1912 yilda nemis kimyogarlari farmatsevtika maqsadlarida MDMA yoki ekstazini sintez qilishgan. Sovuq urush davrida Markaziy razvedka boshqarmasi MDMA bilan psixologik qurol sifatida tajriba o'tkazgan. 1980 -yillarning oxirlarida Ecstasy mashhur partiya dori -darmoniga aylandi va uni dam olish uchun ishlatish ko'pincha xushmuomala madaniyat, raqs kechalari va elektron musiqa festivallari bilan bog'liq. Noqonuniy dori -darmonlarning qonuniy maqomiga qaramay, ba'zi tibbiy tadqiqotchilar MDMA, ayniqsa, TSSB, depressiya va boshqa xatti -harakatlari bilan og'rigan odamlarda terapevtik foyda keltirishi mumkin deb hisoblaydilar.
1912 yilda nemis kimyogarlari 3,4-metilendioksimetamfetamin yoki MDMA ni topib, qon ketishini to'xtata oladigan boshqa dorilarni ishlab chiqishdi.
Ular aniqlagan modda o'ziga xos psixoaktiv xususiyatlarga ega edi. Farmatsevtika kompaniyasi Merck 1914 yilda MDMA ni farmatsevtik qiymatga ega bo'lgan birikma sifatida patentladi. Giyohvand moddalarni keyingi ishlab chiqish bir necha o'n yillar o'tar edi.
Sovuq urush davrida AQSh armiyasi ham, Markaziy razvedka boshqarmasi ham MDMA va boshqa gallyutsinogen dorilarni qurol sifatida sinab ko'rishdi.
1950-yillarda boshlangan Markaziy razvedka boshqarmasining MK-Ultra loyihasi ongni boshqarish uchun psixikani qo'llash ustida ishlagan. Loyiha psixotrop dori -darmonlarni sezilmaydigan mavzularda sinab ko'rish bilan mashhur bo'ldi.
Markaziy razvedka boshqarmasi MK-Ultra tarkibida MDMA bilan tajriba o'tkazdi, lekin preparatni faqat odam bo'lmagan mavzularda sinab ko'rdi. Ushbu tajribalar MDMA bo'yicha birinchi ma'lum toksikologik tadqiqotlar olib keldi. Preparatning kod nomi EA-1475 edi.
MDMA ning terapevtik qo'llanilishi
1970 -yillarda ba'zi psixiatrlar MDMA -ni psixoterapevtik vosita sifatida ishlata boshladilar.
Ular bemorlarini muloqot qilish va psixoterapiya jarayonida ishtirok etish istagini kuchaytirdi deb o'ylashdi. Terapevtlar dori -darmonlarni "Odam" deb atashdi, chunki ular bemorlarni yanada begunoh holatga qaytarishini his qilishdi.
Ammo 1980 -yillarga kelib, ekstazi yoki molly partiyaviy dori sifatida keng tarqaldi. 1984 yilgi maqolasida San -Frantsisko xronikasi dorini "yuppie psychedelic" deb atagan, chunki u LSDga qaraganda engilroq va xavfli emas edi.
1985 yilda, "Giyohvandlikka qarshi urush" doirasida, Qo'shma Shtatlar MDMAni "Nazorat qilinadigan moddalar to'g'risida" gi qonunga binoan, 1 -jadval, marixuana, LSD va geroin kabi dori sifatida taqiqlab qo'ydi.
Ushbu ro'yxatga qaramay, ba'zi tibbiy tadqiqotchilar MDMA bilan nazoratli tajribalar o'tkazdilar, ayniqsa, preparatning TSSB (travmadan keyingi stress buzilishi), depressiya, xavotir va boshqa xulq-atvor muammolari bo'lgan odamlarni davolash imkoniyatlariga qaratilgan.
Psixofarmakologiya jurnalida chop etilgan MDMA 2016 yildagi tahlil mualliflari bu dori "TSSB uchun istiqbolli davolanishni taklif qiladi" degan xulosaga kelishdi.
MDMA odatda hap, kapsula yoki planshet shaklida olinadi. Tabletkalar har xil rangda bo'lishi mumkin va ba'zida ularning ustiga multfilmga o'xshash tasvirlar yoki so'zlar bosilgan.
"Molli" ko'pincha MDMA ning sof, kristalli chang shakliga ishora qiladi. Odatda kapsulalarda sotiladi.
Ba'zi odamlar, bu MDMning boshqa turlariga qaraganda mollini xavfsizroq qiladi deb o'ylashadi. Biroq, bu potentsial xavfli afsona.
Musodara qilingan mollyaning sinovlari shuni ko'rsatadiki, u ko'pincha boshqa zararli moddalar, shu jumladan metamfetamin yoki hammom tuzlari bilan aralashadi.
Hatto sof MDMA ham yon ta'sirga ega bo'lishi mumkin: yurak urish tezligining oshishi, ko'rishning buzilishi, ko'ngil aynishi, hushidan ketish, titroq va mushaklarning kuchlanishi.
Ecstasy va molly ham ogohlantiruvchi, ham gallyutsinogenga o'xshash xususiyatlarga ega. Ekstazining qonga kirib, miyaga yetib borishi uchun taxminan 15 daqiqa vaqt ketadi. Ecstasy ta'siri odatda uch dan olti soatgacha davom etadi.
Foydalanuvchilar ekstazidan foydalanganda eyforiya tuyg'usini, energiya yoki faollik darajasini ko'tarishi mumkin. Preparat miyada gormonlarni ham qo'zg'atadi, ular jinsiy qo'zg'alish, ishonch, hissiy yaqinlik va boshqa ekstaz foydalanuvchilar bilan hamdardlik hissini kuchaytiradi.
Hamma effektlar ham ijobiy emas. Ekstaziya yurak tezligi va qon bosimining ko'tarilishiga olib kelishi mumkin, bu yurak yoki qon tomir muammolari bo'lgan odamlar uchun xavfli bo'lishi mumkin.
Bundan tashqari, ekstazi tana haroratini ko'taradi. Preparat foydalanuvchining haddan tashqari qizib ketganini aytish qobiliyatiga xalaqit berishi mumkin. Ekstazidan o'lim xavfi, gavjum tungi klublar yoki ochiq havodagi musiqa joylari kabi issiq muhitda ortadi, lekin hatto normal haroratda ham, ekstazi tanani haddan tashqari qizib ketishi bilan o'ldirishi mumkin.
Ekstaziya va zavq madaniyati
Ecstasy uzoq vaqtdan beri ajoyib madaniyat va elektron raqs musiqasi (EDM) tadbirlari bilan bog'liq. Raves-bu tungi raqs kechalari, ular ko'pincha yashirin yoki "er osti" joylarida, masalan, tashlab ketilgan omborlarda bo'lib o'tadi. Ular giyohvand moddalarni iste'mol qilish, baland musiqa va ruhiy muhit bilan ajralib turishi mumkin.
Raves birinchi marta Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari va Evropada 1980 -yillarda, ekstazi mashhur ko'cha giyohvandligiga aylangan paytda paydo bo'lgan. U tezda ravesda asosiy tayanchga aylandi.
Rave madaniyati va elektron raqs musiqasi madaniyati ko'pincha uyg'unlik va qabul qilish hissi bilan ajralib turadi. Ko'pchilik uchun uning ma'naviy tomoni bor. Foydalanuvchilar hissiy idrokni kuchaytirish va eyforiya tuyg'ularini yaratish uchun ekstazi va boshqa dorilarni qabul qilishlari mumkin.
2000-yillarning o'rtalaridan boshlab, "Electro Daisy Carnival" va "Electric hayvonot bog'i" kabi yuqori darajadagi elektron raqs musiqasi festivallarida ekstaziya bilan bog'liq o'limlar ko'p bo'lgan. Bu o'limlarning aksariyati preparatning haddan tashqari qizib ketishiga sabab bo'lgan.
MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly). Giyohvandlik milliy instituti.
Raves: madaniyat, giyohvandlik va zararning oldini olish. Kanada tibbiyot assotsiatsiyasi jurnali.
Sof MDMA boshqa dorilardan ko'ra xavfsizroqmi? Yoshlar uchun giyohvandlik milliy instituti.
Qo'shma Shtatlarda MDMAning er osti dori sifatida tarixi, 1960-1979. Psixoaktiv dorilar jurnali.
Elektron raqs musiqasining ekstaziyaga bo'lgan muhabbati: tarix. Atlantika okeani.
Ekstaziya tarixi: u qanday yaratilgan va yana#038
Ecstasy - bu psixoaktiv dori bo'lib, deyarli faqat AQShda dam olish uchun ishlatiladi. U E, Molli va Mendi kabi ko'plab nomlar bilan ataladi, lekin ularning hammasi eyforiya, empatogen va psixologik xususiyatlarni taklif qiluvchi MDMA preparatiga tegishli.
U klub sahnalarida eng faol va hozirda qabul qilingan tibbiy maqsadlarga ega emas. Ammo, boshqa dorilar singari, u dastlab ataylab sintez qilingan dori emas, balki yon mahsulot sifatida yaratilgan.
