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Baylen jangi, 1808 yil 19 -iyul

Baylen jangi, 1808 yil 19 -iyul

Baylen jangi, 1808 yil 19 -iyul

Baylen jangi (1808 yil 19 -iyul) yarim orol urushining boshida Ispaniyaning hal qiluvchi g'alabasi bo'lib, u Ispaniya qarshiligini ham, Evropadagi Napoleon dushmanlarini ham rag'batlantirdi. 1808 yil yozining boshiga kelib, Ispaniyaning katta hududlari frantsuzlar istilosiga qarshi isyon ko'tarishdi, lekin Napoleon qo'zg'olonlarning kuchi to'g'risida noto'g'ri ma'lumotga ega edi. U kichik mahalliy qo'zg'olonlarga duch kelganiga ishonib, tartibni tiklash uchun Madriddan bir nechta kichik uchuvchi ustunlarni yuborishni buyurdi. Bu ustunlardan biri, general Dyupont qo'mondonligi ostidagi 13000 kishi, Alkoleani egallash buyrug'i bilan Andalusiyaga yuborilgan.

7 iyun kuni Alcoleada g'alaba qozonganidan so'ng, Dupont qo'shinlari Kordovani ishdan bo'shatdilar. Biroq, frantsuzlar Kordovada qolishga kuchlari yo'q edi va Dupont tez orada sharqqa chekinishga majbur bo'ldi. Iyun oyi oxirida Dupont general Vedel boshchiligidagi 6000 piyoda va 600 otliqlar bilan kuchaytirildi, bu uning umumiy kuchini 20000 kishiga etkazdi. Keyin frantsuz kuchlari harakatsiz bo'lib, Andujar va Baylen o'rtasida tarqaldi.

Qo'zg'olon Napoleon aytganidan ham jiddiyroq edi. Tez orada ispanlarning general Fransisko de Kastanos qo'mondonligi ostida Dupontga qaragan 30 ming odami bor edi. Hech bir qo'mondon jangning dastlabki bosqichlarida o'z kuchlarini yaxshi boshqarolmagan. Dupont, daryo shimolidagi Vedelni tark etganda, 13000 askari bilan Andujardan Mengibargacha bo'lgan Guadalquivir daryosining uzoq qismini himoya qilishga qaror qildi. Kastanos frantsuzlar Andujarda to'plangan deb hisoblab, qo'shinini uch qismga ajratdi. U o'sha joyga 12000 odamni boshqarishi kerak edi, General Reding boshchiligidagi 10 ming kishi Mengibarga, yana 8000 kishi Mengibar va Andujar o'rtasida, Villaneuvaga hujum qilishdi. Kastanos uning markaziy va o'ng qanotlari daryodan osongina o'tib ketishini va qanotda frantsuzlarga tegishini kutdi.

Ispaniya hujumi 14 iyulda daryoning janubida frantsuz piketlari bilan bir qator janjallardan boshlandi. Birinchi jiddiy hujum 15 -iyulda amalga oshirildi va frantsuzlar uni qaytarishdi. Dyupont endi Ispaniya armiyasi bo'linib ketganini bildi, lekin uni batafsil mag'lub etish imkoniyatidan foydalana olmadi. Buning o'rniga u butun chiziq bo'ylab himoyada qoldi. Uning yagona asosiy qarori Vedelga ba'zi odamlarini g'arbdan Andujarga ko'chirishni buyurish edi. Vedel Mengibardagi ispan qo'shinlari sonini noto'g'ri baholadi va Dupontni qo'llab -quvvatlash uchun o'z odamlarining ikkita batalonidan boshqasini g'arbga ko'chirdi.

Natijada 16 -iyul kuni ispaniyaliklar muhim g'alabaga erishdilar. Ularning Andujarga qilgan hujumi unchalik natija bermagan bo'lsa -da, Mengibarga deyarli hech qanday qarshilik ko'rsatilmagan hujum daryodan o'tib, frantsuz armiyasini yarmiga qisqartirish bilan tahdid qildi. Ertasi kuni Baylendagi frantsuz qo'mondoni general Dufur ispanlarning tog'li o'tish joylarini to'sib, frantsuzlarni Madriddan uzib qo'yishiga ishonib, La Karolina tomon shimolga chekinishi bilan vaziyat yomonlashdi.

Dupont hali ham vaziyatni tiklash imkoniyatiga ega edi. Endi u qo'shinlarining katta qismini Andujarda, Kastanos boshchiligidagi kichikroq ispan kuchlari bilan to'qnash kelgan. Agar u ispan qo'mondoniga hujum qilishni tanlaganida, frantsuzlar uchta ustunga bo'linishidan foydalanib, ispanlarni batafsil yengish imkoniyatiga ega bo'lar edi. Dupont o'z armiyasini bo'linishga qaror qildi, Andujarning o'zida qoldi, Vedel Baylendagi vaziyatni tiklash uchun sharqqa yuborildi. Buning o'rniga, Baylenga etib, Dufurning shimolga ko'chib ketganini bilgach, Vedel uning ortidan ergashishga qaror qildi. Endi frantsuz armiyasi xavfli bo'linib ketdi.

18 -iyul kuni ertalab Vedel La -Karolinada, Dyupont esa Andujarda edi, ispaniyaliklar nihoyat shimolga ko'chib, Baylenni nazorat qilishdi. Ispaniyaliklar frantsuzlar Andujar atrofida to'planganiga yana bir bor amin bo'lishdi va Dyuponning kuchi shunchalik bo'linib ketganidan bexabar edilar.

18 -iyul kuni Dupont nihoyat Andujardan chiqib, sharqqa ko'chishga qaror qildi. Ammo u Kordovada qo'lga olingan o'ljani tashlab ketishni xohlamadi, shuning uchun kunning ko'p qismini vagonlarni yuklash va ko'chishga tayyorgarlik ko'rish bilan o'tkazdi. Nihoyat, 18 iyul kuni kechqurun asosiy frantsuz kuchlari Andujardan chiqib, Baylenga yo'l olishdi. Bu kechikish ispanlarga Baylenda o'z pozitsiyalarini mustahkamlashga imkon berdi va frantsuzlarga qimmatga tushdi.

Yakuniy jang 19 -iyul kuni frantsuz himoyachisi Ispaniya pozitsiyasiga hujum qilganida boshlandi. General Chabert, bu qo'riqchi qo'mondoni, atigi 3000 kishi, ispaniyaliklar esa Baylenni himoya qiladigan safda 14000 kishi bor edi. Bu frantsuzlarning birinchi hujumi tez orada yo'q qilindi. Keyin Dyupont Baylenga etib keldi va jangni shaxsiy qo'mondonligiga oldi. General Kastanos hali ham uning orqasida ekanligini bilgan Dyupont o'z qo'shinlarini hujumga tashladi va ispaniyaliklar har bir hujumni engishga muvaffaq bo'lishdi. Dupontning birinchi ikkita hujumi muvaffaqiyatsiz tugadi va tushdan keyin Castanos frantsuz orqa tomoniga tahdid qila boshladi. Dupont oxirgi muvaffaqiyatsiz urinishni amalga oshirdi, u muvaffaqiyatga yaqinlashdi, lekin muvaffaqiyatsizlikka uchradi, chunki Dyuponda birinchi muvaffaqiyatdan foydalanish uchun zaxira yo'q edi.

Armiyasi parchalana boshlagach, Dyupon shartnoma tuzishni talab qildi. Uning butun 20000 kishilik qo'shini ispan asirligiga ketdi. Muzokaralar uzaytirildi va taslim bo'lish 23 iyulga qadar amalga oshmadi. Ulardan 17 635 nafari shikastlanmagan deb topilgan. Baylendagi mag'lubiyat keng tarqalgan oqibatlarga olib keldi. Napoleon shaxsan ishtirok etmagan bo'lsa -da, uning qo'shinlarining obro'siga putur yetdi. Dyupont sharmanda bo'lib, unvonini yo'qotdi va ikki yil qamoqda o'tirdi. Napoleon Ispaniyaga shaxsan aralashishga majbur bo'ldi, yarim oroldagi frantsuz pozitsiyasini vaqtincha tikladi, lekin Ispaniyani osonlik bilan bosib olish umidlari Baylenda tugadi.

