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Ralf de Diketo

Ralf de Diketo

Ralf de Diceto (Ralf of Diss), ehtimol, 1120 yilda Norfolkda tug'ilgan. U Londonga ko'chib o'tganga o'xshaydi va 1136 yilga kelib u shaharda sodir bo'layotgan voqealar haqida xabar bergan. Uning London episkopi Richard de Belmeyz bilan qarindoshligi taxmin qilingan. (1)

Diceto Parijda ta'lim oldi va 1152 yilda Ditseto Sent -Pol sobori bosh arxeakoni bo'ldi va 1154 yil 19 -dekabrda Genrix II ning taxtga ko'tarilish marosimida qatnashdi. U Frantsiya bo'ylab gastrol qilgani va topganlari haqida yozganga o'xshaydi: "Akvitaniya ko'p boyliklarga to'lib toshgan, G'arbiy dunyoning boshqa qismlaridan ustun ... Uning erlari serhosil, uzumzorlari sermahsul va o'rmonlari yovvoyi hayot bilan birlashadi ". (2)

Angliyaga qaytgach, u o'z davrining xronologik hisobini yozishni boshladi. Uning biografining so'zlariga ko'ra: "U har xil turdagi ma'lumotlarning uslubiy va aniq kompilyatori edi va ehtimol u yilnomalarini tuzishni boshlaguncha ko'p yillar davomida material yig'gan bo'lishi mumkin". (3)

Uning to'plagan ishlari, Tarix rasmlar, zamonaviy tarixchilar uchun katta ahamiyatga ega bo'lgan. Alison Veyr ta'kidlaganidek: "U (Ralf de Diketo) vijdonli tadqiqotchi bo'lib, u o'z dalillarini aniq ko'rsatishga harakat qilgan. Uning diqqatini cherkov tarixiga qaratgan, lekin u manba sifatida ko'plab qirollik hujjatlari va zamonaviy maktublardan foydalangan. ulardan o'z matnida takrorladi. " (4)

Jon Gay ham rozi bo'ladi: "Genrix II hukmronligining eng zamonaviy, eng ilg'or yilnomachilari Ralf de Diketo ... Londonda joylashgan, u hech qachon rasmiy lavozimni egallamagan bo'lsa -da, qirollik saroyi bilan yaxshi aloqada bo'lgan. Metodik kompilyator. muhim harflar va hujjatlarning qisqartirilgan versiyalarida tasvirlangan faktlar, u yorqin, maqtovga sazovor hikoyani beradi. " (5)

Ralf de Diketo Genrix II ni qoyil qoldirdi va shunday bahslashdi: "Qirol Genri o'z qaramog'idagilarga yordam berishga intildi, o'zlariga yordam bera olmadi. Qirol sheriflar davlat hokimiyatini o'z manfaatlari yo'lida ishlatayotganini bilgach ... u adolat huquqlarini ishonib topshirdi. o'z sohasidagi boshqa sodiq odamlar ". (6)

1164 yilga kelib u Aynxo, Northemptonshir va Finchingfild, Esseks shaharlarida yashadi va ularga vikarlarda xizmat qildi. O'sha yili u Northempton Kengashida qatnashdi va 1166 yilda ingliz episkoplari tomonidan o'sha paytda surgun qilingan arxiepiskop Tomas Bekketga xabarchi sifatida yuborildi. (7)

Ralf de Diketo bu masalani Reksdagi Bekketning kotibi, Solsberidan Jon bilan muhokama qildi. Bu muzokaralar natijasida, Frantsiyalik Solsberi, Genrix II va Lui VII 1166 yil aprelda Anjersda uchrashishdi. Beketga yozgan maktubida u pulni behuda sarflaganidan va safarda ikkita otini yo'qotganidan shikoyat qilgan. (8)

Muzokaralar davom etdi va 1169 yil 7 -yanvarda Bekket va Genri Montmiraylda uchrashishdi, lekin ular kelisha olishmadi. Papa Aleksandr III, nihoyat, sabr -toqati tugadi va Beketga Genri bilan shartnoma tuzishni buyurdi. (9) 1170 yil 22 -iyulda Beket va Genri Fretevalda uchrashishdi va arxiyepiskop Kanterberiga qaytib, ko'radigan narsalarini qaytarib olishlari to'g'risida kelishib olindi. (10)

1170 yil 29 -dekabrda arxiepiskop Bekket Kanterberi soborida o'ldirilgan. Edvard Grim keyinroq shunday deb yozgan edi: "Yomon ritsar (Uilyam de Treysi), arxiyepiskopni nefdagi odamlar qutqarib qolishidan qo'rqib ... qurbonlik qilingan bu qo'zini yaraladi. Xudo ... boshning tepasini kesib tashladi ... Keyin u Reginald FitzUrsedan boshiga ikkinchi zarbani oldi, lekin u qattiq turdi, uchinchi zarbada tizzalariga va tirsagiga yiqildi ... Keyin uchinchi ritsar ( Richard Ie Breton) yotayotganda dahshatli jarohat etkazdi, uning yordamida qilich qoplama oldida sindirildi ... miyasi oq va miyasi qon bilan qizil, cherkov yuzasini bo'yadi. To'rtinchi ritsar (Xyu de Morvil) boshqalarning aralashishiga to'sqinlik qildi, shunda boshqalar arxiyepiskopni bemalol o'ldirishdi. (11) Bekketning o'ldirilishidan dahshatga tushgan bo'lsa -da, u Genrix II ni hurmat qilishni va unga qoyil qolishni davom ettirdi. (12)