Ekstazi qanday yaratilgani va u Qo'shma Shtatlardagi eng mashhur klub dorilaridan biriga aylangani haqida ko'proq bilib oling.
MDMA (metilendioksimetamfetamin) faqat 1980-yillarning o'rtalaridan boshlab jamoatchilik e'tiborida bo'lsa-da, uning tarixi XX asr boshlariga borib taqaladi. MDMA 1912 yilgacha sintez qilingan. Nemis farmatsevtika giganti Merck sintezning oraliq bosqichi sifatida MDMA orqali qoqilib ketganda qon ketishini to'xtatish uchun yangi dori yaratmoqchi bo'lgan. 1912 yilda Rojdestvo arafasida Merck ushbu gipertenziv dori -darmonga patentni topshirdi, u gidrastinin MDMA deb nomlangan patentga faqat oraliq kimyoviy vosita sifatida kiritilgan (Bek, 1997). Patent 1914 yilda olingan va uning amal qilish muddati ancha tugagan. Shu sababli, MDMA endi patentlanishi mumkin emas. Ko'pgina muxbirlar va hatto ba'zi olimlarning hikoyalaridan farqli o'laroq, Merck patent arizasida MDMA uchun hech qanday qo'llanma yo'q edi. MDMA hech qachon ishtahani kamaytiruvchi vosita sifatida sotilmagan va Birinchi Jahon urushi paytida ham ishlatilmagan, uning kimyoviy qarindoshi MDA (metilendioksi amfetamin, MDMA analogi va metaboliti), ammo Smit Klayn frantsuz tomonidan patentlangan va ishtaha sifatida sinovdan o'tgan. 1958 yilda odamlarda bostiruvchi. U psixofaol xususiyatlari tufayli tark etilgan, bu chalkashlikka sabab bo'lishi mumkin.
1912-1953 yillar mobaynida MDMA ilmiy adabiyotlarda ikki marta paydo bo'lgan. Ikkala marta ham u kimyoviy reaktsiyalarning yon mahsuloti sifatida, juda kam shov -shuv bilan e'lon qilingan va qabul qilingan yangiliklar sifatida ko'rsatiladi. 1953 yilda Armiya Kimyo Markazi turli xil psixotrop kimyoviy moddalarni, shu jumladan MDMA -ni, josuslik yoki "miyani yuvish" qurollari potentsiali uchun maxfiy sinovlarni moliyalashtirdi. 1969 yilda maxfiylikdan chiqarilgan ushbu toksiklik va xulq -atvor tadqiqotlari Michigan universitetida, o'sha paytda hech qanday insoniy tadqiqotlar o'tkazilmagan hayvonlar yordamida o'tkazilgan. MDMA ga EA 1475 kod nomi berilgan. Ba'zi odamlar EA "eksperimental agent" degan ma'noni anglatadi, deb o'ylaydilar, lekin bu haqiqatan ham kimyoviy moddalar sintez qilingan Edgewood Arsenalni qisqartiradi. Sichqonlar, sichqonlar, gvineya cho'chqalari, itlar va maymunlarda sakkizta psixotrop dorilar (meskalin, DMPEA, MDPEA, MDA, BDB, DMA, TMA va MDMA) o'rganildi (Hartman va boshq. 1973). 1952 yil oxirida MDA yordamida inson tadqiqotlari Nyu -York shtat psixiatriya institutida o'tkazildi, u erda tadqiqotchilar ixtiyoriy ravishda dori dozasini oshirib yuborishdi.
Za va vafot etdi. MDA MDplAdan oldin, 1960-yillarning o'rtalarida, San-Frantsiskodagi Haight AshbtBgrw-^l hippi submulturasida mashhur bo'lgan (Bek va
Rozenbaum 1994). "Sevgi dori" va "Amerikaning yumshoq dori" laqabi bilan tanilgan MDA, olti -sakkiz soatgacha davom etadigan, shahvoniy eyforiya deb ta'riflangan. MDAning psixoterapevtik tadqiqotlari tushuncha va empatiyaning kuchayishi haqida xabar berdi (Naranjo va boshq. 1967 Naranjo 1973), ammo preparat 1970 yildagi "Nazorat qilinadigan moddalar to'g'risidagi qonun" bilan AQShda noqonuniy deb e'lon qilindi.
MDMA 1980 -yillarning boshigacha ommalashmagan bo'lsa -da, 1970 yilda Chikagoda namuna olindi, u nihoyat tahlil qilindi va 1972 yilda chop etilgan natijalar uning MDMA ekanligini tasdiqladi (Gaston va Rasmussen 1972). MDMAni yaratishda ko'pincha xatolarga uchragan kimyogar Sasha Shulgin 1976 yil 8 sentyabrgacha MDMA ni sintez qilmagan. MDMA bo'yicha birinchi nashr etilgan tadqiqotlar 1978 yilda paydo bo'lgan. sub'ektiv effektlar, "hissiy va hissiy ohanglar bilan osonlik bilan boshqariladigan ong holatini boshqaradi" (Shulgin va Nikols 1978). Kaliforniyada yashagan va ilmiy hamjamiyatda ko'plab do'stlari bo'lgan, ba'zilari terapevt bo'lgan Shulgin MDMA -ni bir nechta hamkasblari bilan tanishtirdi. U o'sha paytga qadar ko'plab psixiatriklar bilan tajriba o'tkazgan va bu modda, ayniqsa, psixoterapevtik jarayon uchun foydali bo'lishi mumkinligini his qilgan. Myron Stolaroffning "Maxfiy bosh" kitobida Yoqub deb nomlangan terapevtlardan biri MDMA ta'siridan shunchalik hayratda ediki, u nafaqaga chiqqan va boshqa terapevtlarni dori bilan tanishtira boshladi. Bu yetmishinchi yillarning oxiri va saksoninchi yillarning boshlarida er osti psixoterapevtik ishlarining sekin tarqalishiga olib keldi. Psixoterapevt Enn Shulginning hisob -kitoblariga ko'ra, Yoqub davrida MDMAga to'rt mingga yaqin terapevtlar kiritilgan.
1985 yil mart oyida o'z guruhlarini Yer Metabolik Dizayn Laboratoriyalari deb atagan Debora Xarlou, Rik Doblin va Elis Agar Kaliforniyaning Big Sur shahridagi Esalen institutida MDMA bo'yicha uchrashuvga homiylik qilishdi. Tadbirga MDMA -ni o'z amaliyotida ishlatgan bir qancha terapevtlar va boshqa psixikani ishlatgan boshqa psixiatrlar taklif qilindi. Konferentsiyada qatnashgan Jorj Greer (1985) maqolasiga ko'ra, & quot; So'nggi bir necha yil mobaynida MDMAdan foydalanishning umumiy klinik tajribasi mingdan ortiq sessiyalarni tashkil etdi. asbob, lekin juda ko'p odamlar shamolga duch kelganida, ko'pchilik MDMA ixlosmandlari jim bo'lishga rozi bo'lishdi. Ommaviy axborot vositalarini bu xabarni tarqatishdan voz kechishdi va 1984 yil iyun oyida San -Frantsisko yilnomasida hikoya chiqmaguncha MDMA haqida juda ko'p nashrlar nashr etildi.
Terapevtlarning MDMAga qo'ygan ismi Odam edi, u Injilning Adan bog'i (Metzner va Adamson 1988) bayonida tasvirlangan va "butun hayot bilan birdamlik va birdamlik sharti" degan ma'noni anglatadi. Ammo MDMA preparatni dam oluvchilar orasida yangi nom oldi. Ecstasy nomi shunchaki marketing nuqtai nazaridan tanlangani keng tarqalgan. Bu psixoaktiv moddaga biriktirish uchun kuchli, qiziqarli ism. Dori vositasini nomini aytgan, ismi sir qolishini istagan sotuvchi, shunday dedi. & quotEcstasy aniq sabablarga ko'ra tanlangan, chunki u Empati deb atashdan ko'ra yaxshiroq sotiladi. Hamdardlik to'g'ri bo'lardi, lekin qancha odam bu nimani anglatishini biladi? & Quot (Eisner 1989).