Napoleon bosh sahifasi | Napoleon urushlari haqida kitoblar | Mavzu indeksi: Napoleon urushlari


Baylen jangi, 1808 yil 19 -iyul - Tarix

Napoleonning 1808 yil may oyida Ispaniyani bo'ysundirish rejasi doirasida Dupont 13000 askar bilan Andaluk va 237a -ga C & 243rdoba va Sevilani olib ketish uchun yuborildi. Dyupont kuchida oz sonli faxriy askarlar bor edi va bu vazifani bajarish uchun etarli emas edi. Ummonning ta'kidlashicha, bu muhim harbiy ekspeditsiyaga 13 ming askarni yuborish birinchi navbatdagi harbiy jinoyat edi.

15 iyun kuni Dupont And ú ga etib, Andaluk va#237a isyon holatini topdi. Sevilya tomon yurgan uning qo'shinlari C órdoba shahrini deyarli hech qanday qarshiliksiz egallab olishganiga qaramay vayron qilishdi. Bu vaqtga kelib, ispan qo'zg'olonchilari Despe va#241aperros dovonida Madridga qaytariladigan frantsuz liniyasini qisqartirishga muvaffaq bo'lishdi, bu esa Dupontni darhol And újarga qaytarib olishni buyurdi. U bir oy davomida u erda deyarli harakatsiz qoldi, bu vaqtda ispan generali Casta va#241os Andalukda 34000 kishilik armiyani yig'ish uchun yaxshi foydalangan.

Dupont And újarga qaytganidan bir hafta o'tgach, Vedel boshchiligidagi 6000 kishilik frantsuz qo'shini La Karolinaga bostirib kirdi. Casta ños tahdidini hisobga olgan holda, Dupont ehtiyotkorlik bilan Bail én ga chekinishi mumkin edi, bu esa Vedelni Despe ñaperros dovonini ochib qo'yishga majbur qildi. Buning o'rniga u Guadalquivir daryosi chizig'ini And & 250jardan Mengibargacha ushlab turishga urinishning noto'g'ri variantini tanladi va Vedelni Bail én ga yuborishni buyurdi. 7 -iyulga kelib, Dyupont Gobert qo'mondonligi ostida 5 mingga yaqin qo'shinlar tomonidan kuchaytirildi.

Hujum qilish tashabbusi bilan Casta ños 15 -iyulda And újar oldida Jones va La Pe ña qo'mondonligi ostida ikkita bo'linmani joylashtirdi, Coupigny va Reding boshchiligidagi diviziyalar Villanueva va Mengibar daryolarini kesib o'tdi. Casta ños va Reding tomonidan berilgan nisbatan tahdidlar to'g'risida noto'g'ri xulosa chiqargan holda, Vedel o'z bo'linmasining asosiy qismini g'arbga And & 250jar tomon yo'naltirdi. 16 iyul kuni ertalab Reding Mengibar yaqinidagi daryodan oqib o'tdi va Gobert boshchiligidagi 4000 kishilik kuchni mag'lub etdi, ularning qoldiqlari avval Bail én, keyin La Karolinaga tushdi.

Gobertning mag'lubiyati haqidagi xabar Dupontni kuchlarini bo'linishga undadi va Vedelni "Bail én" ga yuborib, Redingni Guadalquivir bo'ylab qaytarishga majbur qildi. Qo`shinlarsiz garov topgan Vedel xato qilib, Reding Despe ñaperros dovonini egallab olish uchun shaharni chetlab o`tdi va 18 iyul ertalab La Karolinada Gobert kuchidan qolgan narsaga qo`shildi. . Reding, aslida, Mengibar yaqinida qoldi va Coupigny bilan kuchlarni birlashtirgandan keyingina Bail én ga o'tdi. 18 iyul kuni kechqurun Dupont And újarni tark etganida, 14000 ispan qo'shini Bail g'arbidagi tepaliklarni egallab turgan edi. (Izohga qarang.)

19 -iyul kuni erta tongda Dyubontning Chabert boshchiligidagi brigadasi Bail va#233n g'arbidagi Ispaniya postlariga duch keldi. Ispaniyaning ikkita bo'linmasi uning yo'lini to'sib qo'yganidan bexabar, Chabert 3000 askarini yo'lning janubidagi ispan pozitsiyalariga qarshi yubordi. Kupinyining bo'linishi hujumni osonlikcha qaytarib yubordi.

Casta va#241os tomonidan orqa tomondan hujum qilishdan qo'rqqan Dyupont, ko'p askarlari hali jang maydoniga etib kelmaganiga qaramay, yangi hujumga buyruq berdi. Frantsiyaning o'ng tomonida, Priv é ning og'ir otliq brigadasi ikkita ispan batalyonidan o'tib, piyoda askarlari yordamisiz chekinishga majbur bo'lishdi. Otliqlarning chap tomonida Chabert brigadasi yana qaytarildi. Yo'lning shimolida, Shramm brigadasining 2000 ta shveytsariyalik yollanma askari Reding bo'linmasi tomonidan orqaga tashlandi.

3500 piyoda askarlardan iborat Pannetier brigadasi frantsuz chizig'ining chap tomonini tashkil qildi. Ertalab soat 8 da hujum yana boshlandi, ammo natijasi bo'lmadi. Charchashga yaqin frantsuz o'ng tarafidagi qo'shinlar Kopinyining pozitsiyalariga unchalik taassurot qoldirmasligi mumkin edi. Chapda, Pannetierning brigadasi, Reding o'zining oxirgi zaxirasini olib kelgani uchun, orqaga qaytishga majbur bo'ldi.

Chapda: sharqqa, Reding bo'linmasi tutgan tepaliklarga qarab.

12.30 da Dupont, nihoyat, o'z qo'lidagi barcha qo'shinlarni yig'ib, Ispaniya chizig'ining markaziga oxirgi, umidsiz hujumni uyushtirdi. Hujumga boshchilik qilgan gvardiya faxriy dengiz piyodalari deyarli Ispaniya artilleriya chizig'iga qadar kurashda yo'q qilindi. Dupontning o'zi yarador bo'lib, butun hujum parchalanib ketgach, orqa tomon otlandi. Shu bilan birga, Shramm brigadasidagi Shveytsariya batalyonlaridan omon qolgan qo'shinlar ispanlarga qochib ketishdi. Charchagan, suvsiz qolgan frantsuz qo'shinlari zaytun bog'larida boshpana izlayotganda, La Pe ña bo'linmasi ularning orqasida yopildi. Armiyasi qirg'inga duchor bo'lganida, Dyupont soat 14.00da o't o'chirishni talab qildi. Vedel, nihoyat, La Karolinadan qaytgach, Redingning Bail én sharqidagi pozitsiyalariga soat 17:00 atrofida hujum qila boshladi, lekin Dyupontdan buyurtmalar qabul qilishni to'xtatdi. Jang tugadi.

Uzoq davom etgan muzokaralardan so'ng, Dupont o'z odamlarini Frantsiyaga qaytarish sharti bilan taslim bo'ldi. 23-24 iyul kunlari 17,600 frantsuz askari qurol-yarog'ini tashlab, yana 2000 ga yaqinini jang maydonida o'ldirdi yoki yaraladi. Ispaniya qurbonlari soni 1000 dan kam.

Sharmandalik bilan, ispaniyaliklar Frantsiyaga taslim bo'lgan qo'shinlarni qaytarish haqidagi kelishuvdan voz kechishdi. Dupont katta ofitserlari bilan birga qo'yib yuborilgan bo'lsa -da, uning odamlari Malorkaning janubidagi kimsasiz Isla de Kabrera dahshatlariga yuborilgan, ularning yarmidan kamrog'i tirik qolgan.

"Bail én" dagi jang maydonini topish oson emas va kashf qilish mumkin emas. C órdobadan NIV-E5da sayohat qilib, 299 km chorrahadan chiqing (Bail én) va darhol El Burguilloga belgilangan kichik yo'lda ikki marta orqaga qayting. Avtomobil yo'lini kesib o'ting va aylanma yo'lda shimol tomon kichik yo'lni kesib o'ting, keyin o'ng vilkani oling (ko'rsatilmagan). Yo'l Reding bo'linmasi tutgan tepaliklar qatoriga parallel ravishda o'tadi. Eng yaxshi nuqta, ehtimol, vilkadan 1 km uzoqlikdagi tepalikdan qisqa. 1 km dan kam bo'lmagan tuproqli yo'l (balandligi baland) va Bail éngacha.