Genrix II tan oldi, garchi u hech qachon Bekatni o'ldirishni xohlamagan bo'lsa -da, uning so'zlari qotillarni qo'zg'atgan bo'lishi mumkin. 1174 yil 12 -iyulda u tavba qilishga tavba qildi. Ralf de Diceto xabar berdi: "U (Genrix II) Kanterberiga etib kelganida, u otidan sakrab tushdi va qirollik obro'sini chetga surib, u ziyoratchi, tavba qiluvchi, iltijo qilguvchi bo'lib qoldi va 12 -iyul, juma kuni u erga ketdi. U erda ko'z yoshlari, nola va xo'rsirab, ulug'vor shahid qabriga yo'l oldi, qo'llarini cho'zib sajda qilib, u erda uzoq vaqt ibodat qildi va o'sha paytdagi episkoplardan uzr so'radi va bo'ysundirildi. Uning tanasi tayoqchalar bilan kesilganidan qattiq tartib -intizomga ega bo'lib, ko'pchilik to'plangan rohiblarning har biridan navbat bilan uch, hatto besh marta zarba oldi. " (13)

1180 yilda u Avliyo Pol sobori dekani etib saylandi va keyingi yilning boshida bobning mulkini batafsil o'rganib chiqdi. "U, shuningdek, sobor uchun turar joy to'g'risidagi nizomni qabul qildi, u erda Sent-Polning turar-joy ruhoniylariga bo'lgan ehtiyojlari va qonunlarning plyuralistlar va g'oyiblar bo'lish tendentsiyasi o'rtasida haqiqiy muvozanatni o'rnatishga harakat qildi." (14)

1187 yilda Xubert Uolter bilan birga u papa sudyasi-delegati bo'lgan va 1189 yil 3 sentyabrda Arslon qalbining Richard tojida qatnashgan. U o'z yilnomasida shunday yozgan: "Podshoh (Richard I) har qanday yahudiy yoki yahudiy o'z tojiga kelishi mumkinligi haqida jamoatchilikni ogohlantirgan edi ... ammo yahudiylarning ba'zi rahbarlari yetib kelishdi ... saroy a'zolari yahudiylarga qo'l qo'yishdi va Ularni echib tashladilar, kaltakladilar va zarbalar berib, ularni podshoh saroyidan haydab yubordilar, ba'zilarini o'ldirdilar, boshqalarini esa yarim o'lik qo'yib yubordilar ... London aholisi saroydan o'rnak olib, yahudiylarni o'ldirishga, talon -taroj qilishga va yondirishga kirishdilar. (15)

Ralf de Diketo taxminan 1202 yilda vafot etgan.

Qirol Genri o'z bo'ysunuvchilariga hech bo'lmaganda o'zlariga yordam bera oladiganlarga yordam berishga intildi. u adolat huquqini o'z sohasidagi boshqa sodiq odamlarga ishonib topshirdi.

U (Genrix II) Kenterberiga etib kelganida, u otdan sakrab tushdi va qirollik obro'sini chetga surib, u ziyoratchi, tavba qiluvchi, iltijo qilguvchi bo'lib qoldi va 12 -iyul, juma kuni soborga bordi. Qo'llarini cho'zib sajda qilib, u erda uzoq vaqt ibodat qildi.

U hozir bo'lgan episkoplardan kechirim so'radi va o'z tanasini tayoqchalar bilan kesish uchun qattiq intizomga bo'ysundirdi, navbat bilan har bir rohibdan uch yoki hatto besh marta zarba oldi, ulardan ko'pini yig'di ... U qolganini o'tkazdi. kunduzi va butun kechasi ruhiy achchiqlikda, ibodat va uyqusizlikka berilib, uch kun davomida ro'zasini davom ettirdi ... Hech shubha yo'qki, u hozirgacha shahidni qo'ydi.

Podshoh (Richard I) har qanday yahudiy yoki yahudiy uning tojiga kelishi mumkinligini jamoat ogohlantirgan holda taqiqlagan edi ... London aholisi saroydan o'rnak olib, yahudiylarni o'ldirish, talon -taroj qilish va yoqib yuborishni boshladilar.