1980 -yillarning boshlarida MDMA -dan rekreatsion foydalanish jiddiy boshlandi. Texasdagi bir guruh tadbirkorlar, "Texas guruhi" sifatida tanilgan, MDMA uchun kimyoviy prekursor bo'lgan sassafrasning efir moyi bo'lgan Sassyfras savdo belgisi ostida kichik jigarrang butilkalarda MDMA ishlab chiqarishni va tarqatishni boshladilar. Eisner 1989 Kollin va Godfri 1997). MDMA hali rejalashtirilgan yoki noqonuniy dori emasligi sababli, odamlar uni bepul raqamga qo'ng'iroq qilib, kredit kartalari bilan to'lash orqali buyurtma berishlari mumkin edi. Bu, shuningdek, Dallas va Fort-Uert (Texas) dagi ma'lum tungi klublarda mavjud edi, bu erda barlarda birjadan tashqari sotish soliq solinardi. MDMA yoqilg'isining hammasi Texas shtatining senatori Lloyd Bentsenning e'tiborini tortdi, u Senatning Adliya qo'mitasida o'tirgan va Giyohvandlikka qarshi kurash boshqarmasini (DEA) giyohvand moddalarni noqonuniy qilishga undagan. Texas guruhi yaqinlashib kelayotgan qonunchilik haqida eshitganida, ular oyiga o'ttiz ming tabletkadan kuniga sakkiz ming planshetgacha bo'lgan ishlab chiqarishni kuchaytirdilar. MDMA noqonuniy bo'lishidan bir necha oy oldin, Texas guruhi ikki millionga yaqin Ecstasy planshetini ishlab chiqargan bo'lishi mumkin (Eisner 1989 Collin va Godfrey 1997).
DEA 1984 yil 27 -iyulda MDMAni birinchi ro'yxatdagi dori deb e'lon qilish niyatini Federal reestrda e'lon qildi. I jadvaldagi dori -darmon har bir dastur uchun taqiqlangan, tibbiy maqsadda ishlatilmagan va shifokor tomonidan belgilanishi mumkin emas. DEA taklifiga javoban, bir guruh psixiatrlar, psixoterapevtlar va tadqiqotchilar (Tomas Roberts, Jorj Greer, Lester Grinspun va Jeyms Bakalar) o'z advokati Richard Kotton bilan birgalikda o'ttiz kunlik muddat ichida xat yuborishdi. qonunni DEA ma'muri Frensis Mullenga eshittirishni talab qilib. Talab qanoatlantirildi va DEA Los -Anjeles, Kanzas -Siti va Vashingtonda eshituvlarni rejalashtirdi.
1985 yil 31-mayda DEA tinglovchilar harakatdan oldin tinglanishini kutmasligini e'lon qildi, chunki ularning so'nggi ma'lumotlari giyohvand moddalarning yigirma sakkiz shtatda suiiste'mol qilinishini ko'rsatdi. Favqulodda vaziyatda, DEA & Quotchedched & MDMA, 1984 yil oktyabr oyida qabul qilingan qonundan foydalangan holda, agar jamoat xavfsizligi uchun etarlicha tashvish bo'lsa, dori -darmonlarni eshituvsiz bir yilga rejalashtirishga imkon beradi. MDMA - bu shunday rejalashtirilgan yagona dori. Taqiq 1985 yil 1 iyuldan kuchga kirdi. Favqulodda choralar ma'muriy jarayon tugamaguncha Ecstasy -ni suiiste'mol qilishni to'xtatish uchun vaqtinchalik chora edi. DEA, shuningdek, MDMAning barcha jihatlarini xalqaro miqyosda jinoiy javobgarlikka tortish harakatlarini boshladi. Jahon sog'liqni saqlash tashkilotining ekspert qo'mitasi MDMAni I jadvalga kiritishni tavsiya qildi, lekin mamlakatlarni ushbu qiziqarli modda bo'yicha tadqiqotlar o'tkazishga chaqirdi (Jahon sog'liqni saqlash tashkiloti 1985). Bu guruh raisi MDMAni rejalashtirishga qarshi ovoz berdi va moddaning terapevtik foydasi haqidagi ma'lumotlarni kutib, qarorni kechiktirish kerak deb hisobladi. MDMA 1986 yil 11 fevralda xalqaro miqyosda I jadvalga kiritilgan.
DEA tinglovlari 1985 yil fevral, iyun va iyul oylarida bo'lib o'tdi. Ko'plab psixiatrlar, tadqiqotchi olimlar, psixoterapevtlar va, albatta, advokatlar ishtirok etishdi. Bemorlarga MDMA berish tajribasiga ega bo'lgan odamlar, MDMA -ning terapevtik jarayonni rag'batlantirish, turmush o'rtoqlar, oila a'zolari va
terapevt va bemor. DEA nomidan MDMA miya shikastlanishiga olib kelganini his qilganlar gapirishdi. Chikago universiteti doktori Lyuis Sayden MDA -ni hayvonlarni tadqiq qilish ma'lumotlarini taqdim etdi, bu moddalarning katta miqdorda in'ektsiya qilinganida kemiruvchilarning akson terminallaridagi o'zgarishlarni ko'rsatdi. Odamlar MDMA ni in'ektsiya yo'li bilan qabul qilmaydi, lekin uni og'iz orqali qabul qiladi. Bundan tashqari, bu ikki dori ta'siri va davomiyligi jihatidan juda farq qiladi va ular qarama -qarshi faol optik izomerlarga ega [batafsil ma'lumot uchun & quot; MDMA kimyosi & quot; ga qarang). Shunga qaramay, MDA neyrotoksiklik ma'lumotlari prokuratura tomoniga ta'sir ko'rsatganday tuyuldi.
I jadvali mezonlariga javob berish uchun, DEA MDMA tomonidan tibbiy maqsadlarda ishlatilmasligini va suiiste'mol qilish ehtimoli yuqori ekanligini isbotlashi kerak edi. Afsuski, hech bir olim MDMA ning klinik samaradorligini tekshiradigan, ikkita ko'r-ko'rona, platsebo-nazorat ostida tadqiqotlar o'tkazmaganligi, DEAning dori-darmonlarni rejalashtirish harakatiga qarshi bo'lganlarga zarar etkazdi. MDMA terapevtlar aytganidek qilganini anekdotdan tashqari hech qanday dalil yo'q edi. Uchta sud majlisida keltirilgan barcha dalillarning og'irligiga asoslanib, o'ttiz to'rtta guvoh, sudya Frensis Yang 1986 yil 22 mayda o'z fikrini bildirdi. MDAni 111 -jadvalga joylashtirishni DEAga tavsiya qilgan. Bu klinik ish va tadqiqotlarni to'sqinliksiz davom ettirishga imkon beradi va shifokorlarga MDMA ni yozishga ruxsat beradi.
DEA ma'muri Jon C. Lawn ishonch hosil qilmadi va hakam Youngning tavsiyasi e'tiborga olinmadi. Doktor Lester Grinspunning apellyatsiyasi davomida (1987 yil 22 -dekabrdan 1988 -yil 22 -martgacha, "Grinspoon oynasi" deb nomlangan vaqt) MDMA yana rejadan tashqari. Grinspun o'z ishida g'alaba qozondi - Bostondagi birinchi tuman apellyatsiya sudi, DEAning MDMA Oziq -ovqat va farmatsevtika idorasi (FDA) tomonidan tasdiqlanmaganligi, ularning tibbiy qabul qilinmaganligi haqidagi dalillari uchun asos sifatida foydalana olmasligini aniqladi. Boshqa masalalar ham bor edi. Kongress giyohvand moddalarni favqulodda tartibda tuzish huquqini DEAga emas, AQSh Bosh prokuroriga berdi. Bosh prokuror bu vakolatni DEAga topshirish huquqiga ega edi, lekin DEA Bosh prokuror bu vakolatni rasman topshirmasdan oldin MDMAga qarshi harakat qildi. Bir nechta advokatlar tomonidan MDMA egalik qilish va odam savdosi bo'yicha o'z mijozlarining ayblovlarini bekor qilish uchun bahslashish uchun bu qiziqarli bo'shliq muvaffaqiyatli ishlatilgan.
giyohvand moddalarni doimiy rejalashtirishdan oldin sodir etilgan hukmlar. Barcha sinovlar va shikoyatlar tugagach, Jon Loun va DEA MDMAni 1988 yil 23 martda I jadvalga doimiy ravishda joylashtirdilar.
Sinovlar natijasida ommaviy axborot vositalari vaziyat haqida shov -shuv ko'tarishdi - "Mo''jizaviy tibbiyot/partiya dori -darmonlari sinovda davom etmoqda" sarlavhalari chop etildi. Ko'p savollar berila boshladi. MDMA G'arbiy Sohil taklif qilganidek ajoyib terapevtik vosita bo'lganmi? Bu DEA tomonidan e'lon qilinganidek, miya shikastlanishiga olib keladigan qotil dori bo'lganmi? Har bir jurnal maqolasi va har bir televidenie yangiliklari Ecstasy dori -darmonlari uchun bepul reklama edi. "Sevish" yoki "quchoqlash" deb nomlangan dori 1985 yilning yozida qizg'in voqea bo'lgan. Haqiqatan ham, o'sha paytda men MDMA haqida birinchi marta eshitgandim. Men o'z amaliyotlarini MDMA yordamidagi psixoterapiyaga asoslangan psixiatrlarga achinganimni eslayman. To'g'ri ishlatishning afzalliklarini ko'rganlarida, ular uchun qanchalik qiyin bo'lishi kerak. Noqonuniy giyohvand moddalarni iste'mol qilish uchun litsenziyalarini va hayotini xavf ostiga qo'yishni istamagan bu amaliyotchilarning ko'pchiligi undan foydalanishni to'xtatdilar. Ammo ba'zilari "terapevt" bo'lishni davom ettirdilar. Arm Shulgin ta'riflaganidek, & quot; MDMA - bu ruh uchun penitsillin, u nima qila olishini ko'rsangiz, siz penitsillindan voz kechmaysiz & quot (Shulgin va Shulgin 1991).