& quot; Yarim orol urushi tarixi, I jild & quot; Sir Charlz Ummon, Greenhill Books 1995, ISBN 1853672149.

Bu hisob Ummonning jang haqidagi ta'rifiga asoslangan. Yaqinda Bail én dagi Ispaniya armiyasi asosan shaharga yaqinroq pastki qismga joylashtirildi (masalan, Charlz Esdailning 2002 yilda nashr etilgan "Peninsular urushi" ga qarang). Boshqa hisoblar yoki jang xaritalari haqida eshitishni juda xohlardim.


La Maddalena, 22/25 fevral 1793. Yosh podpolkovnik, Ajacciodan Napoleone Di Buonapart uchun olovda suvga cho'mish.

Rossiyaning inqilobiy urushlarga qo'shilishining umumiy ko'rinishi.

Devis, Piter
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XVIII asrning kuzidagi siklonning ko'zlari: baxtsiz Helvetik respublikasi (1798-1803)
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Haqiqatan ham Marengoda nima bo'ldi. . .

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1805 yil rus va#8211 Fors urushi

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Auerstadt va Yena

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Elau jangi
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Unutilgan buzilish: Denxolmen oroli, Shved Pomeraniyasi, 1807 yil avgust
Qanday qilib Stralsund portini qo'riqlayotgan kichik Denxolmen oroli Shvetsiya armiyasining forpostiga aylandi.

Yarim oroldagi Vellington va#8217 armiyasidagi ingliz polklarining kelishi va ketishiga qarash.

Milliy arxivda olib borilgan tadqiqotlar asosida

Portugal armiyasi qatnashgan janglar, qamallar va janglar.

Madridda yashovchi ispan rassomining rasmlari.

Frilund, G.
1808-1809 yillardagi rus-shved urushi
1807 yilda Aleksandr va Napoleon Evropani bo'linib, Tilsit shartnomasini imzoladilar. Ruslarga o'sha paytda Frantsiya bilan urushayotgan Shvetsiya bilan erkin qo'llar va'da qilingan. Podshoh darhol rus-shved chegarasida bosqinchilik kuchlarini to'plashni boshladi
Frilund, G.
Ittifoqning oxirgi urushi: 1808-09 yillardagi rus-shved urushi
Shvetsiyaga urush e'lon qilmasdan, rus qo'shinlari 1808 yil 21 fevralda Finlyandiya chegarasini kesib o'tishdi. O'sha kuni, yakshanba kuni, chegarada joylashtirilgan Nyland Dragoons shved mayori Gustav Arnikhl hisobotga imzo chekdi. brigada qo'mondoni. “ …buki, ruslar bugun soat 5 da, katta kuch bilan chegarani kesib o'tishdi … ” Ittifoqning oxirgi urushi boshlandi.

Vellingtonning yarimorol urushidagi birinchi jangini batafsil ko'rib chiqish.

1808 yildagi Baylenning kapitulyatsiyasi va 1812 yildagi Imperatorlik tergoviga oid hujjatlarga yangicha qarash.

Buyuk Britaniyaning Ispaniyaning sharqiy qirg'og'idagi operatsiyasi.

Mahon, Tim (tarjimon)
Xotiralar kapitan de frégate Per Baste

Eslatma: Ushbu maqola faxriy yorliq bilan taqdirlandi Eng yaxshi nashr va/yoki ingliz tiliga yangi arxiv materiallari yoki bosmadan chiqqan kitoblarning tarjimasi 2006 yildagi Napoleon yozish tanlovining toifasi!

Guvohlar frantsuzlarning Ispaniyaga bostirib kirishining dastlabki kunlari, shu jumladan Baylenning batafsil tavsifi.

Iberiya yarim oroliga yuborilgan ingliz ekspeditsion kuchlari u erda birinchi yilida o'z tashkilotida ko'plab o'zgarishlarga duch keldi. Ron MakGuygan jang tartibidagi barcha o'zgarishlarni kuzatib boradigan ajoyib ish qildi!

Napoleon urushlari paytida O'rta er dengizidagi frantsuz orollariga ingliz qo'shinlari tomonidan ko'plab reydlar va hujumlar bo'lgan. Frantsuz tilida yozilgan bu asar Kapriga qilingan hujum haqida batafsil ma'lumot beradi va unda jangovar buyruqlar va ishtirokchilar kiyimining ko'p sonli oq-qora rasmlari keltirilgan.

Baylen jangi haqida guvoh.

1808 yildagi ispan xalq qo'zg'olonining ba'zi omillarini ko'rib chiqing.

Xaritalar yoki xaritalarning yo'qligi yarim orol urushidagi kampaniyalar natijalariga qanday ta'sir qildi.

Ispaniyaliklar Beylda qo'lga kiritgan kuboklarga nima bo'ldi.

Saragosa qamalidagi frantsuz birliklari va formalari.

1808 yilda Finlyandiyada to'rtta harakat.

Shvetsiyaning Norvegiyaga bostirib kirishiga bir nazar.

Bamford, Endryu
Vujudga kelgan otryadlar korpusi, 1809

Walcheren ekspeditsiyasi paytida ingliz armiyasining ozgina ma'lum bo'linmasi.

Bamford, Endryu
Guadiana isitmasi epidemiyasi

1809 yilda Britaniya armiyasini vayron qilgan epidemiya.

Bernham, Robert
1809 yildagi Britaniya otryadlari batalyonlari
Oporto va Talavera janglari paytida ingliz taniqli bo'lmagan ikkita bo'linmaning rolini o'rganadi
Bernem, Robert
Angliyaning Uolcherenga ekspeditsion kuchlari: 1809 yil
1809 yilda past mamlakatlarga bostirib kirgan Britaniya kuchlarining tashkiloti.
Centeno, Joau
Portugal armiyasining harakatlari: 1809

Portugal armiyasi qatnashgan janglar, qamallar va janglar.

Madridda yashovchi ispan rassomining rasmlari.

Birinchi marta 1832 yilda nashr etilgan ushbu maqola Dunayni ikkita alohida operatsiyada qanday ko'prik qilish haqida texnik tafsilotlarni beradi.

Ispancha maqolaning tarjimasi.

1809 yilgi ozgina jang.

1809 yilda Iberiya yarim orolida xizmat qilgan ko'plab ingliz general -ofitserlari bor edi. Ularning ba'zilari mahalliy, boshqalari esa doimiy unvonga ega edi. Ron MakGuygan hammasini saralashda zo'r ish qiladi!

Ispaniyaning Talavera jangidagi roli.

Polk darajasiga qadar keng qamrovli jang tartibi.

Shvetsiyada 1809 yilgi kampaniya (frantsuz tilida)

Skattolin, Roberto

Jang Italiya qirollik gvardiyasida komissar ofitseri ko'zlari bilan ko'rilgan.

Napoleon va uning qo'shinlarini rag'batlantirish usullari oqlanganmi?

Italiyada 1809 yilgi kampaniyaning unutilgan qahramoniga qarash.

Italiyada ma'lum bo'lgan harakat.

Italiyaning shimolidagi shafqatsiz jang.

Kichik nemis davlatlari va Gollandiya Qirolligi tomonidan Napoleonning Ispaniyaga bostirib kirishini qo'llab -quvvatlash uchun qanday qo'shinlar yuborilganiga qarang.

1809 yildagi Uolcherenga Britaniya ekspeditsiyasi haqida umumiy ma'lumot. (Frantsuz tilida)

Vyber, Ferdi Irmfrid
Raab jangidagi Kismegerning qizi

1809 yildagi Fransiya-Avstriya urushining unutilgan qahramoni

Kadisning himoyasini batafsil tekshirish.

Bou, Gill
Battin: 1810 yil 7 sentyabrda Austerlitz rus tilida
Rus-turk urushi tugagan jangga nazar. (Frantsuz tilida)
Bernem, Robert
General Robert Kraufurd general -Vellingtonga maktub yozib, Coa daryosida o'tkazilgan harakatlar natijalarini xabar qildi.
Koa daryosi, Ispaniya, 24 iyul 1810. Britaniya armiyasining mashhur yorug'lik bo'linmasi Marshal Ney boshchiligidagi frantsuz qo'shinlarining kutilmagan hujumi natijasida deyarli yo'q qilindi.
Centeno, Joau
Portugal armiyasining harakatlari: 1810 yil

Portugal armiyasi qatnashgan janglar, qamallar va janglar.