Genrix II: baholash (javob izohi)

Tomas Bekket va Genrix II (Javob sharhi)

Nima uchun Tomas Bekket o'ldirildi? (Javob sharhi)

Kristin de Pizan: feministik tarixchi (javob izohi)

O'rta asrlarda sayohatchilar (javob izohi)

O'rta asrlarda ayol savodxonligining o'sishi (Javob sharhi)

Ayollar va O'rta asr ishi (Javob sharhi)

O'rta asr qishloq xo'jaligi (Javob sharhi)

Ayollar va O'rta asr dehqonchiligi (Javob sharhi)

Qora o'limning zamonaviy hisoblari (javob izohi)

14 -asrdagi kasallik (javob izohi)

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Xastings jangi (sharhga javob)

Uilyam Fathchi (Javob sharhi)

Feodal tuzumi (javob izohi)

Qachonki so'rovnoma (javob izohi)

O'rta asrlarda yoritilgan qo'lyozmalar (javob izohi)

Yalding: O'rta asr qishloq loyihasi (farqlash)

(1) J. F. A. Meyson, Ralf de Diketo: Oksford milliy biografiyasi lug'ati (2004-2014)

(2) Ralf de Diceto, Tarix rasmlar (taxminan 1180)

(3) J. Meyson, Ralf de Diketo: Oksford milliy biografiyasi lug'ati (2004-2014)

(4) Alison Veyr, Akvitaniyalik Eleanor (1999) 359 -bet

(5) Jon Gay, Tomas Bek (2012) 350 -bet

(6) Ralf de Diceto, Tarix rasmlar (taxminan 1180)

(7) J. Meyson, Ralf de Diketo: Oksford milliy biografiyasi lug'ati (2004-2014)

(8) Jon Solsberi, Tomas Bekketga maktub (1166 yil aprel)

(9) Frank Barlou, Tomas Bekket: Oksford milliy biografiyasi lug'ati (2004-2014)

(10) Maykl Devid Noules, Sent -Tomas Bekket: Britaniya entsiklopediyasi (2016)

(11) Edvard Grim, Tomas Bekketning hayoti (taxminan 1180)

(12) Alison Veyr, Akvitaniyalik Eleanor (1999) 359 -bet

(13) Ralf de Diceto, Xronika (taxminan 1171)

(14) J. Meyson, Ralf de Diketo: Oksford milliy biografiyasi lug'ati (2004-2014)

(15) Ralf de Diceto, Xronika (1189 y.)


1120 va 1130. to'dalar va guruhlar, shuningdek, veterinariya, veterinariya va qishloq xo'jaliklari. Diss i Norfolkning boshqa kunlari ham Ditsetumga o'xshaydi, masalan, Dissai, Dice, eller Dizy, Meyn, Pikardiya, Burgund va Shampan.

Men 1152 var Ralf de Diceto allerede magister av humanistiske fag og antagelig hadde han studert i Parij. Hans omdømme linging va rettskaffenhet uchun. Bu erda Arnulf va Gilbert Foliot, Hereford (London) va boshqa mehmonlar ham bor. Tomas Bekketning yonma -yon va yon tomonlarida, menimcha, bu juda yaxshi.

Xel fortellerstil er fargeløs, va eng yaxshi noma'lum shaxslar Becket va Northampton (1164) uchun eng yaxshi belgi bo'lib, ular erkaklar bilan bir qatorda, shuningdek, Becket betrektet va hokazo. so'mlik viktigste jinoyatchi.

Ralph de Diceto ble valgt i 1166 so'mlik to'lovlar ham briskke biskopene da de protesterte mot bannlysningene som ble fremmet AV Becket. Erkaklar hech bo'lmaganda bir necha marotaba, lekin hech qanday belgi yo'q, ular hech qachon o'chirilmaydi. Tabiiyki, men o'zimning eng yaxshi ma'lumotimni topa olmayman, lekin hech bo'lmaganda bir necha oydan keyin men o'zimga qarayman.

O'n to'da rundt 1180 ble han domprost Ved Sent -Pauls katedral i London. Men hamma narsani aniqlab berishni xohlayman, lekin men sizning fikringizni bilmayman, bu sizning buyurtmangizni bajarishga yordam beradi. En lærd og en mann avto betydelig lærdom so'mlik tarixiy studiya uchun interesse. Sankt -Pauls ham xuddi shunday tarixiy voqealar uchun bir xil materiallarga ega bo'lgan.

Hans venneskap med Richard Fitz Nayjel, Londonda Foliot va Londonda, Uilyam Longchampda, Angliyada Rikard, Angliyada Walter de Coutances va Rouenda erkaklar bilan uchrashuvlar o'tkazib yuborish, shuningdek, ma'lumot olish.

Xans viktigste, Chronicorum qisqartmalari og Ymagines tarixi, Iso Masihning ishi 1202 -yilgacha davom etishi mumkin, lekin men 1147 -da, bir necha yil oldin, bu erda ham, bu erda ham eng yaxshi odam. Aniq ma'lumotlarga ko'ra, Robert de Monte bir vaqtning o'zida 1172 yildagi avtoritetni o'chirib tashlagan bo'lsa, 1181. Men o'zimning shaxsiy ma'lumotlarimni topdim. Ymagines tarixi Peterbor (Italiya Abbos Benedikt) va Rojer -Xoveden shaharlaridan birida siz itni qidirib topasiz.

