lardi have made as civilians during the same period. But in 1917 and 1918, while American soldiers fought and died in Europe, the Woodrow Wilson administration increased government employees’ salaries to help compensate for a rising inflation rate. It didn’t increase soldiers’ to'lash.

When the troops returned home, they were angry. So the American Legion organized the vets and helped push bills through Congress legislating a commiserate increase in pay. Opponents of the payment called it a bonus. Veterans called it compensation.

“This measure is known as the Adjusted Compensation Bill,” American Legion representative John Herbert explained. “It cannot be made, by the enemies of that bill, ‘bonus,’ because bonus has come to mean ‘full payment plus,’ and there has not yet been full payment, or anywhere near full payment, so there cannot be any plus.”

Pres. Warren G. Harding fought the bill with tooth and nail. He even visited the Senate in 1921 and argued against it — arguing the government didn’t have the money and that it would set a dangerous precedent. Harding’s impassioned arguments succeeded and the bill died on the floor. He vetoed a different version of it in 1922.

Harding’s successor Calvin Coolidge vetoed the bill again in 1924. Congress overrode his veto four days later and the bill passed. World War I veterans would get their pay … but there were a few catches.

Instead of just paying out each veteran, Washington awarded each soldier a credit based on the amount of time they served in Europe. Troops received a dollar for every day stateside, and $1.25 for every day in Europe for a maximum of $500.

Anyone set to receive less than $50 could cash out immediately. Everyone else had to wait … until 1945. Washington allowed veterans to use the credit as collateral in loans and millions did, racking up debts of more than a billion dollars.

It wasn’t a great system for the veterans, but they would eventually get the money they felt the country owed them. Then came Black Friday in 1929. America’s economy collapsed, the Great Depression savaged the world and threw many veterans into unemployment.

And they remembered that Washington owed them back pay.

The depression worsened, and legislators in Congress pushed to allow the veterans to cash out their credits immediately. But the Herbert Hoover administration opposed the measure on the grounds that paying out billions of dollars to veterans would further weaken the economy.

Walter W. Waters would have none of that. The Oregonian veteran had served during the Pancho Villa Expedition before shipping out to the war in France. In 1932, he called for a march on Washington and left his home state with 300 men following behind him.

The Bonus Army — as the media now called them — moved east, picking up soldiers and their families. Toll roads and bridges allowed them to pass without paying. When they reached Indiana and Pennsylvania, those states’ National Guard units volunteered trucks to help shuttle the protesters across.

Waters and his army — now 43,000-strong — arrived in the nation’s capital in March. But only 17,000 of that number were veterans seeking compensation, the rest were family members and supporters.

The protesters camped on the muddy Anacostia Flats and assembled a shanty town. They repeatedly marched on the U.S. Capitol building, but ran short of food in early July. In an attempt to halt the brewing crisis, the White House offered the crowd $10,000 to leave Washington.

Some of the soldiers took the money and left, but most stayed behind. Waters saw tensions growing between the army and the government, so he agreed to lead his irregular troops out of Washington, so long as they could leave in stages and remain unmolested by the police.

In late July, Attorney General William Mitchell ordered D.C. police to clear out the protesters. Waters felt he had been double crossed.

The Bonus Army’s shanty towns on fire after losing to the U.S. Army. National Archives photo

When the police arrived at the shanty town, the veterans fought back. The police drew their revolvers and fired into the crowd, killing World War I veterans Eric Carlson and William Hushka.

The situation had spiraled out of control.

Hoover ordered the military to remove the protesters from the city at once. Gen. Douglas MacArthur — then the U.S. Army’s Chief of Staff — led the 12th Infantry Regiment and the 3rd Cavalry Regiment into the fray.

The cavalry regiment contained six Renault FT tanks commanded by Maj. George Patton. The Army troops, with bayonets affixed to their rifles, charged into the shanty town and launched tear gas into the crowds.

“Cavalrymen and infantrymen jerked gas masks out of their haversacks,” the Baltimore Evening Sun reported. “The spectators, blinded and choking with the unexpected gas attack, broke and fled. Movie photographers who had parked their sound trucks so as to catch a panorama of the skirmish ground away doggedly, tears streaming down their faces.”

Patton’s tanks crushed the makeshift buildings.

The veterans fled across the Anacostia River, and Hoover ordered the assault to stop. But MacArthur saw the protesters as communist agitators intent on overthrowing the U.S. government, and continued the operation.

More than 1,000 injured veterans ended up in area hospitals. One veteran died and a veteran’s wife miscarried.

Dwight D. Eisenhower was then MacArthur’s junior aid. He didn’t approve of the action. “I told that dumb son-of-a-bitch not to go down there,” he said during a later interview. “I told him it was no place for the Chief of Staff.”

The catastrophe further sank Hoover’s re-election chances, already badly damaged by the economic crisis. Sending in soldiers to crush a veterans’ protest didn’t help his public image, and he lost his re-election bid to Franklin Roosevelt later that year.

The veterans organized another smaller Bonus Army in 1933 and Roosevelt — though he didn’t want to pay money to the veterans — treated the men and their families with respect. He established a camp site for them, fed them and sent his wife to discuss their concerns.

In 1936, Congress passed a bill freeing up the veterans’ pay. Roosevelt vetoed the bill, but Congress overrode it. The federal government then paid out more than $2 billion to the veterans.

The former soldiers got their due. But they had to fight their own country and its military to get it.

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