Qanday qilib marshal MakDonald o'z armiyasiga intizom o'rnatishga va isyonchilar tomonidan keraksiz o'limning oldini olishga harakat qildi.

Ushbu maqolada 1810 yildagi Usmonli imperiyasiga qarshi Rossiyaning kampaniyasi va bu mintaqada ruslarning aralashuviga qanday zamin yaratganligi ko'rib chiqiladi.

Kichik polshalik otryad inglizlarning ancha katta kuchlarini mag'lub etgan Fuengirola jangi haqida hikoya.

Marshal Stockpot haqidagi hikoya!

Tompson, Mark S.
Torres Vedras chiziqlari-1809-14

Portugaliyaning Lissabon shahri tashqarisidagi mashhur mudofaa chiziqlarining umumiy ko'rinishi.

Portugal armiyasi qatnashgan janglar, qamallar va janglar.

Shahar ichidagi oddiy fuqaro Badajozni qamal qilgani haqida kamdan -kam guvohlar hikoyasi.


Dempsi, yigit (muharrir)

Albuera elektron arxivi

Jangga oid asosiy manba.

Graves, Donald E.

Marshal Soult ’s harakatdan keyingi hisobot

General-mayor Styuartning harakatdan keyingi hisoboti

Kichik ofitser jangdan ko'p o'tmay yozgan maktub.

Jang, shaxsiy nuqtai nazardan ko'rinib turibdiki.

Jang, ispan nuqtai nazaridan.

Albuera jangida jangchilar yo'qotgan ranglarga nazar.

Portugaliyadagi frantsuz armiyasidagi cho'l. . .

Vellington 1811 yil 5 -mayda Fuentes -de -Onorodagi mavqei qanchalik zaif edi?

Yarim orolidagi urush paytida ozgina ma'lum, ammo shafqatsiz otliq jang.

Portugal armiyasi qatnashgan janglar, qamallar va janglar.

Napoleon Rossiyaga bostirib kirish uchun otliqlarini kengaytirish uchun otlarni qanday topdi.

1812 yilgi kampaniyadagi 124 -polkning yuqori batafsil xaritalari

Dominik Kontant, Robert Ovarr va Jonatan Kuper
Marshal Suchet va Valensiyani qamal qilish

Ushbu maqola 2003 yildagi Napoleon yozish tanlovida "Eng yaxshi harbiy maqola: faxriy yorliq" va#8221 mukofotiga sazovor bo'ldi!

Frantsuzlar Valensiyada taslim bo'lgan ispanlarga qanday munosabatda bo'lishganiga qarang.

Badajoz qamalidagi kanadalik ofitserning hikoyasi

1812 yilgi kampaniyada daryolarning Frantsiya armiyasiga ta'siri.

Rossiya kampaniyasi paytida shimolda nima bo'lganini chuqur o'rganish.

Napoleonning Rossiyaga bostirib kirishiga sabab bo'lgan muqobil nuqtai nazar.

Qabul qilingan kuch ko'rsatkichlari qanchalik to'g'ri ekanligiga qarang.

Shimoliy Amerikada xizmat qilayotgan Britaniya polklarining ro'yxati

1812 yilgi kampaniyaning dastlabki kunlarida Rossiya oliy qo'mondonligining ichki bo'linmalari to'g'risida asosiy maqola.

Urush haqidagi buyruqlar, dastlabki manbali hujjatlar va jang haqidagi maqolalar.

Ushbu maqola 2005 yildagi Napoleon yozish tanlovida "Eng yaxshi harbiy qog'oz" nominatsiyasida faxriy yorliqqa sazovor bo'ldi!

Olti yillik jangda inglizlar qo'lga kiritgan narsalar.

Qarang, Badajoz ishdan bo'shatilgan paytda ingliz talonchilari tomonidan qancha fuqarolar o'ldirilgan yoki yaralangan

Borodinodagi frantsuz piyoda askarlari va ularni boshqargan ofitserlarga qarash.

Yarim orolidagi urushning muhim jangida Angliya-ittifoqchi artilleriya jangining ordeni.

Xanau jangi haqida hikoya. Maqola faqat frantsuz tilida mavjud.

Portugal armiyasi qatnashgan janglar, qamallar va janglar.

1813 yilda Gollandiyadagi kazaklarning zamonaviy nashrlari!

Ittifoqchi birliklarning batafsil ro'yxati.

Butun Ittifoq kuchlarini qamrab oladigan katta jang tartibi!

Barcha frantsuzlar va ularning ittifoqchilarini qamrab oladigan katta jang tartibi!

Gollandiyalik savdogar Gollandiyada kazaklar bilan uchrashdi.

Gollandiyaga ko'chib o'tadigan inglizlar o'z kuchlarini qanday yig'dilar. . .

Ittifoqchilarni qo'llab -quvvatlash uchun Britaniya ekspeditsiyasi Frantsiyaga qarshi harakat qildi.

1814 yildagi oz ma'lum bo'lgan otliqlar harakatiga qarash. Frantsuz tilida.

Portugal armiyasi qatnashgan janglar, qamallar va janglar.

Davom etayotgan munozaralardan biri shundaki, nima uchun frantsuz xalqi 1814 yilda Napoleonni qo'llab-quvvatlagan va keyin uni 1815 yilda kutib olgan. Frantsuz fuqarolari o'z shaharlari Nogent-sur-Senni rus kazaklari tomonidan bosib olingani haqida uchta zamonaviy guvohlik yozgan. Fevral 1814. Ular guvohlarning so'zlarini eng yaxshisimi yoki bu targ'ibotmi?

Norvegiyaliklar Shvetsiya bilan ittifoqni qabul qilish o'rniga, mustaqillik uchun kurashdilar.

Greg Gorsuch tomonidan tarjima qilingan

Moris Vayl Frantsiyaning sharqida 1814 yildagi kampaniyaning mashhur tadqiqotidir.

Teatrdan qaytish nusxalari har oyning 25 -kunida topshiriladi.

Vellington va#8217s shtab -kvartirasida ispan aloqa xodimi tomonidan e'lon qilingan jang hisobi Madrid gazetasi 1815 yil 13 -iyulda.

Nashrda e'lon qilinganidek London gazetasi.

Nashrda e'lon qilinganidek London gazetasi.

Nashrda e'lon qilinganidek London gazetasi.

Urush o'yinida ishlatilgan tarixiy xaritalarga qarang.

Buyuk frantsuz zobitlari tomonidan "Waterloo Kampaniyasi" ning ochilish kunlari yozilgan asl buyruq va hisobotlar, asosan, 1815 yil 16 -iyundan.

Ittifoqchi chiziqlarning g'arbiy uchi oldida joylashgan devorli devorli Xugumont fermasining ahamiyatini Vellington o'z mudofaasiga tayinlagan elita qo'shinlari ta'kidlagan.

Marshal Neyning Quatre Brasdagi chiqishlarini qayta ko'rib chiqish.

Uning xotiralari qanchalik to'g'ri?

Gollandiyalik ikki askarning janglari va Gollandiyaning imperator gvardiyasini mag'lub etishdagi roli haqida kamdan -kam qayd etilgan.

Bu Napoleon va#8217sning oxirgi kampaniyasi hikoyasi bo'lib, u Vaterloodagi so'nggi mag'lubiyati bilan yakunlandi.

Ittifoqchilar uchun aniq jang tartibi !! Birliklar va qo'mondonlar batalon va batareya darajasiga qadar ro'yxatga olingan.

XIX asrda noma'lum frantsuz generalining qo'lga olinishi haqidagi hikoya.

Frantsuz otliqlarining katta zarbasi. . .

D ’Erlon 16 iyunda fiyasko uchun javobgar bo'lganmi?

Vaterlou uchun aniq jang tartibi!

Wavre uchun aniq jang tartibi!

Vaterlouning ozgina o'rganilgan qismi.

Ney ’s Vaterlouning nuqtai nazari.

Braun, Stiv
Ranglarni baland ko'taring!

1794 yildan 1815 yilgacha bo'lgan kichik janglar haqidagi maqolalar turkumi. Bu maqolalar jangovar o'yinlar uchun batafsil jang buyruqlarini qidiruvchilar uchun idealdir.