Yo'q, bu har qanday ma'lumotni yozish va yozish uchun, shuningdek, hujjatlarni yozib olishda, shuningdek, hech bo'lmaganda, hech bo'lmaganda, eng yaxshi ma'lumotni olishda yordam beradi. Xotirjamlik sans uchun, erkaklar hech qanday ma'lumotni o'chirmaydi va ularni diskussiya qilmaydi. Detaljene er verket uchun redegjørelsene uchun av denne grunn og og so'mlik sekundærkilde.


Lotin yilnomalari

Hozirgi vaqtda qirollik kollektsiyasida saqlanayotgan o'rta asr Lotin yilnomalarining eng ko'p qismi monastir va boshqa cherkov muassasalaridan keladi. O'rta asrlarda diniy uylar tarixiy yozuvning muhim markazlari va o'tmish haqidagi bilimlarning asosiy omborlari bo'lgan. Masalan, Edvard I Shotlandiya taxtiga bo'lgan da'vosini tasdiqlovchi dalillarni talab qilganida, u o'z ruhoniylariga monastir kutubxonalaridagi yilnomalarni qidirishni buyurdi. Genrix VIII, Aragon Ketrin bilan nikohining to'g'riligiga shubha qilish uchun sabablar topishi kerak bo'lganida va keyinchalik u avtonom milliy cherkov tashkil qilganda, diniy uylarning kitob fondlari bilan yana maslahatlashildi. Garchi Angliyaning hech bir instituti monarxiya xizmatida Sent-Denis bilan solishtiradigan obro'li tarixiy hikoyani ishlab chiqmagan bo'lsa ham. Grandes Chroniques de France, Ralf de Diketo, Metyu Parij va Xovedenlik Rojer kabi bir qator ingliz yilnomachilari qirollik ishlari bilan shug'ullangan va qirollik sudlarida qatnashgan.

Qirollik kollektsiyasidan lotin xronikalarini tanlash, keyinchalik Bededan XIV asr boshlariga qadar bo'lgan tarixiy yozuvlar haqida umumiy ma'lumot beradi. U tarixiy qo'lyozmalarda maslahatlashishni osonlashtirish uchun moslashtirilgan turli xil matn tuzilmalari, sxemalari va vizual asboblarini namoyish etadi. O'rta asr lotin yilnomalari kamdan -kam tasvirlangan. Sahifalarda tez -tez uchraydigan narsa - matn ichidagi tanlangan qismlarni ko'rsatuvchi chekka tasvirlar. Bu marginal rasmlar yo professional yozuvchilar va rassomlarning ishi, yoki qo'lyozmalarni kam malakali foydalanuvchilar. Bu rasmlar o'quvchilar e'tiborini tarixiy hikoyadagi muhim, qiziquvchan yoki ayniqsa qiziqarli voqealarga qaratadi.

Bede, Tarix cherkovi Gentis Anglorum, Royal 13 C v

Bede (673/4 y., 735 y. Vafot etgan), shuningdek, Buyuk Bede nomi bilan tanilgan, o'z ishini yakunlagan. Tarixiy cherkov Gentis Anglorum (The Ingliz xalqining cherkov tarixi) 731 yilda Jarroumning Northumbrian monastirida, u deyarli butun umrini shu erda o'tkazgan. Bede bu ishni Britaniyadagi xristianlik taraqqiyotining hisobi sifatida tasavvur qilgan. Uning hikoyasi miloddan avvalgi 55 yilda Yuliy Tsezarning birinchi marta orolga bostirib kirishga urinishidan boshlanadi va muallif vafotidan sal oldin tugaydi.

Bu qirollik qo'lyozmasi 164 ta saqlanib qolgan nusxalardan biridir Tarixiy cherkov. Birinchi sahifadagi XV asr yozuvi Benediktin Sankt-Peter Gloucester abbeyidan olinganligini tasdiqlaydi (2-bet), lekin kitob boshqa joyga ko'chirilgan bo'lishi mumkin. XI asrning boshlarida yozgan bir qancha ulamolar Anglo-Karolin (uslub-I deb nomlanuvchi) Bedening 1-matnini nusxalash vazifasini bo'lishgan, ammo qo'lyozmaning kelib chiqishi hali aniq aniqlanmagan. 2018-05-01 xoxlasa buladi 121 2

The Tarixiy cherkov 1540 yilda Sankt -Peter abbatligi tarqatib yuborilgandan keyin Vestminsterdagi Qirollik kutubxonasiga kiritilgan.


Northumbriya qiroli Ceulvulfga bag'ishlanish
Qirollik 13 C v, f. 2018-05-01 xoxlasa buladi 121 2

Rojer Xoveden, Xronika, Qirol 14 C ii
Shimoliy Angliya, v. 1199-1201/02

Yorkshiradagi Xouden shahrida tug'ilgan Xovedenli Rojer [yoki Xovden] (1201/2 y.) V.da qirollik xizmatiga kirgan. 1174 yil Genrix II saroyida kotib sifatida. 1189 yilda qirol vafotidan so'ng, Rojer Duram episkopi Xyu de Puiset xizmatiga kirdi. Qirol ham, episkop ham unga bir qancha diplomatik missiyalarni, shu jumladan Muqaddas erga sayohatni ishonib topshirgan.