1980-yillarning boshlarida, Kaliforniya shimolida bir guruh tomir ichiga yuborilgan geroin foydalanuvchilari, o'zlarini bexosdan o'zlariga MPP (l-metil-4-fenil-l, 2,5,6-tetrahidropiridin) in'ektsiyasini kiritganlarida, milliy yangiliklarni e'lon qilishdi. sintetik opiat ishlab chiqarishga urinish. [Qarang & quot; MDMA afsonalari va mish -mishlari tarqatildi & quot; Qo'shimcha ma'lumot olish uchun.] Bu odamlarning kamida ettitasida titroq va yaqin falaj epizodlari bilan parkinsonizmning og'ir shakli rivojlangan (Ballard va boshq. 1985). Bu ajoyib nusxani yaratdi va ko'plab televizion tok -shoular o'sha paytdagi boshqa mashhur dori - MDMA ni tushuntirgan o'sha ko'rsatuvlarda ushbu bemorlarning tasvirlarini ko'rsatdi. Bu sinxronlik tufayli ko'p odamlar chalkashib ketishdi va MDMA Parkinson kasalligini keltirib chiqargan deb o'ylashdi. MPTP dopamin ishlab chiqaruvchi neyronlar uchun toksik ekanligi isbotlangan va hozirda Parkinson kasalligini taqlid qilish uchun kimyoviy model sifatida ishlatiladi. MDMA hech qachon dopamin ishlab chiqaradigan neyronlarga zarar etkazishi yoki parkinson simptomlarini keltirib chiqarishi ko'rsatilmagan.
O'tgan asrning 80-yillari o'rtalarida Ecstasy-ning ommaviy axborot vositalarida keng tarqalishi bilan, bu dori-darmonlardan rekreatsion foydalanish o'sib bordi. Kollej kampuslarida o'tkazilgan bir qancha so'rovlar bu tendentsiyani aks ettirdi - so'rovda qatnashganlarning 8 foizdan 39 foizigacha, giyohvand moddalarni iste'mol qilganliklarini tan olishgan [qo'shimchalarga qarang]. Saksoninchi yillarning boshlarida, Nyu -York gey -klubi sahnasida, xususan Studio 54 va Paradise Garage -da Ec stasy -dan foydalanish uning keshini yaxshilandi. Britaniyalik disk -jokeylar va Soft Cell va Boy Jorj singari ijrochilar Nyu -York shahridan sayohatlaridan keyin Angliyaga qaytib kelishdi va dorining afzalliklarini maqtashdi. Kuryerlar Ecstasy -ni Amerikadan Angliyaga yashirincha olib kirishni boshladilar. Tinch okeanining shimoli -g'arbiy qismida joylashgan hind gurusi Bhagwan Shree Rajneeshning izdoshlari MDMA tarafdorlari bo'lganligi va uning xalqaro miqyosda tarqatilishiga poydevor qo'yishga yordam bergan bo'lishi mumkinligi haqida mish -mishlar bor, MDMA 1988 yilgacha qonuniy bo'lib qolgan. Godfrey 1997).
Ba'zi tadqiqotchilar, hayajonli harakatning boshlanishini Ispaniyaning Ibiza oroliga joylashtiradilar, u erda 1986 yilda politsiya tomonidan "Ecstasy" ning ikkita tabletkasi musodara qilingan (Capdevilla 1995 Gamella va Roldan 1999). Londondagi ba'zi DJ -lar 1985 va 1986 yil yozlarida tungi klublarda & quotspinning & quot ni boshladilar. 1987 yilning yozida Ibiza shahrida katta bayramlar bo'lib o'tdi, ular Ecstasy va eklektik musiqa aralashmasi bilan diskotekalarda katta yig'ilishlar o'tkazdi. Pol Oakenfold, inglizcha DJ, 1987 yil qishida Project Club -da (Reynolds 1998) Londonga bu tovush va tebranishni qaytarishga harakat qildi. Keyinchalik, rave deb nomlangan katta tungi raqs kechalari er osti joylarda yoki klublarda o'tkazila boshlandi, ishtirokchilar soni Ecstasy-ni qabul qiluvchilar sonining ko'payishi bilan. Keyinchalik, 1988 yilda Britaniyaning & quot; Sevgi yozi & quot; bo'ldi, shunda minglab odamlar ishtirokida ochiq havoda o'tkazildi. Afsuski, o'sha yoz Buyuk Britaniyada Ecstasy bilan bog'liq birinchi o'limni keltirdi: yigirma bir yoshli Yan Larkom, u bir vaqtning o'zida o'n sakkizta Ecstasy planshetini qabul qilgan.
Britaniya tarixidagi eng yirik yoshlar harakati (Kollin va Godfri 1997) hisoblangan Buyuk Britaniyani qamrab olgan hayratlanarli hodisa tez orada AQShga eksport qilindi. Nyu-Yorklik Djeysi va prodyuser Frankie Bones 1989 yilda Angliyaga tashrif buyurganidan so'ng AQShga quvonch keltirdi. Uning & quot; STORMraves & quot; Nyu-Yorkning tashqi tumanlaridagi omborlarda boshlangan va oxir-oqibat 1992 yilning ikkinchi yozi deb nomlangan. Sevgi. 1992 yil iyul oyida Manxettenning boshpana klubining mashhur sayohati NASA (Nocturnal Audio and Sound Awakening) 1992 yil iyul oyida boshlangan va AQShning San -Frantsiskodagi birinchi yirik ravelaridan biri Toon Taun 1991 yilda debyut qilgan (Reynolds 1998). San -Frantsisko ko'rfazi hududida Raves hali ham davom etmoqda va Oklendning "massiv" deb nomlangan versiyasi besh mingdan o'ttiz minggacha odamni jalb qiladi.
To'qsoninchi yillar mobaynida, AQSh va Buyuk Britaniyadagi har ikkala ajoyib sahna, bir -birini to'ydirdi va har bir mamlakatda yoshlar madaniyatining muhim qismiga aylandi. Butun dunyoda Ecstasy iste'moli tobora o'sib bordi va minglab odamlarning qiziqishi tobora ommalashib, butun Evropa, Avstraliya, Isroil va Hindistonga tarqaldi. Ba'zida Qo'shma Shtatlar va Buyuk Britaniyada Ecstasy etkazib berish vaqti -vaqti bilan sodir bo'lar edi, MDMA bilan solishtirganda metamfetamin ko'p bo'lganga o'xshardi, lekin boshqa paytlarda Evropa bozorini Ecstasy suv bosganga o'xshardi. Manbalar Sharqiy Evropa (sobiq temir parda) mamlakatlaridagi er osti laboratoriyalari va ehtimol tashlab qo'yilgan farmatsevtika kompaniyalari edi (Saunders 1993, 1995). DEA muntazam ravishda Amsterdamni Ecstasy ishlab chiqarish yoki tarqatish uchun asosiy o'rni sifatida ko'rsatdi. Oxirgi bir necha yil ichida Amsterdam, Los -Anjeles va Nyuark, Nyu -Jersi aeroportlarida Ecstasy -ning ko'plab muhim tutilishlari yaxshi e'lon qilindi. Giyohvand moddalarni tarqatish tarmog'iga Rossiya va Isroil uyushgan jinoyatchilik guruhlari, shuningdek, Xassid yahudiy kurerlari ham jalb qilingan.
90 -yillarning oxiriga kelib, Qo'shma Shtatlarda hukumatning Ecstasy -ni qo'lga olishlari 450 foizga oshdi. Kongress 2000 yil iyun oyida eshituvlar o'tkazdi va Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari bojxona xizmati tomonidan Ecstasy tutqunlari 1997 yildagi besh yuz mingdan kam tabletkadan 2000 yilning birinchi besh oyida to'rt milliondan ortiq tabletkaga ko'tarilganini xabar qildi. Shuningdek, 2000 yilda Sammy & quot Bull & quot Grafano mafiyasi Ecstasy-ni tarqatgani uchun yoqalandi va haftasiga yigirma besh mingta planshet sotilishini moliyalashtirdi. Mayamidagi sotuvchi qirq sakkiz soat ichida yuz mingta planshetni tushirishini aytdi.
Qo'shma Shtatlarning sakkizinchi, o'ninchi va o'n ikkinchi sinf o'quvchilari o'rtasida o'tkaziladigan "Kelajakni monitoring qilish" tadqiqotida ekstazini sinab ko'rgan o'quvchilar foizi barqaror o'sib borayotgani ko'rsatilgan. 1996 yilda o'n ikkinchi sinf o'quvchilarining atigi 6 foizidan ko'prog'i preparatni qo'llashgan. 1999 yilda ularning soni 8 foizga ko'tarildi, 2000 yilda esa o'quvchilarning 11 foizi Ecstasy -ni qabul qilishdi. Ecstasy -ga taalluqli va DAWN (Narkotiklarni suiiste'mol qilish haqida ogohlantirish tarmog'i) tizimi orqali xabar berilgan shoshilinch tibbiy yordam bo'limlariga tashriflar 1996 yil 319 dan 1999 yilda 2850 gacha ko'tarildi.