Napoleon Portugaliyani bosib olgandan bir necha oy o'tgach, Ispaniyani bosib olish va nazorat qilishni o'z zimmasiga oldi. U juda ko'p qarshiliklarga duch keldi, lekin u samarali bo'lgan taqdirda ham tartibsiz edi. Iyul oyining oxiriga kelib, ispaniyaliklar frantsuzlar bilan o'nlab marta uchrashgan, bu uchrashuvlarning ettitasida g'alaba qozongan yoki hech bo'lmaganda mag'lub bo'lmagan. Ularning eng ajoyib g'alabasi Ispaniyaning janubida, 1808 yil 23 -iyulda, general Kastanos general Dyupon boshchiligidagi 18000 frantsuzni Baylenga taslim bo'lishga majburlaganida bo'lgan. 1808 yil 30 -iyulda frantsuz diviziyasi generali Lui Anri Lison Evoradagi erkaklarni, ayollarni va bolalarni qirdi. Bu voqealarning ikkalasi ham har bir millatning Britaniya qo'shinlari bilan munosabatlarining kelajagiga ta'sir ko'rsatishi kerak edi.

Xuddi shu kuni Vellesliga urush vaziri Viskont Kastlereagdan xat keldi. Uellesliga general Jan-Andoche Junotning qo'shinlari soni 25 mingdan oshgani haqida xabar berdi. Castlereag Portugaliyadagi ingliz qo'shinlarini yana 15000 kishiga ko'paytirish rejasini ilgari surdi. General Sir John Moore was to arrive with an army from Sweden, and another force would be forwarded from Gibraltar. The command of this larger force would pass to Sir Hew Dalrymple (the Governor of Gibraltar, a 60-year-old general who had seen active service only in a failed campaign in Flanders in 1793–1794). Dalrymple would be seconded by Sir Harry Burrard, attended by five other generals, all senior to Wellesley (Dalrymple, Burrard, Moore, Hope, Fraser, and Lord Paget). The ambitious General Wellesley hoped to make something happen during the time he still commanded the army in Portugal. [5]

On 30 July 1808, General Wellesley remet Admiral Cotton's convoy with Wellesley's troops at Mondego bay. Wellesley chose this as his landing point because students from Coimbra University had seized the fort making this a safer landing than any place nearer Lisbon. The disembarking of Wellesley's original 9,000 troops and supplies with the 5,000 they met off Portugal lasted from 1–8 August. Some landing craft capsized in the rough surf making the first British casualties in the Peninsula victims of drowning. [5]

The army marched off on the 10th on the hot and sandy 12 miles (19 km) march to Leiria. Wellesley arrived on the 11th and soon argued with General Bernardim Freire de Andrade, the commander of 6,000 Portuguese troops, about supplies and the best route to Lisbon. The result had Wellesley taking his preferred route, close to the sea and his supplies, with 1,700 of the Portuguese under the command of Colonel Nicholas Trant, a British officer in service with the Portuguese Army. [5]

The army then began its march toward Lisbon following a force of the French army. The French were under the command of General Henri François, Comte Delaborde. These troops had been sent by Junot to harass and hold the British while he brought his larger army into position to oppose the Anglo-Portuguese forces. [5]

By 14 August the British reached Alcobaça and moved on to Óbidos. Here the British vanguard, consisting of riflemen from 5th/60th and 95th Rifles, met pickets and the rearguard of the French forces. The 4,000 French were outnumbered approximately four to one. [5]

British Edit

The Anglo-Portuguese were formed in six brigades under Major General Rowland Hill, Major General Ronald Craufurd Fergusson, Brigadier General Miles Nightingall, Brigadier General Barnard Foord Bowes, Brigadier General Catlin Craufurd, and Brigadier General Henry Fane with the Portuguese under Trant. Trant with the Portuguese and 50 cavalry formed the right and were to turn the French left. Fergusson and Bowes with three companies of riflemen and some light artillery were to force the French right and hold against the possible arrival of French troops under Loison. Hill, Nightingall, Craufurd, Fane with the remaining Portuguese, and the rest of the guns and cavalry were to push the centre. British forces involved in the battle included: [6] [7]

  • Artilleriya, commanded by Colonel Robe [8]
    • 6 Artillery Guns detached to Left division
    • 12 Artillery Guns detached to Centre Division
    • Ferguson's Brigade – 36th (Herefordshire) Regiment of Foot, 1/40th (the 2nd Somersetshire) Regiment of Foot, and 1/71st (Highland) Regiment of Foot
    • Bowes Brigade – 1/6th (1st Warwickshire) Regiment of Foot and 1/32nd (Cornwall) Regiment of Foot
      (detachment), 6th (Bragança) Portuguese Cavalry, 12th (Miranda) Portuguese Cavalry, and 6th (Oporto) Portuguese Caçadores (in reserve) – Brigade taken from Portuguese 3rd (Northern) Division [9]
  • Fane's Brigade – 5/60th (Royal American) Regiment and 2/95th Rifles (on the left)
  • Nightingale's Brigade – 29th (Worcestershire) Regiment of Foot and 82nd Regiment of Foot (Prince of Wales's Volunteers) (in the centre)
  • Hill's Brigade – 5th Regiment of Foot (Northumberland Fusiliers), 9th (East Norfolk) Regiment of Foot, and 38th (1st Staffordshire) Regiment of Foot (on the right)
  • Caitlin Craufurd's Brigade – 45th (Nottinghamshire) (Sherwood Foresters) Regiment of Foot, 50th (Queen's Own) Regiment of Foot, and 91st (Argyllshire Highlanders) Regiment of Foot (in reserve)
    • (detachment), 11th (Almeida) Portuguese Cavalry Regiment (50 men, from 2nd (Central) Division), 12th (Chaves) Portuguese Infantry Regiment, 21st (Valenca) Portuguese Infantry Regiment, and 24th (Braganca) Portuguese Infantry Regiment – Brigade taken from the 3rd (Northern) Division [9]

    French Edit

    The French forces under Delaborde consisted of five battalions, including one Swiss, and five guns. The small French/Swiss force included:

    • 70éme Régiment d'Infanterie de Ligne (2 Battalions)
    • 4éme Régiment Suisse d'Infanterie (1 Battalion)
    • 2éme Régiment Légère (1 Battalion)
    • 4éme Régiment Légère (1 Battalion)
    • 26éme Bataillon de Chasseurs [7]

    The village of Roliça is placed in the centre of a horseshoe shape of steep hills approximately one mile wide and two deep. The open end opens north-northeast toward Óbidos where the 5/60th and 95th had met the French the day before. The hills around Óbidos and Roliça were well wooded. [10]

    The French began the day to the north of Roliça backed up to the higher ground allowing them to block or protect the roads south toward Lisbon. On the hill about one mile to the south of the village where the French first fell back, there were four defiles, or gullies leading into the new French position. The field below these hills were grassy, but boulders and the steep sides to the gullies made attack in formation impossible. In the first stages of the battle, Delaborde pulled his troops back to the top of the hill. [10]

    Wellesley arrived at Óbidos on 16 August and moved toward Roliça on the following day. At the beginning of the battle, Delaborde occupied a position to the north-northwest of the village of Roliça. Wellesley attempted to manoeuvre his forces into a double envelopment, moving to each flank of the French position with his main force organised into 3 fighting columns of brigades. [11] This could be attempted since the Anglo-Portuguese army outnumbered the French forces present by over 3 to 1. [10]

    He sent Trant to the west, and a stronger force under Fergusson and Bowes with six guns to the east, while he distracted the French with a show of force and noise in the centre. Wellesley tried the manoeuvre twice starting at 9:00 in the morning, but the French commander spotted this in time and fell back each. At this time the French final position was to the south and east of the village at the top of a steep hill that was littered with sharp rocks and the only way up was using narrow gullies. [11]

    Colonel Lake of the 29th Regiment of Foot in the centre then made the mistake of dashing up a gully toward the French position. He arrived behind Delaborde, which cost Lake his life and most of the men in the 29th. This prompted a general attack in relief by the outnumbering British. The fight was rough and uphill with Delaborde hoping for support to arrive from Loison. He repulsed three assaults by the British until nearly 4:00 in the afternoon. At this time Wellesley ordered a general advance to support the 29th & 9th Regiments of Foot. They swarmed up the rock face using their superior numbers to reach the French positions at the top of the hill [11] and Ferguson arrived over the hills to the east.