Rojer uning ustida ishlagan Xronika hayotining so'nggi o'n yilligida, Angliya tarixini 732 yildan boshlab (bu erda Bede hikoyasi tugaydi) o'z kunigacha bog'laydi. Bu qirollik qo'lyozmasi Xoveden yilnomasining birinchi jildini o'z ichiga oladi va uning davomi Oksfordda, Bodley kutubxonasida, Laud MSda. 582, bu saqlanib qolgan eng qadimgi nusxadir. Stubbs, Xolt va Corner kabi olimlar yilnomachining qo'lini qo'lyozmalarda ham, Laud qo'lyozmasidagi asl matnning ayrim qismlarida mavjud bo'lgan ba'zi bir chekka yozuvlarning o'ziga xos kursiv skriptida tan olishdi. 3 Qirol Yuhannoning Normandiya gersoglari nasabnomasiga kiritilishi shuni ko'rsatadiki, bu ikki jild 1199 yil va Xovedenning vafoti o'rtasida tugagan bo'lishi kerak. 1201-02.

Muallifning rasmiy nashri va uning ishchi nusxasi o'rtasida, bu qo'lyozmalar juftligi yilnomachining ishi va qiziqishlari haqida tushuncha beradi. Muallifning iltimosiga binoan ikkita rasm, Sitsiliya Uilyamining muhri va standarti kiritilgan bo'lishi mumkin. Ikkalasi ham hujjatli dalil rolini o'ynaydi va shuning uchun Metyu Parijning tangalar, gerblar va muhrlarning nusxalarini kutadi. 4 Xoveden qo'lyozmasidagi bu tasvirlar, ba'zida boshqa yozuvchilar va rassomlar tomonidan ko'chirilgan Xronika (Qarang: Arundel 150, fv. 41v va 64 va Arundel 69, f. 118).


Sitsiliya Uilyam II ning muhri
Qirol 14 C ii, f. 160v


Standart
Qirol 14 C ii, f. 88

Ralf de Diceto, Kronografik qisqartmalar va Tarixni tasavvur qiladi, Qirol 13 E vi
Sent -Albans, 1199/1200 - 1209

Bu qo'lyozma Londondagi Avliyo Pol yilnomasi va dekani Ralf de Diketoning (1199/1200 vaf.) Ikkita tarixiy asarini o'z ichiga oladi. Biri, Kronografik qisqartmalarBu dunyo tarixining Yaratilishdan 1147 yilgacha bo'lgan tarixini o'z ichiga olgan yilnomalarning qisqacha mazmuni. Tarixni tasavvur qiladi, 1149 yildan muallifning o'limi o'rtasidagi so'nggi voqealarga e'tibor qaratiladi. Ikkala yilnomada ham Genrix II va Kanterberi arxiyepiskopi Tomas Bekket o'rtasidagi tortishuvlar haqida hikoya bor.

Stubbsning so'zlariga ko'ra, bu Qirollik qo'lyozmasi, Sent -Pol sobori, hozirgi Lambet saroyi kutubxonasi, London, MS 8 ga meros qilib qoldirgan Ralfning shaxsiy nusxasidan Sent -Albans abbatligi uchun ko'chirilgan. 5 Kitob allaqachon Abbey kutubxonasi 1209/10 yilga kelib, Richard de Mores (Morins) tomonidan Dunstabledagi Avgustin uyidan oldin qarzga olingan. 6

Dicetoning asarlari Sent -Albansda abbeyga oid bir nechta cheklovli izohlar bilan yangilandi. Sent -Albansning mashhur yilnomachisi Metyu Parij qo'lyozmani o'z asarlari uchun manba sifatida ishlatgan. Metyu, bitta rasm qo'shgan (pastga qarang) Cronxorum qisqartmasi, shubhasiz, Ralfning chekka belgilar va tasvirlarni indekslash tizimidan ilhomlanib, uni o'z asarlarida ishlab chiqdi.

Sent -Albansning boshqa ko'plab qo'lyozmalarida bo'lgani kabi, bu jild, ehtimol, abbey kutubxonasidan Kardinal Tomas Vulsi (1470/71, 1530 y. T.) Tomonidan olib tashlangan, keyin abbey avvalgi va keyinchalik qo'shilgan. Genrix VIII Eski Qirollik kutubxonasi.