2000 yil may oyida Illinoys shtatining vakili Judy Biggert Qo'shma Shtatlarda giyohvand moddalar savdosi, tarqatish va suiiste'mollikka qarshi kurashish uchun HR 4553 qonunini, giyohvand moddalarni tarqatishning klublarga qarshi qonunini kiritdi. Narkotik moddalarni suiiste'mol qilish milliy instituti ma'lumotlariga ko'ra, bu qonun loyihasida ishlatiladigan dorilar guruhi - MDMA, ketamin (behushlik), Rohipnol va GHB (tinchlantiruvchi gipnozlar) va LSD (gallyutsinogen) preparatlari bo'lishi kerak edi. (NTDA). Qonun loyihasi AQSh Jazo komissiyasini Ecstasy ishlab chiqarish, tarqatish va undan foydalanish uchun yuqori jazo choralarini nazarda tutuvchi federal hukumat ko'rsatmalarini o'zgartirishga chaqirdi. Bundan tashqari, qonun loyihasida sog'liqni saqlash xizmatiga maktabda va jamoada suiiste'mollik va giyohvandlikning oldini olish dasturlari uchun ekstaziya, PMA (parametxoksamfetamin, ba'zi & quotbogus & quot; Ecstasy planshetlarining xavfli va kuchli tarkibiy qismi) va shunga o'xshash dasturlar uchun 5 million dollar mablag 'ajratilishi so'ralgan. klub dorilar.
Klublar uchun dori -darmonlar to'g'risidagi qoidalar 2000 yil sentyabr oyida Uy va Senatda qabul qilingan "Bolalar salomatligi to'g'risida" gi qonunga qo'shilgan. MDMA jazosini metamfetamin bilan tenglashtiradigan hukm chiqarish to'g'risidagi qoida olib tashlandi. Shuningdek, nazorat qilinadigan moddani ishlab chiqarish, sotib olish yoki ishlatish haqidagi ma'lumotlarni tarqatishni jinoyatga aylantiradigan, ayniqsa, vahima qo'zg'atuvchi qoida olib tashlandi. Xususan, & quot; o'qitish & quot so'zi HR 4553 ning asl loyihasida paydo bo'lgan, bu kitobning nashr etilishini jinoiy javobgarlikka tortar edi.
2000 yil iyul oyida DEA klub dori -darmonlari bo'yicha o'tkazilgan konferentsiyada har hafta Qo'shma Shtatlarga Ecstasy -ning ikki million xiti keladi deb taxmin qilingan. Bu ko'tarilgan statistika, PMA tufayli bir nechta o'limdan tashqari, hukumatni klub dori -darmonlariga qarshi kurashishga majbur qildi. NIDA veb -sayti Amerika yoshlariga ushbu dorilarning xavfliligi to'g'risida ma'lumot berish uchun maxsus tashkil etilgan. Ecstasy xavfli dori ekanligi haqidagi da'volarni qo'llab-quvvatlash, Jon Xopkins universiteti nevropatologi Jorj Rikurtning NIDA tomonidan moliyalashtirilgan tadqiqotidir, u laboratoriya hayvonlariga katta dozada MDMA berish va aksonal o'zgarishlarni oshkor qilish bilan shug'ullangan. [Qo'shimcha ma'lumot olish uchun qarang & quotDDMA miyaning shikastlanishiga olib keladimi? & Quot]
Hukumatning klub giyohvand moddalariga qarshi kurashining ajoyib natijasi - bu ommaviy axborot vositalarida Ecstasy va uning bizning o'smirlarga ta'siri. Ellik ming o'quvchi o'rtasida o'tkazilgan 2000 yilgi "Kelajakni monitoring qilish" tadqiqot statistikasi, yigirma olti yillik tadqiqot tarixidagi har qanday giyohvandlik guruhi uchun o'n ikkinchi sinf o'quvchilari orasida eng katta foiz o'sishini aks ettirdi. 2000 yilda o'rta maktab o'quvchilarining 11 foizi hayotlarining bir qismida Ecstasy -ni sinab ko'rishgan.
Ammo NIDA xavfsiz foydalanish bo'yicha ko'rsatma berish yoki foydalanuvchini xavf ostiga qo'yadigan o'ziga xos xatti -harakatlarni e'lon qilish o'rniga, dori vositasini jinni qilishni tanladi. Ma'lumki, haddan tashqari qizib ketish va suvsizlanish - bu xavotirda uchraydigan haqiqiy xavf, lekin hukumat qo'rqinchli taktika va shiorlar foydasiga bu masalalarga e'tibor bermaslikni tanladi. Doktor Jon Genri 1992 yilda ravelarda Ekstazi bilan bog'liq qizib ketish haqida birinchi marta xabar berganidan keyin Britaniya qonunlari qabul qilinganidan farqli o'laroq. 1993 yil yanvar oyida Manchesterda Lifeline (zararni kamaytirish guruhi) bilan birgalikda xavfsiz raqs kampaniyasi boshlandi. va Manchester shahar kengashi. Bu klublar harorat, havo sifati, & quotchill out & quot joylari, suv va zararni kamaytirish bo'yicha ma'lumotlarning mavjudligini nazorat qilishini ta'minladi.
Qo'shma Shtatlar va butun dunyoda MDMA bo'yicha klinik tadqiqotlar o'tkazilmasligi ham qayg'uli. MDMA 1985 yilda noqonuniy deb topilganligi sababli, AQShda MDMA yordamida ruhiy psixoterapiya butunlay to'xtatildi va voqealar haqidagi anekdot hisobotlardan tashqari nashr etilgan tadqiqotlar adabiyotga kirib keldi. Shveytsariyadagi bir tadqiqot guruhi hukumatdan "psixologik psixoterapiya" deb nomlangan tadqiqot o'tkazish uchun ruxsat oldi va 1988 yildan 1993 yilgacha MDMA yordamida sessiyalar o'tkazdi. AQShda MDMA bo'yicha hech qanday klinik tadqiqotlar o'tkazilmadi. Nihoyat, FDA 1992 yil yozida doktor Charlz Grobga ilgari preparatni qabul qilgan odamlardan foydalangan holda MDMA bo'yicha insoniy tadqiqotlar o'tkazishga ruxsat berishga rozi bo'ldi. Uning o'qishi 1994 yil may oyida boshlangan.
O'shandan beri Qo'shma Shtatlardagi yana ikkita tadqiqot guruhi odamlarga MDMA berish uchun ruxsat oldi, ammo bu mamlakatda hali hech qanday terapevtik tadqiqotlar o'tkazilmagan. 1999 yil avgust oyida Isroilda bo'lib o'tgan MAPS homiyligidagi (Psixedel tadqiqotlar ko'p tarmoqli assotsiatsiyasi) konferentsiyasida dunyoning turli burchaklaridan kelgan klinik tadqiqotchilar birinchi marotaba uchrashishdi, ular o'z tadqiqotlari va bizni tadqiqotlar nuqtai nazaridan baholari va kelajak rejalari bilan bo'lishishdi. bu bebaho dori kashfiyotida. Bu tarixni yaxlitlash uchun umid nuri bor. 2000 yil 9-noyabrda Ispaniyada doktorant Xose Karlos Bouso travmadan keyingi stress buzilishlarini davolashda preparatning samaradorligini tekshirish uchun mo'ljallangan tadqiqot protokolida MDMA ning birinchi dozasini kiritdi. "The four-hour session went very well, and the patient seemed to have gotten to a deeper, more therapeutic level." I hope that this is the first in a long line of treatment studies.
Highlights in MDMA’s History: An Infographic Timeline
By guest contributor Russell Hausfeld.
Since its birth just over a century ago, MDMA has made its way around the entire world, into the hands and hearts of many. It was first synthesized by Merck Pharmaceuticals as a precursor in the creation of a substance that helped stop bleeding. Yet, the true potential of this molecule wouldn’t surface for over 50 more years, when a scientist by the name of Alexander Shulgin began experimenting with the drug’s effects on the mind. Since then, the drug has been made illegal across the globe, yet remains a favorite among ravers, veterans, and therapists alike.
Today, the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS) is pushing this long-banned drug through the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval process. If the FDA trials are successful, MDMA-assisted psychotherapy could be used to help treat post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and potentially other psychological issues in the future.
It has been a long road up to this point — full of love, dancing, media scares, and more. To catch you up to the present, Psychedelic Times has created this timeline overview of highlights in MDMA’s history.
MDMA affects the brain by increasing the activity levels of three neurotransmitters: dopamine, norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and serotonin. 