    Delaborde began to withdraw in good order with effective aid from his cavalry until his army's discipline broke and his army ran. Without British cavalry to press the pursuit, they successfully withdrew to Montachique near Torres Vedras. [10]

    The Anglo-Portuguese won with 487 casualties, over half that number from the precipitate 29th. The French lost 700 men and three of their five guns. Delaborde himself was wounded. The following day Wellesley found that the 4,000 additional British troops had arrived from England and were off the coast. He marched his men to cover their disembarkation rather than follow Delaborde. Four days later they would be attacked again and the Battle of Vimeiro would ensue. [10]


    Battle of Baylen - Napoleonic Spanish Infantry Regiment

    Napoleon Bonaparte's seemingly invincible French army suffered their first defeat of the Napoleonic Wars at the hands of the Spanish Army at Baylen in 1808. This was arguably the zenith of the Spanish army’s achievements during the wars.

    History has not looked back favourably on the armies of Spain during the Napoleonic Wars. They suffered many defeats but also pinned down huge numbers of French troops in a vicious war that sapped the strength of innumerable French units only too glad to leave a country where they were so hated. Although the vicious Spanish guerrillas wreaked havoc upon their French foes the Spanish regulars also caused thousands of casualties on their home soil.

    Most regiments had two battalions – the first composed of half of grenadiers and half of fusiliers with one flag, the Coronela the second and third battalions were composed entirely of fusiliers carrying the distinctive Sencilla (yoki Ordenanza) white flag with red bourbon saltire. We know many gamers like to field two flags in a battalion no matter what history says so we’ve included two ensign figures per battalion. If you are more historically minded, we’ve added an extra fusilier (Shhh, don’t tell the boss…) free of charge for each of the three battalions!

    A Spanish army looks terrific on the tabletop, and though generally of poor quality, quantity has a quality of its own, and the Spanish troops improved in the war. So, ensure your units have been blessed by the priest before leading them to drive out Boney’s hated invaders from mother Spain!

    These high quality single piece miniatures are cast in our high quality Warlord Resin, ensuring a quick turnaround from assembly to tabletop battlefield. Full-colour flag sheets are also included with Sencilla/Ordenanza for the following regiments:

    • 1st Line Regiment (Rey)
    • 5th Line Regiment (Corona)
    • 18th Line Regiment (Burgos)
    • 36th Foreign Line Regiment (Irlanda)
    • 2nd Swiss Infantry Regiment (Reding Senior)
    • Ferdinando VII Volunteer Regiment

    Contains enough miniatures to make a Spanish Infantry regiment comprising three battalions. The bundle contains:


    Battle Notes

    Spanish Army
    • Commander: Castaños
    • 5 Command Cards
    • Optional 3 Tactician Cards

    5 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 1

    French Army
    • Commander: Dupont
    • 5 Command Cards
    • Optional 2 Tactician Cards
    • Move First

    4 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 4 1

    Victory
    7 Banners

    Special Rules
    The entire Rumblar River is fordable.

    The Spanish Guerrilla Action rule is in effect. The Spanish player does not start with any Guerrilla counters.

    French Swiss: Use British line infantry blocks for the units and a British leader for their leader.
    Spanish Swiss: Use Brown Portuguese line infantry blocks for the units and a Portuguese leader for their leader.
    Both Spanish and French Swiss line infantry units have 5 blocks each. All Swiss infantry units that move and engage in ranged combat battle with one-half the number of blocks rounding down. They melee with one die per block and retreat one hex per flag. When two French Swiss infantry units are eliminated, the 2 remaining French Swiss units are immediately removed from the battlefield. Their removal will not count as Victory Banners for the Spanish player.

    Historic Note:
    Swiss regiments were highly regarded mercenaries purchased from the Swiss Cantons for service in European armies. The Spanish Swiss regiments were uniformed in blue coats. Napoleon‘s Swiss regiments were uniformed in red coats. At Bailén, Castaños’ army had one Swiss regiment, the 3rd “Jung” Reding. Dupont’s French corps had 5 Swiss battalions: One Swiss battalion in French service, and four in the Spanish Swiss regiments 2nd “Alt” Reding and 6th Preux. When the French occupied Madrid, both regiments were coerced into French service. During the second French attack both of the Reding regiments came face-to-face and blazed away at each other. After the third French attack, the survivors of the 2nd and 6th Swiss regiments bolted en masse over to the Spanish lines. No longer trusted by either side, both regiments were quickly disbanded. Swiss policy about regimental deployment changed after the deadly Swiss against Swiss battle at Bailén.