Belgilar jadvali
Qirollik 13 E vi, f. 1


Qirol Lucius
Qirollik 13 E vi, f. 11


Nayza va toj
Qirollik 13 E vi, f. 25v

Sent -Albans tarixiy to'plami, Royal 13 D v
Sent -Albans, 1206 yildan keyin

Bu XIII asr boshidagi tarixiy asarlar to'plami Sent-Albans Benediktin abbatligining monastir ssenariysida ko'chirilgan. Unda Buyuk Britaniya va Angliya qirolliklarining bosib olinishidan oldingi o'sha paytdagi tarixga oid boy matnlar, shu jumladan XII asrning ikkita yirik tarixchisi, Monmutlik Jefri asarlari (d. 1154/5) mavjud. Britaniae registri (Britaniya qirollari tarixi) va Uilyam Malmesberi (v. 9090, vaf. 1142 y.) Gesta regl Anglorum (Ingliz qirollarining ishlari), uning Tarix Novella (Yaqin tarix) va Gesta pontificum Anglorum (Ingliz episkoplarining ishlari). Ulardan keyin yana uchta matn keladi: IX asr Britaniya tarixi (Britaniyaliklar tarixi), o'rta asrlarda Nennius yoki Gildaga tegishli Visio Turkilli, 1206 yilda Essexda Stistedda ko'rilgan vahiyning ta'rifi, Koggesholl abbasi Ralfga, Essexga (1208-1218) va Riyoulxning Aelredga (vafoti 1167). Anglorum regeneratsiyasi (Ingliz qirollarining nasabnomasi haqida).

Jild Sent -Albans kutubxonasida ishlaydigan tarixchilar avlodlari tomonidan ishlatilgan. Qo'lyozmaning bir nechta chekkalari mashhur yilnomachi Metyu Parij tomonidan sharhlangan (mil. 1200 yil, 1259 yil vafot etgan) (28-44, 63v-65 va 105-betlar). 7 Uch yuz yil o'tgach, boshqa tarixchi Polidor Vergil (1470 yil, v.1555 y.) Jildni manbalardan biri sifatida ishlatgan. Anglika tarixi (1513 yilda tugatilgan, birinchi bo'lib 1534 yilda bosilgan) va o'z avtograf yozuvlarini ham unda qoldirgan. 8 Qo'lyozma Genrix VIII maslahatchilari tomonidan yana foydali deb topildi, u abbey kutubxonasidan olib tashlandi va qirollik kutubxonasiga qo'shildi.

Kitob, shuningdek, o'rta asrlarda anonim kitobxonlar ko'pligiga dalolat beradi. O'n uchinchi va o'n to'rtinchi asrlarning bir nechta o'quvchilari, odatda, matnda ko'rsatilgan ismlar va joylarga tegishli cheklangan eslatmalarni kiritdilar, shuningdek, tegishli joylarni, shu jumladan, Sent-Albans tarixi uchun muhim bo'lganlarni ko'rsatadigan ko'rsatuvchi qo'llar va chekka tasvirlarni qo'shdilar. Ular orasida har bir hukmronlikning boshi va oxirini belgilaydigan tojlar bor (har bir hukmronlikning oxirini bildiruvchi tojlar teskari). Bu tasvirlar Ralf de Diketo (Royal 13 E vi ga qarang) va Metyu Parij (Royal 14 C vii ga qarang) ishlatadigan shunga o'xshash mos yozuvlar tizimlariga mos keladi.


Egalik yozuvlari
Qirollik 13 D v, f. 1


Xoch
Qirollik 13 D v, f. 14


Ikki mitre
Qirollik 13 D v, f. 18v


Cherkov
Qirollik 13 D v, f. 63v


Toj
Qirollik 13 D v, f. 78

Metyu Parij, Anglorum tarixi, Surunkali majora, III qism, qirollik 14 C. vii
Sent-Albans, 1250-1259

Sent -Albansning tarixiy yutuqlari bir necha o'n yillar davomida boshqa monastirlarning yutuqlarini kechiktirgan bo'lsa -da, ular Metyu Parijning ajoyib asarlari tufayli yaxshiroq tanilgan (c. 1200, d.1259). 1236 yilda Metyu Rojer Vendoverdan keyin Sent -Albansda yilnomachi bo'ldi. Uning Xronika Majora, Yaratilishdan boshlab dunyoning umuminsoniy tarixi - bu Vendoverning qayta ko'rib chiqilgan nashri va davomi Flores tarixi. Matto asarlari uch jildda saqlanib qolgan, ulardan hozirgi qo'lyozma oxirgi (1254 - 1259). Yaratilishdan 1188 yilgacha va 1189 yildan 1253 yilgacha bo'lgan tarix ikkita qo'lyozmada, hozir Kembridjda, Korpus Kristi kolleji MSS 26 va 16 da berilgan. Hozirgi jild kitob bilan bog'langan. Tarix Anglorum, 1070-1253 yillarni o'z ichiga olgan Angliya tarixi. Metyu, shuningdek, hujjatli materiallarning keng to'plamini, shu jumladan qo'shimchada yig'ilgan xatlar, nizomlar va boshqalarni nusxalarini yaratdi. Ozodlik qo'shimchalari (Cortton Nero D. i, ff. 62v-63v va 70-200).