Increases in dopamine are what create MDMA’s euphoric effects, as well as the increased energy users feel. Increases in norepinephrine/noradrenaline cause increased heart rate and blood pressure while increases in the serotonin system cause changes in mood, appetite, sexual arousal, and sleep cycles. Spikes in serotonin after taking MDMA likely account for the common feelings of emotional closeness and empathy.
Potentially fatal neurological complications can occur following MDMA ingestion, likely due to short-term hypertension and dehydration that the drug induces.
Many fatal cases are due to abnormally high doses, prior health complications, a “bad batch,” or a combination of all of these. In fatal cases, necrosis of the liver and heart tissue have also been reported.  It’s often difficult to tell exactly how much of a role MDMA plays in adverse reactions because, in these cases, people are more likely to have used multiple drugs.  As with any substance, MDMA should be used in moderation. Frequent use correlates with more complications than occasional use. 
Clinical studies with pure MDMA have been conducted on more than 1,100 individuals without the occurrence of severe adverse effects. 
MDMA’s therapeutic potential
MDMA was first synthesized by Germany’s Merck at the start of the 20th century, but it would be decades before a human tried a dose. In 1976, Dow Pharmaceuticals chemist Alexander Shulgin discovered MDMA’s effects after synthesizing a batch and testing 120 milligrams on himself.
“I feel absolutely clean inside, and there is nothing but pure euphoria. I have never felt so great or believed this to be possible.”
— Alexander Shulgin
Shulgin shared it with San Francisco therapist Leo Zeff, who was conducting psychedelic therapy despite the ban. Zeff served as the Johnny Appleseed of MDMA, sending doses to an estimated 4,000 therapists who gave it to as many as 200,000 patients in the late 1970s and early 1980s.
Like LSD before it, MDMA would not stay a secret for long. Its euphoric and stimulating effects made it the ideal party drug. The burgeoning rave music scene embraced it, and soon stories emerged of overheated partiers winding up in the hospital. Then came the first scientific studies reporting on MDMA’s neurotoxic effects.
The FDA and DEA were not fans of an increasingly popular drug that supposedly rotted the brains of America’s youth. Despite the protests of therapists who provided substantial documentation of MDMA’s therapeutic benefits, it was banned. Classified as a Schedule I drug, it was considered to have no accepted medical uses and a high potential for abuse.
Tavsiya etilgan o'qish
Finding Happiness in Angry Music
We’re Not Ready for Another Pandemic
The Dos and Don’ts of Hot Vax Summer
“When God saw that people, instead of turning to God, were turning to the medicine cabinet, God made himself available in the medicine cabinet,” Rabbi Zalman Schachter-Shalomi, a figurehead of the Jewish Renewal movement who dropped acid with Dr. Timothy Leary in the 1960s, once said.
The spiritual element of the EDM festival mentality can explain why MDMA use is at its core. The link between drugs and spirituality, Doblin said, comes from two fundamental human needs: the need for rituals that connect us with others, and the need to operate “with the full range of consciousness.”
Like most other drugs that come from labs rather than leaves, MDMA was first a Cold War thing. In the early 1950s, five centuries after German chemists patented and then briskly forgot about methylenedioxymethamphetamine, the United States military began researching psychotropic MDMA, LSD, and other drugs as means of puppeteering suspected enemies’ minds.
The real godfather of the drug, though, is a man named Alexander “Sasha” Shulgin, a quirky psychopharmacologist from Harvard who began synthesizing and self-testing MDMA in the backyard of his California home. He gave MDMA a ringing scientific endorsement, and a few years later, it started showing up in Dallas’s gay clubs—people were calling it “Adam.” This was the early '80s, and disk jockeys were beginning to understand the capacity of the synthesizer to electrify its audience.
The music and the powder traveled quickly and in tandem, going mainstream through the same channel that brought the first cases of HIV in heterosexuals: Seemingly straight men who would sneak out to gay clubs and then export certain elements back into their “regular” lives. Every notable place to dance soon became a place to roll. The Chicago nightclub Warehouse, a centerpiece of the city’s MDMA scene, birthed the term “house music.”
By the summer of 1985, when the government classified MDMA as a Schedule 1 Controlled Substance—those with high abuse potential, no accepted medical function, and a possible 15 years for possession—Adam was now Ecstasy, and both the music and club experience had grown extravagantly fast. In the chicken-or-egg question of causality, most point to the high.
“[It] was an intentionally designed experience,” media theorist Dr. Douglas Rushkoff writes in his book e, the incredibly strange history of ecstasy. “The music, lighting, and ambiance were all fine-tuned to elicit and augment altered states of consciousness. The rhythm of the music was precisely 120 beats per minute, the frequency of the fetal heart rate, and the same beat believed to be used by South American shamans to bring their tribes into a trance state… Rave dancers sought to reach group consciousness on a level they had never experienced before.”
By the late '80s, the term “rave”—which comes from the French raver, “to show signs of madness or delirium”—had come to apply to the nocturnal congress of Ecstasy-fueled souls, a subculture as tactile as the hippies’ had been. In the rave-filled United Kingdom, 1988 was known as the Second Summer of Love. Equipped with MDMA, the club haven Ibiza became a Mecca, whose drunk driving rate plummeted because people felt that boozing killed their roll, Dr. John H. Halpern, an expert on the drug, told me. And in Manhattan, the incubator for any emerging American fad, club owners enforced the nexus of dance and drug by setting up shop in back rooms.
And then people started to die. It started circumstantially: For example, the fire that killed 87 in an illegal Bronx club. Eventually, though, more and more began to simply drop dead, their hearts shut down by a supposedly harmless powder. By the new millennium, the scene had grown shadier, and its kids had grown up. In 2001, a statistically successful American public campaign against Ecstasy targeted an audience that now spent their Saturdays at home, relieved and burned out.
The scene died because it had been inherently-self limiting—not everyone, after all, can or wants to go to nightclubs—which also explains why a concerted public crusade against MDMA culture didn't bother assembling until essentially after the fact. The deaths occurred in one confined arena, and thus failed to elicit any sort of “it could happen to me” mindset in the popular discourse. The culture was voluntarily ditched by its members, Doblin said, after a decade of creeping exhaustion and ennui its death was self-inflicted.
In the three months since I moved to New Delhi, the Indian rupee’s value has plummeted about 10 percent, making everything, especially vices, quite cheap. A few weeks back, I paid the equivalent of $1.85 for a pack of cigarettes and just over three bucks for a movie ticket. I’d heard about an impressive new Indian film called Ship of Theseus, billed as a modern treatment of the logical paradox with which it shares its title.
To condense a two-hour film or a centuries-old philosophical dilemma: Imagine that you’re named Theseus and you have a wooden ship. These ship’s boards gradually require replacement. Once every last board has been replaced, is this a new ship altogether? Or does it remain fundamentally your same boat, tethered to its original form by the fact that its proprietor—you—and its purpose—to carry you across the river—have remained constant?
It gets interesting when it’s a group of humans instead of a boat. No community remains unchanged, because its members will inevitably come and go. It’s as seam-ridden as patchwork, but our ship rebuilds itself.
EDM culture as we know it effectively began five years ago, when no one knew exactly how to feel about things. We had survived a presidency that destroyed a century of credibility in eight years. The economy was crumbling. The Millennial generation, those between born 1980-ish and 2000-ish whom Gawker writer Sam Biddle described to me as “self-obsessed teens and twenty-somethings with addictions to social media and entitlement,” were supposed to respond bitterly and flippantly.
But Millennials didn't. Music sets a culture’s tenor: the phenomenal explosion of EDM has made the festivalist mentality of post-ironic joy and synergy the underpinning of the pop brain. It makes sense if we feel the Woodstock analogy for a pulse. Nixon’s America had Vietnam Bush’s had 9/11 and Iraq. For both us and them, a subculture of euphoria promised escape. The audience came and comes to upstate New York and south Florida for harmony, because that’s where the music has promised it would take them.
But how far has EDM culture traveled, and under whose piloting? If we look back at the construction and reconstructions of the EDM revolution, we can ask ourselves: Is this still Theseus’ ship?
In a letter he wrote last winter for Slate, music journalist Jason King correctly locates the most recent paradigm shift in American pop music: 2007, when “EDM began to displace Dirty South Hip Hop as the creative engine of Top 40 pop.” Billboard charts verify this: In 2005, seven of the 10 biggest songs in the U.S. were by hip-hop artists four years later, half of the most successful singles were electronic dance tracks—three of which were by converted rappers and hip-hop singers.
Deadmau5 performs at the Chelsea at The Cosmopolitan Of Las Vegas. (The Cosmopolitan of Las Vegas/ flickr)
With a precedent set, a perfect storm of events between 2008 and 2011 managed to fuse an emerging pop music trend with a catalog of DJs who’d learned by listening to rave artists. It really galvanized between late 2010 and early 2011 when, for the first time, March was known as the beginning of festival season.