    1. ↑ 1.01.1 Gates, Appendix 2, p. 481
    2. ↑ 2.02.1 Napier, p. 73
    3. ↑ 3.03.13.2 Gates, p. 55
    4. ↑ 4.04.14.2 Napier, p. 71 and Foy, p. 346 give 2,000 French casualties. These figures refer to Dupont's July 19 action against Reding total losses over the four days' battle were much higher. Napier, p. 73, estimates 5,000 French dead or wounded across the field.
    5. ↑ 5.05.15.2 "Ispaniya. Official Account of the Battle of Baylen", The Times. September 23, 1808, p. 3
    6. ↑ Glover, p. 54: "17,635 unwounded men became prisoners of the Spaniards. It was the worst disaster suffered by the French army since the turn of the century."
    7. ↑ The Peninsular War. Author: Esdaile, Charles. Publisher:Penguin Books, 2002 Edition. Work:Chapter 3, Bailén - The Summer Campaign of 1808 .ISBN 9780140273700
    8. ↑ 8.08.1 Chandler, p. 616
    9. ↑Esdaile (2003), p. 62 notes, "Spain was overjoyed, Britain exultant, France dismayed, and Napoleon outraged. It was the greatest defeat the Napoleonic empire had ever suffered, and, what is more, one inflicted by an opponent for whom the emperor had affected nothing but scorn."
    10. ↑ Chandler, p. 610
    11. ↑ 11.011.1 Glover, p. 53
    12. ↑ Foy, p. 311
    13. ↑ Chandler, p. 612
    14. ↑ Foy, p. 312
    15. ↑ 15.015.1 Glover, p. 54
    16. ↑ Chandler, p. 611 Gates, pp. 181–182
    17. ↑ Gates, p. 51
    18. ↑Esdaile 2003, p.㺿.
    19. ↑Esdaile 2003, p.㻀.
    20. ↑ "Récit du Docteur Treille" in Larchey, p. 1: Notre petite armée avait plus de bagages qu'une armée de 150,000 hommes. De simples capitaines et des civils assimilés à ce grade avaient des carrosses à quatre mules. On comptait au moins cinquante chariots par bataillon  c'étaient les dépouilles de la ville de Cordova. Nos mouvements en étaient gênés. Nous dûmes notre perte à la cupidité des chefs.
    21. ↑ 21.021.1 Foy, p. 327
    22. ↑ 22.022.1 Chandler, p. 615
    23. ↑ 23.023.1 Foy, p. 315
    24. ↑ Foy, p. 316
    25. ↑ Napier, p. 69, assigns a strength of 3,000 men to the Spaniards, but claims their colonel defected to Vedel.
    26. ↑ 26.026.1 Foy, p. 317
    27. ↑ Foy, p. 318
    28. ↑ Chandler, p. 614
    29. ↑Esdaile (2003), p. 68
    30. ↑Esdaile (2003), pp. 67-68, 75-76
    31. ↑ Foy, p. 337
    32. ↑ 32.032.1 Conde de Toreno, p. 103
    33. ↑ Hamilton, p. 160
    34. ↑ Foy, p. 331
    35. ↑ Foy, p. 342
    36. ↑ Napier, p. 69
    37. ↑ 37.037.1 Gates, p. 52
    38. ↑ Foy, p. 325–326
    39. ↑ Larchey, p. 4: La situation était terrible. Chaque nuit, nous entendions les paysans armés rôder autour de nous, alléchés qu'ils étaient par l'espoir du butin, et chaque nuit, nous nous attendions à être assassinés.
    40. ↑ Napier, p. 70, gives the date as July 1
    41. ↑ 41.041.1 Hamilton, p. 162
    42. ↑ Foy, p. 326
    43. ↑ 43.043.1 Foy, p. 334
    44. ↑ Hamilton, p. 163 Napier, p. 71
    45. ↑ 45.045.145.245.345.4 Gates, p. 53
    46. ↑ 46.046.1 Foy, p. 335
    47. ↑ 47.047.1 Foy, p. 338
    48. ↑ 48.048.148.2 Foy, p. 339
    49. ↑ 49.049.1 Foy, p. 340
    50. ↑ 50.050.150.250.350.450.5 Gates, p. 54
    51. ↑ 51.051.151.251.351.451.551.6 Napier, p. 71
    52. ↑ 52.052.1 Foy, p. 349
    53. ↑ Hamilton, p. 166
    54. ↑ Hamilton, p. 165
    55. ↑ 55.055.1 Foy, p. 344
    56. ↑ Hamilton, p. 167 and Foy, p. 344
    57. ↑ 57.057.157.257.3 Foy, p. 345
    58. ↑ 58.058.1 Foy, p. 346
    59. ↑ Gates, p. 54 and Foy, p. 346
    60. ↑ Hamilton, p. 168 Foy, p. 347
    61. ↑ 61.061.1 Foy, p. 347
    62. ↑ 62.062.1 Foy, p. 350
    63. ↑ 63.063.163.2 Foy, p. 351
    64. ↑ Napier, p. 72
    65. ↑Esdaile (2003), p. 83
    66. ↑ 66.066.1Cayuela Fernández (2008), p. 118
    67. ↑ Chandler, p. 617
    68. ↑ 68.068.168.2 Chandler, p. 618
    69. ↑ Chandler, p. 618 Glover, p. 54
    70. ↑ Glover, p. 55
    71. ↑ Foy, p. 366
    72. ↑ Foy, p. 368
    73. ↑ Chandler, p. 619
    74. ↑ Glover, p. 118
    75. ↑ Oman (1996), III, pp. 321-322
    76. ↑ 76.076.1 Oman (1996), III, pp. 322-323
    77. ↑ Gates, p. 56
    78. ↑Esdaile (2003), p. 489, notes: "Not only had many officers perished in the uprising of May 1808, but the authority of the army had been severely reduced and the autonomy of the military estate invaded in an unprecedented manner. Following the uprising, meanwhile, new officers and old had found themselves waging a desperate war against a powerful aggressor in the most unfavourable circumstances. Hostile to military discipline, the troops had been prone to riot and desertion just as the populace had done all it could to resist the draft. Meanwhile, unscrupulous and irresponsible propagandists had created false expectations of victory, whilst equally unscrupulous and irresponsible politicians had interfered in the conduct of military operations, failed to supply the army with the sinews of war, fomented alternative structures of military organisation that hindered the war effort as much as they assisted it, and made general after general scapegoats for disasters which were often none of their making."
    79. ↑Esdaile (2003), p. 66
    80. ↑ Longford, p. 190
    • Cayuela Fernández, José Gregorio (2008). La Guerra de la Independencia: Historia Bélica, Pueblo y Nación en España, 1808-1814. Universidad de Salamanca. ISBN  978-84-7800-334-1 . <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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    • Esdaile, Charles J. (2003). The Peninsular War: A New History. Macmillan. ISBN  978-1-4039-6231-7 . <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    • Gates, David (1986). The Spanish Ulcer: A History of the Peninsular War. W W Norton & Co. ISBN  0-393-02281-1 . <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    • Glover, Michael (1974). The Peninsular War 1807–1814: A Concise Military History. Penguin Classic Military History (published 2001). ISBN  0-14-139041-7 . <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    • Hamilton, Thomas (1829). Annals of the Peninsular Campaigns: From MDCCCVIII to MDCCCXIV. W. Blackwood. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    • Larchey, Lorédan (1884). Les suites d'une capitulation: relations des captifs de Baylen et de la glorieuse retraite du 116e régiment. Imp. Th. Lombaerts. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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    • Lorblanchès, Jean-Claude (2007). Les soldats de Napoléon en Espagne et au Portugal, 1807-1814. Editions L'Harmattan. ISBN  978-2-296-02477-9 . <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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    • Conde de Toreno (1836). Historia del levantamiento, guerra y revolución de España. Men. M. Rivadeneyra (published 1872). <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

    Fon

    Between 1807 and 1808, thousands of French troops marched into Spain to support a Spanish invasion of Portugal orchestrated by Napoleon, who used the opportunity to initiate intrigues against the Spanish royal family. A coup d'état, instigated by Spanish aristocrats with French support, forced Charles IV from his throne in favour of his son Ferdinand, and in April, Napoleon removed both royals to Bayonne to secure their abdication and replace the Spanish Bourbon line with a Bonapartist dynasty headed by his brother Joseph Bonaparte.

    However, none of these politicies sat well with the Spanish masses, who declared their loyalty to the deposed Ferdinand and revolted at the prospect of a foreign ruler. An uprising by the citizens of Madrid broke out on May 2, slew 150 French soldiers, and was violently stamped out by Marshal Murat's elite Guards and mameluk cavalry. [10] Joseph's entry into his prospective kingdom was delayed as guerrillas poured down from the mountains and seized or threatened the main roads.

    "You are making a mistake, Sire. Your glory will not be enough to subjugate Spain. I shall fail and the limits of your power will be exposed."

    On 26 May, Joseph Bonaparte, sirtdan, was proclaimed King of Spain and the Indies in Madrid, his envoys receiving the acclamations of the Spanish notables. The madrileños, however, were indignant Spanish soldiers quietly withdrew to insurgent-held villages and outposts outside the city, and only Murat's 20,000 bayonets kept the city in order. [12]

    Outside the capital, the French strategic situation deteriorated rapidly. The bulk of the French army, 80,000 strong, could hold only a narrow strip of central Spain stretching from Pamplona and San Sebastián in the north through to Madrid and Toledo to the south. [13] Murat, stricken in an outbreak of rheumatic colic which swept the French camp, quit his command and returned to France for treatment: "the Spanish priests would have rejoiced if the hand of God had been laid on him whom they called the butcher of the 2nd of May." [14] General Savary, a man "more distinguished as Minister of Police than as any field commander", arrived to take command of the shaky French garrison at a critical hour. [15]

    With much of Spain in open revolt, Napoleon established a headquarters at Bayonne on the Spanish frontier to reorganize his beleaguered forces and redress the situation. Having little respect for his Spanish opponents, the Emperor decided that a swift display of force would cow the insurgents and quickly consolidate his control of Spain. To this end, Napoleon dispatched a number of flying columns to throttle the rebellion by seizing and pacifying Spain's major cities: from Madrid, Marshal Bessières pushed northwest into Old Castile with 25,000 men and sent a detachment east into Aragón, aiming to capture Santander with one hand and Zaragoza with the other General Moncey marched toward Valencia with 29,350 men and General Duhesme marshalled 12,710 troops in Catalonia and put Gerona under siege. [16] Finally, General Dupont, a distinguished field commander, was to lead 13,000 men south toward Seville and ultimately the port of Cádiz, which sheltered Admiral François Rosilly's fleet from the Royal Navy. [17]


    Bailén is probably the ancient Baecula, where the Romans, under Scipio the elder, signally defeated the Carthaginians in 209 and 206 B.C. In its neighbourhood, also, in 1212, was fought the great Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa, in which, according to the ancient chroniclers, the Castilians under Alphonso VIII, slew 200,000 Almohads, and themselves only lost 25 men. Although this estimate is absurd, the victory of the Christians was complete. [2]

    There is a convent that dates from 729.

    In 1808, during the Peninsular War, it was the site of a series of clashes (the Battle of Bailén) at which General Castaños defeated General Pierre Dupont. [3] The capitulation, signed at Andújar by Dupont on the 23rd of July 1808, involved the surrender of 17,000 men to the Spaniards, and was the first severe blow suffered by the French in the Peninsular War. [2]

    The town has many quarries, resulting in a reputation for craft products.

    1. ^Municipal Register of Spain 2018. National Statistics Institute.
    2. ^ ab One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain:
    3. Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Bailén". Britannica ensiklopediyasi. 3 (11 -nashr). Kembrij universiteti matbuoti. p. 217.
    4. ^ Chandler, p. 618

    This article about a location in Andalusia, Spain, is a stub. Siz Vikipediyani kengaytirish orqali unga yordam bera olasiz.