Taxminan ikki yuz yil o'tgach, Sent -Albansdan yana bir tarixchi Tomas Uolsingem (vafot etdi). v. 1422), Metyuni nafaqat "tengsiz yilnomachi", balki "zo'r rassom" sifatida maqtagan. Garchi u rassom sifatida hech qachon o'qimagan bo'lsa -da, Metyu o'z yilnomalarini u tasvirlab bergan voqealarni jonli tasvirlari bilan bezatgan. U, shuningdek, grafik belgilarni mos yozuvlar uchun ishlatadigan tizimni ishlab chiqdi. Qo'l qalqonlari, tojlar va mitralar yuqoriga yoki tepaga qarab, mos ravishda shaxslarning tug'ilishi va o'limini, qirollar, abbotlar va episkoplarning hukmronligining boshlanishi va oxirini ko'rsatadi. O'quvchini tegishli ma'lumotlarga yo'naltirish uchun grafik belgilar ham ishlatilgan Ozodlik qo'shimchalari.


Metyu Parij Bokira qizdan oldin
Qirol 14 C vii, f. 6


Genrix III va Provans Eleanori
Qirol 14 C vii, f. 124v


Lion kengashi
Qirol 14 C vii, f. 138v


Metyu Parij o'lim to'shagida
Qirol 14 C vii, f. 218

Monmutlik Jefri, Britaniae tarixi regumi, Qirollik 13 A iii
Angliya, XIV asrning birinchi choragi

Bu edi Britaniae registri (Britaniya qirollari tarixi) Uelsdagi Aspax episkopi Monmutlik Jefrini (1154/5 vaf.) O'rta asrlarning eng nufuzli tarixchilaridan biri sifatida asos solgan. Buyuk Britaniyaning dastlabki tarixi haqida, troyanlik qochqin Eneyning nabirasi Brutus, Buyuk Britaniyaning oxirgi qiroli Kadvalladerga qadar yozgan Jefri, Artur, Vortigern, Merlin va King Lir kabi qahramonlarni hayotga olib keldi. Uning matni o'rta asr va zamonaviy tarix va adabiyotda muhim an'analarning asosi hisoblanadi. Jefri Britaniya tarixidagi Bede qoldirgan bo'shliqni to'ldirishni va Rim istilosidan oldin sodir bo'lgan voqealarni tasvirlashni maqsad qilgan. U o'z yilnomasini Oksford arxdeakoni Uolterdan olgan, deb da'vo qilgan qadimgi ingliz (Breton) kitobining tarjimasi sifatida yozgan. Hech qachon bunday kitob aniqlanmaganligi uchun, ehtimol, Jefri lotin tilining hikoya chizig'ini ishlab chiqqan Tarixiy Britton, IX asr Uelsda yozilgan va Geoffrey davrida Nenniusga tegishli.

Buyuk ingliz shaharlari va shaharlarining kelib chiqishi va asoslari haqidagi hikoyalar, Monmutlik Jefri tomonidan Tarix mohir rassomni XIV asr boshidagi qo'lyozmaning pastki chetida chizilgan zamonaviy panoramalar turkumini joriy etishga ilhomlantirdi. Seriya qadimiy Trinovantumni tasvirlaydigan London osmon chizig'idan boshlanadi va York, Karlayl, Kanterberi, Bath, Vinchester, Lester, Caerleon, Gloucester va Kolchester tasvirlarini o'z ichiga oladi. Jadvalda tasvirlangan boshqa mavzularga Injil hukmdorlari va payg'ambarlar kiradi, ular ingliz qirollarining zamondoshlari deb o'ylashgan, ingliz qirollari Romulus va Remus tomonidan qurilgan Rim tasviri (21v f) va Nenniusning duelini eslatuvchi jang. Qaysar (34 -bet). Britaniyaning afsonaviy o'tmishidagi boshqa bir qancha voqealar ham tasvirlangan: Vortigern uchun sharob qadahini ko'tarib kelayotgan Ronwein (62v f), Merlin o'z bashoratlarini Vortigernga talqin qilmoqda (68 -bet), Artur Buyuk Britaniya qiroli (90v), ajdar. Arturning tushida ayiqni o'ldirish (f. 105) va Avalon oroli (f. 119v).

Qo'rg'oshin chizig'ida bajarilgan chizmalarning aksariyati hozir zaif va deyarli ko'rinmaydi, ehtimol oksidlanish natijasida.


London
Qirollik 13 A iii, f. 14


York
Qirollik 13 A iii, f. 16v

Martinus Polonus, Chronicon pontificum va imperatorum, Qirol 14 C i
Norvich ?, XIV asrning 1 -choragi

The Chronicon pontificum va imperatorum Dominikalik yozuvchi Martinus Polonus tomonidan yozilgan (Papa va imperatorlar yilnomasi) (opa yoki Troppau Martin nomi bilan ham tanilgan, tug'ilgan joyidan keyin, 1278/9 y.) O'rta asrlarning eng mashhur yilnomalaridan biri bo'lgan. 400 dan ortiq qo'lyozmalar Xronikon omon qolish.