Call it the Synthesizer Spring. Deadmau5 had recently released his explosive album “4x4=12,” introducing the world to dubstep. Subscriptions surged to Sirius XM satellite radio, which offered four distinct electronic music channels. “Radio edits”—eight-or nine-minute tracks that have been whittled in half, keeping only the good stuff—gave poppier artists like David Guetta more commercial utility. And in January 2011, a 22-year-old Swede named Tim Bergling began playing a song called “Levels,” which we would later hear in a Bud Light Platinum commercial during the Super Bowl.
Popular culture is a contradiction of terms: A culture is a distinct sphere, while popularity is universality, or close to it. As soon as anything enters the pop mainstream, its success depends on its revenue, which depends on the magnitude of its audience. To maximize your audience, you have to loosen anything that might restrict a culture’s membership—namely certain ideals that gave it cultural status in the first place. By this logic, the idea of EDM as a culture of Peace, Love, Unity, and Respect has been dead since Guetta first released his first Billboard Top 100 single (he’s had 18 since 2007).
The whole PLUR mentality proved wonderfully marketable. While mainstreaming warped the essence of the genre, it also commodified the illusion of that original essence—the trance-inducing neon glow sticks, the euphorically outrageous outfits, and one supposedly wonderful powdered drug—to a point where its consumers were blind to how far they’d strayed from the origin.
Many of the 300,000 people who went to Ultra Music Festival in Miami this past March were surprised to learn that the event was celebrating its 15th anniversary. The festival, after all, has only existed in its current form since 2011, when, after a decade of relative obscurity and gradual linear growth, it purportedly had an audience of 150,000: 50 percent larger and, with the addition of a third day of music, 50 percent longer than the year before. The lineup that year was topped by Guetta and Deadmau5, both of whom had enjoyed recent radio success. The end of March overlapped with high school and college spring breaks across the country, and it was cheaper and quicker to get to Miami than, say, Cancun.
Seemingly overnight, Miami had become for dance music what Atlanta and New Orleans had been for hip-hop: the epicenter of one of the biggest genres in the country, with all the accompanying shenanigans and vices. Miami Music Week began with the Winter Music Conference—a semi-exclusive EDM marketing event that operates as the scene’s old boy’s club—and ended with Ultra, when the exodus of young Americans to south Florida brought curiosity to its boiling point: There was the neon, the dancing, the love, of course the music, and there were also the drugs.
Even if you weren't rolling by this point, you’d have a hard time neglecting its omnipresence in the scene. The idea of using MDMA had become a key commodity for the electronic music industry. Some of the biggest pop artists of the last decade have clumsily but enthusiastically embraced the new genre, making overt references to Molly in their lyrics. In consequence, MDMA is now to EDM what Ciroc and fat blunts were to mid-2000 rap: substances whose implications paint a picture of the scene.
Over the last seven months, a photo of some powder-filled capsules has received more than 212,000 shares on Facebook. The photo, its caption said, was of MDMA, and was “made up of cocaine, crack, ecstasy & bath salt.”
We could laugh if what the poster of that photo was doing wasn't so dangerous: giving credence to the spectrum of myths about MDMA, which range from circumstantially sort of accurate to offensively wrong. Non-users, almost as a rule, seem to have no idea what it is.
The numerous names for the drug—MDMA, Ecstasy, Molly, etc.—fuel misconceptions by implying various degrees of purity and risk. This confusion, Dr. John H. Halpern told me, is little more than a “marketing gimmick.”
“Molly is short for ‘molecule,’ and is just a new slang name that connotes that it’s the ‘real’ thing,” he said. “Why? Because it hasn't been tabletized or put into a capsule. From an illicit manufacturer’s standpoint, that just saves them another step. They can also sell it for more and claim that it’s pure.”
Halpern is an assistant professor at Harvard Medical School and the director of the Laboratory for Integrative Psychiatry at Boston’s McLean Hospital, where he stands at the forefront of the country’s medical research in psychedelics. He spoke to me from Chicago, where he was attending the Clusterbusters Conference, an annual conversation about the potential hallucinogenic substances have to cure crippling headaches.
He emphasized two fatal flaws in the crusade against MDMA: Its “abstinence-only” message (which, he said, “loses the audience of members who are definitely going to use”) and the lack of public information about the true nature of the drug—a consequence of its criminality.
“If you take 20 Tylenol at once, you’re going to damage your liver. But most people read the warning label, ” he said. “With MDMA, you have some kid thinking ‘Oh, one’s good, but six is better, and how 'bout we snort it?’ You’re going to maximize harm. People don’t know what they’re putting in their bodies and they take too much of it. If you want to make a drug more dangerous, force it into the underground.”
Both Halpern and Doblin cited a recent study proving that over half of the MDMA sold on the street contained no MDMA whatsoever. Illegal manufacturers, they say, have few qualms about cutting their product with other cheaper chemicals ranging from ADHD medications to Piperazine, a chemical compound used to treat heartworm in dogs.
In 2002, the Partnership at Drugfree.org, which fuels the American anti-drug campaign, launched a $2 million anti-Ecstasy effort, which they credit with facilitating a decline in the drug’s popularity in the early aughts. The agency has thus far failed to respond to their own, far more current data, which said the number of American teens who reported taking Ecstasy or MDMA in the preceding year increased by 67 percent between 2008 and 2011.
They’re not clueless: They've publicly acknowledged the relationship between MDMA and music festivals and that people often “don’t know what they’re getting” when they acquire Molly. But their ad writers seem to be struggling to find the right angle. It must be quite difficult, I imagine, to craft a case against a drug that’s been described to me by friends as “a year of therapy in a night.” Unlike other hallucinogens, which Halpern describes as “predictably unpredictable,” there are no bad trips. There’s only the lights and the music, more vivid and symphonic than you've ever experienced, and the people. Your friends become your best friends your best friends become readers of your soul the crowd around you is a nucleus of seemingly authentic intimacy.
Multiply that crowd by 10,000, give them glow sticks, and you have a festival.
This isn't to say that there’s no fodder for a convincing argument. Halpern emphasized that if used recklessly, MDMA has serious risks. If the drug is produced and used responsibly, it will take 1.6 grams—about eight times the typical dose—to cause an overdose as defined by the University of Pennsylvania Health System: “the inadvertent or deliberate consumption of a dose… likely to result in a serious toxic reaction or death.”
The risk isn't in the drug it’s in the party. Envision yourself, if you will, filled with an insatiable outward energy. If there’s music, you will dance like hell. Envision norepinephrine pushing your heart rate up and the water your body needs to live seeping from your pores as sweat. Envision yourself so euphoric that you neglect your pounding heart or your blistering fever, until, suddenly, it’s too much to ignore, and hyperthermia—an internal temperature of about 107 degrees—begins to shut your organs down. Or, succumbing to polydipsia, you’ll drink enough water to fatally intoxicate yourself. You’ll likely die dancing.
Twenty-year-old Danielle, an indigenous Miami girl whose now-deleted Twitter account once saw retweets from the likes of DJ Porter Robinson and @ravegrlproblems, will not go to Ultra next year.
She had a hard time explaining exactly why. She’s been among the festival’s masses every year since 2010, if only because “if you’re in Miami and Ultra’s going on… not being there is the worst thing ever,” she told me.
Danielle’s relationship with EDM culture might appear racked with self-contradictions. She has EDM blogs like Remix Nation bookmarked but says she hasn't downloaded a track in two months. She chooses to give David Guetta the benefit of the doubt regarding his sellout status—his recent singles have featured Akon, Lil' Wayne, and Nicki Minaj—but cringed when I mentioned Madonna’s appearance at Ultra 2012, when the 55-year-old performer garishly asked the audience “how many people in [the] crowd had seen Molly.”
Having grown up in the epicenter of American electronic dance music, Danielle—which is not her real name—has had a rocky love affair with the music she first heard as a fifth grader on Miami’s 93.1 WFEZ. Her understanding of the culture is borderline academic. She’ll defend bold theses on the scene’s geopolitics (“Ibiza is where it culminates Miami is where it generates”) and geocentrism (“if you haven’t played in Miami, you’re no one”). She quickly listed the lineup of her first time at Ultra with an edge of quiet wistfulness: The Bloody Beetroots, Fedde Le Grand, and, in cold contrast, a handful of poppier electronic bands like LMFAO, who were there, she said, to sell tickets to a still-not-huge event.
In the three and a half years since her first Ultra experience, she has been to 30 shows or festivals—one every month and a half or so, on average—but none since this past March, when she realized that Ultra had become a mix of “teenagers drinking their dad’s vodka from water bottles” and “fraternity or sorority rush, with groups of 20 girls wearing the same neon tank that they all designed for their spring break trip to Ultra.” About half of the crowd, she estimated, had taken what they thought to be Molly.
She said this with an air of condescension. I asked her if she rolled often she answered my question with her own.
“Rolled or taken something?” she asked, laughing. “Two different things. I've genuinely rolled six times. I've taken something I thought was Molly more like 10.”
She and her friends have learned the veteran raver’s cardinal rule—never, ever buy drugs at the venue—the hard way. She’s had friends inadvertently consume “meth bombs,” (capsules filled with powdered methamphetamine). At one of the eight Laidback Luke shows she attended in 2012 alone, she said she went “overboard” with what she thought was MDMA, taking around eight-tenths of a gram which made her eyes twitch and her heart beat “way, way too fast.”