    The failure of liberalism

    The solution of the Cadiz liberals to the imperial problem had been to make the colonies constitutionally part of metropolitan Spain by giving them representation in the Cortes. This did not stop the revolt of the colonies, where the Creoles wanted local self-government and free trade rather than liberal centralization. In 1814 it was not clear that the rebels under Simón Bolívar in the north and José de San Martín in the south would succeed however, all Ferdinand’s efforts to assemble a large army and a fleet to send to America failed. In 1820 the army that was to subdue the colonies revolted against the king in a pronunciamiento organized by Major Rafael de Riego y Núñez and supported by the local liberals organized in Masonic lodges.

    The revolution of 1820 brought into power the “jailbirds”—liberals of the 1812 vintage who had been persecuted by Ferdinand VII. The constitution of 1812 was reestablished together with other liberal legislation, including the sale of monastic property.

    The liberal system failed once more because it was a minority creed sustained by a section of the army—the military radicals such as Riego—against a mounting conservative reaction that had been fed by an attack on the church, especially the monasteries. The liberals themselves split. The more conservative wing (led by Francisco Martínez de la Rosa, a dramatist) wished for a more moderate constitution, based on the French Charter of 1814, which would give better representation to the upper classes and would not be totally unacceptable to the king, as was the “prison” of the constitution of 1812. The king gave no support to this movement and, in a cowardly fashion, disowned a rising of the guards’ regiments that backed it. Thus, the extreme radicals ( exaltados) gained control by means of demonstrations in the streets, organized by clubs run on the lines of the Jacobins of the French Revolution. The conservative reaction developed in the north around the regency set up at Seo de Urgel. Without French help, the movement would not have been successful, but when Louis XVIII sent French troops (the “Hundred Thousand Sons of St. Louis”), the liberal armies disintegrated and the liberal system fell.

    Once more revolution at home favoured revolution in the colonies. Mexican conservatives, who had no desire to be ruled by Spanish anticlericals, successfully established an independent Mexico under Agustín de Iturbide (1822). Spanish military power in South America finally foundered in the decisive Battle of Ayacucho (1824). Of Spain’s far-flung empire, only the islands of Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines remained.


    Natijada

    Neither the fruit of brilliant strategic planning, nor the war's largest or bloodiest battle, Bailén nonetheless assumed mythical status in Spain, its symbolism rapidly eclipsing the reality—the negotiated surrender of a rather inexperienced French corps in a peripheral theatre. At a decisive moment, news of victory rallied much of the vacillating Spanish elite to the insurrectionary movements surging across the country: Suddenly, the expulsion of the French by arms seemed possible, if not inevitable. [ 66 ] At the same time, Spanish victory in an obscure Andalusian village signalled to the armies of Europe that the French, long considered invincible, could be beaten—a fact that persuaded the Austrian Empire to initiate the War of the Fifth Coalition against Napoleon:

    This was an historic occasion news of it spread like wildfire throughout Spain and then all Europe. It was the first time since 1801 that a sizable French force had laid down its arms, and the legend of French invincibility underwent a severe shaking. Everywhere anti-French elements drew fresh inspiration from the tidings. The Pope published an open denunciation of Napoleon Prussian patriots were heartened and, most significantly of all, the Austrian war party began to secure the support of the Emperor Francis for a renewed challenge to the French Empire. [ 67 ]

    To commemorate a victory so rich in symbolic and propaganda value, the Seville Junta instituted the Medalla de Bailén. The British press avidly publicized the event and printed Castaños' victory statements across Europe:

    This army, so superior to ours, has not only been beaten and routed, but has been constrained to lay down its arms, and give up its artillery, and has suffered the lowest military degradation, which the French have been hitherto accustomed to impose upon all the other nations of Europe and the Imperial Eagles, the proud insignia of their triumph, have become the trophies of the Spanish Army of Andalusia on the fields of Baylen.

    — XAVIER DE CASTANOS, Head Quarters, Andujar, July 27, 1808 [ 5 ]

    The defeat mortified Napoleon. The Emperor treated Dupont's capitulation as a personal affront and a blight on the Imperial honour, pursuing a ruthless vendetta against all those involved: [ 68 ]

    Has there ever, since the world began, been such stupid, cowardly, idiotic business as this? [ 69 ]

    Dupont and Vedel returned to Paris in disgrace and were duly court-martialed, deprived of rank and title, and imprisoned at Fort de Joux for their role in the disaster. [ 68 ] (Dupont was not paroled until the restoration of Louis XVIII indeed, rumours persisted that he had been quietly assassinated in captivity.) None of the commanding officers, however slight their share of the responsibility, escaped without retribution: Napoleon held that his army in Spain had been "commanded by postal inspectors rather than generals." [ 70 ] In January 1809, the Emperor halted a parade in Valladolid when he recognized Dupont's chief of staff among the commanders, scolding the unfortunate officer in full view of the troops and ordering him off the square. [ 68 ] According to General Foy, Napoleon began his tirade: "What, general! did not your hand wither up when you signed that infamous capitulation?" [ 71 ] Years later, Napoleon opened an inquiry into the Convention of Andujar under the mandate of the Imperial High Court, in camera, which turned out yet another proclamation against Dupont. An Imperial decree dated May 1, 1812 prohibited any field commander to treat for capitulation and declared every unauthorized surrender a criminal act punishable by death. [ 72 ]

    Apart from the blow to French prestige, Bailén threw the French invasion forces—faltering after their failure to secure Gerona, Zaragoza, Valencia, Barcelona, and Santander, and with the country rapidly arming and mobilizing against them—into panic and disarray. With the sudden loss of 20,000 troops, Napoleon's military machine abruptly fell apart. On Savary's advice, Joseph fled from the openly hostile capital joining him on the highway were Bessières and Moncey, who drew the French corps north from Madrid and continued past Burgos in what became a wholesale retreat. The French did not halt until they were safely over the Ebro, where they could set up secure defensive positions along the north bank and wait out events. From his makeshift headquarters at Vitoria, Joseph wrote to his brother gloomily: "I repeat that we have not a single Spanish supporter. The whole nation is exasperated and determined to fight." [ 14 ] Napoleon, furious and dismayed, remarked that to cross the Ebro was "tantamount to evacuating Spain." [ 73 ]

    Napoleon had considered the Spanish Bourbon regime's old, regular army, for all its proud traditions hearkening back to the glorious tercios, to be "the worst in Europe", while the new militia formations were dismissed as packs of "bandits led by monks." Castaños himself conceded that the greater part of his troops had been "raw and inexperienced but they were Spaniards, and Spaniards are heroes." [ 5 ] But it was this maligned army, largely untouched by French Revolutionary military principles—a relic from the previous century's absolutist administration—which outfought the Imperial citizen-soldiers. [ 66 ] Spain's ancien regime military institutions, however, quickly unravelled in the following months, eclipsed by the growing scale of the war, crippled by the infusion of untrained conscripts, and caught up in the competing designs of the juntas. [ 74 ]

    In November, Napoleon directed the bulk of the Grande Armée across the Pyrenees and dealt a series of devastating blows to the vacillating Spanish forces, receiving the surrender of Madrid in scarcely a month's time. As Spain's military and political apparatus deteriorated dramatically, so did the quality of its armed forces, recruited and equipped in the chaos of French military occupation and counterinsurgency. [ 75 ] Subsequent efforts to fashion field armies capable of reproducing a Bailén proved less successful: Castaños was himself routed by Marshal Lannes at Tudela in November 1808, while Reding was ridden down and trampled by the French cavalry at Valls in 1809, dying of his wounds. Marshal Soult overran much of Andalusia the following year and on January 21, 1810, his men recovered the lost Eagles from the cathedral of Bailén. [ 76 ] Before long, only Cádiz remained firmly in Spanish hands, and a difficult war lay ahead to drive the invader from Spain. Throughout the war, attempts to meet the French in open fields with corps severely deficient in training, leadership, and equipment led to frequent defeat, as incompetent or politically-appointed commanders felt pressured to recreate Bailén without the talent or the means. [ 74 ] This "Bailén syndrome" haunted Spain for the duration of the war:

    So brilliant was the victory and so simple the encircling manoeuvre, that Wellesley later on had great difficulty in getting 'Baylen' out of the Spaniards' system. He used to say jocularly before every engagement: "Now this is not Baylen—don't attempt to make it a battle of Baylen!" [ 77 ]

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