“MDMA isn't MDMA anymore,” she told me. “It’s basically a grab bag of shit that you can find anywhere and make yourself. When anyone says they’re doing pure Molly, it’s the biggest myth. You literally don’t know what’s in it anymore.”
She says three years ago, the drugs were there, along with an electric spirit of unity—“people were exchanging Kandi [colorful rave jewelry] and sharing water”—that has since disintegrated. She isn't sure whether this is because “MDMA” isn't really MDMA, or because thousands are there to simply do drugs, with no regard for the spiritual element of the culture.
She swears she’s not jaded. To be fair, her lament echoes a grim State of the Union delivered by some of the scene’s most visible figureheads. Joel Zimmerman, the man in the oversize rodent helmet known as Deadmau5, has dissed the commercialization of EDM (calling it “Event-Driven Marketing”), its artists (“all [David] Guetta needs is two iPods and a mixer”) and festivals (“Ultra… is the definition of insanity—doing the same fucking thing every year, expecting different results every time.”)
Danielle’s friends, she said, have mostly “burned out” on the scene—rolling wore them down quickly. “You’re like a hamster in a wheel,” she said. Several of them, tempted by the lucrative potential of Ultra, have started selling MDMA throughout Miami. I asked her if any of her peers in the trade were involved “big time.”
“Big time?” deb so'radi u. “Like being confronted by distributors from Latin America with AK-47s once? Yeah.”
She told me about one of her oldest friends, whom I’ll call Marco. Marco is a part-time club promoter who quietly sells the drug on the job, adding an unmarked lump of cash to his $33,000 salary.
It’s a clever strategy. His responsibilities as a promoter are minimized by the trump card he holds in a neatly-folded Ziploc dime bag in his back pocket. You sell party drugs if you want people to, well, party. Marco is a junior at the University of Miami. During Miami Music Week this past March, Danielle told me he made “around five grand in a weekend.”
If Ultra continues to grow, its audience will soon outnumber the population of Miami, which Danielle believes will keep the Molly market alive, especially as the price of admission climbs, limiting the crowd to those who have the money. Three years ago, she paid around $150 for a ticket this past May, the festival announced that the full three days would run at about $400. Because of this, she said, she predicts the festival’s decline, even if drug use remains constant. Former ravers will either be put off by the event’s corporatism or simply unable to afford it.
“The die-hard kids, those who've been going for three, four, five years, they've said they’re not going next year,” she said. “They've had enough.”
The ship’s boards are all replaced. It is now bigger and more powerful than ever before. Does it still belong to Theseus?
It comes down to whom you ask. The neon-clad 17-year-old tweeting about how Olivia Rotondo and Jeffrey Russ killed EZoo would probably say yes. In an essay on the music news website Consequence of Sound, pointedly titled “Why MDMA is destroying EDM,” music promoter Derek Staples argues that the whole PLUR thing has eroded into what he calls SEEP: “Selfishness, Ego, Escape, Prophet”—the traits that Millennials initially seemed to defy.
Ezra Hrycyk dances with a hoola hoop during the Ultra Music Festival. (Gaston De Cardenas/Reuters)
The bitterness towards Electric Zoo’s cancellation grew from a blinding narcissism that is antithetical to the harmony and love of the original festival mentality, and so I say no, Theseus has lost his boat. The custodians of the culture have clearly changed, or at least their treatment of it has, and it’s difficult to identify its central ethos beyond the music’s increasingly superficial lyrics.
Meanwhile, the publicity surrounding the tragedy attempts to frame EDM festivals as havens for Molly use, avoiding lessons of responsibility and instead capitalizing on scare tactics. Fearing a decline in ticket sales, festivals will almost certainly respond by imposing stricter security measures, which will in turn see either a decrease in enthusiasm about attending or another public spotlight pointed at the consequences of taking the drug at such events. Just as the hippies went off to college or became soccer moms, the youth who filled Ultra’s Bicentennial Park in March of 2011 will move on.
The proprietor of the popular Twitter account @ravegrlproblems is a 23-year-old who goes by Sammy. She grew up in Miami, first saw Tiësto in 2004, and has rolled “too many times to count.” She now lives in New York, and while she still eagerly goes to shows, my conversation with her suggested that part of her had moved on from raving as a fundamental source of identity. In distancing herself from it, she said, she could better satirize it online.
For every Sammy, Danielle, and Marco, there are many others in the process of falling out in love with the culture. Those who will inherit its aftermath—the young American teenagers who hear David Guetta on Top 40 radio—will inherit a new scene with only a vague recollection of Peace, Love, Unity, and Respect.
We can blame the commercialization of the genre and its emerging negative associations with its decline, sure. But in a more abstract sense, there’s always the possibility that anything built upon an unsustainable premise is doomed from the beginning. Every social experiment in Utopian synergy has collapsed or fundamentally changed, its constituents simply unable to maintain the core ideals because, well, they’re ideals. Dealers at concerts can sell counterfeit MDMA until kids start dying from it, and the sphere of the mainstream can preserve themes and messages until the disintegrating force of popular attention shows that they’re just a facade.
EDM will stay on the radio, of course. Kids will ask their parents for tickets to Miami for spring break, and they will still experiment with drugs promised to broaden their horizons. But at the end of the day, they’ll have no real sense of attachment or identity around the movement, until the dust of the revolution’s crumbled axis clears. Miami will be quiet then, or quieter, and neon headbands will gather dust in their closets.
Impact of Ecstasy
Ecstasy works by influencing the activity of three chemicals in the brain: dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. These chemicals play a role in a number of different functions in the body including energy levels, mood, emotions, and sleep.
The immediate impact of ecstasy begins within about 45 minutes of taking a dose. People typically experience an increased sense of well-being and emotional warmth. Other effects include feeling greater empathy toward others and enhanced sensory perception.
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Although MDMA remains a popular drug today for recreational use, the most astonishing developments occur within the research of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy.
Current Studies & Research
Within the current renaissance of psychedelic research, MDMA is showing among the most promising results in trails. Because of extraordinary results, the FDA has granted MAPS permission for phase three trials of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for PTSD. This research involved a $26.9 million dollar plan to make MDMA an FDA-approved prescription medicine by 2021. MAPS, founded by Rick Doblin, is the only organization funding clinical trials of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for PTSD, social anxiety in autistic adults, and anxiety associated with life-threatening illnesses.
Unlike commonly prescribed medications, psychiatrists only have to administer MDMA a few times during psychotherapy sessions to achieve long-lasting and positive results. MDMA is effective in treatment because it helps the individual feel more comfortable, safe, and communicative while remaining emotionally engaged through the processing of their trauma. Current drugs prescribed for a condition like PTSD only manage the symptoms. Whereas MDMA appears to aide the patient in dealing with the root of the problem. Therefore, MDMA is a possible permanent solution.
How long does MDMA stay in your system?
MDMA’s half-life is between six to seven hours. It is detectable in urine for 2-4 days after consumption due to the metabolites it produces.
How long does MDMA take to kick in?
When ingested orally, it takes about 30 minutes for the effects to begin. When taken intranasally, effects begin after about 15 minutes.
How long does MDMA last?
The effects last for 3-5 hours.
How is MDMA made?
It is made synthetically from one of four common precursors, safrole, isosafrole, piperonal, and 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl-2-propanone (PMK). One of these precursors is typically synthesized into MDP2P, or 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl-2-propanone, then through reductive amination synthesized into MDMA
What does MDMA do in my body?
As a presynaptic releasing agent, it induces the release of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine from the presynaptic neuron into the synapse.
How to test MDMA?
As a recommendation, use a Marquis test, Simon test, and Froehde test to ensure the purity of your MDMA.
What does MDMA look like?
MDMA is typically a white powder or crystal, or pressed into a tablet. The powder can also be a tan color due to residual chemicals in a laboratory.
Where is MDMA legal?
In Peru, it is legal to possess up to 250mg, as long as it’s the only drug on you. Although possession is illegal in the Netherlands, authorities tend to overlook the possession of small amounts.
What is MDMA poisoning?
MDMA poisoning is an overdose which typically results in extreme hyponatremia, or cardiovascular arrest.
What is in MDMA?
MDMA is the chemical 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine. In pill form, lactose is often used as a binding agent.
How does MDMA show up in my body?
MDMA is detectable 1-5 days after use. This time period depends on the amount taken, your metabolism, and other factors. If an individual has taken MDMA they will test positive for both amphetamines and methamphetamines. It will show up in a hair drug test for about 90 days.
Does MDMA degrade?
MDMA is a phenethylamine. In general, phenethylamines are quite stable molecules, and will stay stable for years or even decades. MAPS has a supply of MDMA for research manufactured by Dr. David Nichols and stored in Purdue University. In 1994, Dr. Nichols tested this supply eight years after originally synthesized, and it showed no signs of deterioration.List of site sources >>>