The Xronikon Imperatorlar va papa papalari hukmronlik qilgan yillarni bir -biriga bog'lab, Inkarnatsiyadan dunyo tarixini qamrab olgan xronologik asar. Tarixni sinxron jadvallar ko'rinishida taqdim etish g'oyasi hech bo'lmaganda o'shandan beri ma'lum bo'lgan Chronici kanonlari Kesariyadagi Evseviy (eramizdan avvalgi 263–339 yillar) Martin o'z ishiga butunlay yangi tartibni kiritdi. Material shunday tuzilganki, har bir ochilishning versoli papa tarixi uchun, rekto esa imperatorlar uchun ajratilgan. Har bir satr bir yilga, ellik satrdan iborat har bir sahifa ellik yillik davrga to'g'ri keldi. Shunday qilib, muallif yoritgan XIII asrlarni atigi 26 folioga kiritish mumkin edi. Martin o'zining yilnomasini Piter Komestorga ilova sifatida tasavvur qilgan Tarix maktab va bunday qisqalik kerakli xususiyat edi.

Bu qirollik nusxasi Xronikon Norvichdagi Muqaddas Uch Birlikning Benediktin sobori priori tarkibiga kirgan. Bu Norvich rohiblaridan biri, Smallbergdan bo'lgan Jefri sovg'asi edi va ehtimol u erda 14 -asrning boshlarida ko'chirilgan. The Xronikon xuddi o'sha yozuvchi tomonidan yozilgan va bir paytlar Bartolomey Kotton bilan bir jild tuzgan Monmutlik Jefri xronikasi bilan bog'langan. Anglikana tarixi (hozir Cotton Nero V). Matnni turli jildlarga ajratish ser Robert Kottonning o'z qo'lyozmalarini qayta tartibga solish ishtiyoqining natijasidir. Paxta qirollik kutubxonachisi Patrik Yang bilan bir qismini oldi Xronikon Eski qirollik kutubxonasida saqlanadigan Uilyam Rishanjer yilnomasining avtograf nusxasining bir qismi. Natijada, Norvich sobori kutubxonasining raf belgisiga ega bo'lgan sahifa L. IX 'endi Cotton Nero -ga kiritilgan. v, f. 285v. 9


Papa tarixi
Qirol 14 C i, f. 29


Imperatorlik tarixi
Qirol 14 C i, f. 30v

Ranulf Xidgen, Polikronik, Qirol 14 C ix
Angliya (Remsi?), XIV asrning oxirgi choragi

Ranulf Xigden (1364 y. Vafot etgan), muallifi Polikronik, Sankt -Verburgdagi (Chester) Benediktin rohib edi. Uning monastirdagi hayoti haqida ko'p narsa ma'lum emas, faqat bitta unutilmas voqeadan tashqari. 1352 yilda Edvard III uni yilnomalarini qirol saroyiga olib kelish uchun chaqirdi. Xigdenning ishi Polikronik, versiya bo'yicha Yaratilishdan 1327, 1340 yoki 1352 yilgacha bo'lgan jahon tarixini o'z ichiga olgan etti kitobdagi universal yilnomadir. Ko'p davomlar va saqlanib qolgan 100 dan ortiq nusxalar buni tasdiqlaydi Polikroniklar O'rta asr Angliyasida katta mashhurlik. 1387 yilga kelib, Xigden matni ingliz tiliga Jon Trevisa tomonidan tarjima qilingan va Caxton va Wynkyn de Worde tomonidan chop etilgan.


Ralf De Diketo - entsiklopediya

RALF DE DISETO (d. v. Sankt -Pol, London va yilnomachi dekani, birinchi marta 1152 yilda Midlseks arxeakonriyasini qabul qilganida tilga olinadi. Ehtimol, u 1120 yildan 1130 yilgacha tug'ilgan, biz hech narsani bilmaymiz. U o'z familiyasini Norfildagi Dissdan olgan degan umumiy bayonot shunchaki Dicetum gumoni bo'lib, Meyn, Pikardiya, Burgundiya va Shampanda uchraydigan Dissai yoki Dicy yoki Dizining lotinlashgan shakli bo'lishi mumkin. 1152 yilda Ditseto san'at ustasi edi, ehtimol u Parijda o'qigan. O'rganish va halollik uchun uning obro'si yuqori edi, u o'z davrining eng taniqli episkoplari bo'lgan Lisieux Arnulf va Herefordlik Gilbert Foliot (Londondan keyin) tomonidan hurmat va hurmat bilan qaraldi. Tabiiyki, arxeakon Becket haqidagi savolga do'stlari bilan bir xil javob berdi. Garchi uning hikoyasi rangsiz bo'lsa-da va u Northempton (1164), (1164) kengashida Bekketga hamdardlik ko'rsatganlardan biri bo'lsa-da, Ditsetoning yozishmalari shuni ko'rsatadiki, u arxiyepiskopning xatti-harakatlarini noto'g'ri deb hisoblagan va u Becketni o'zining asosiy dushmani deb bilganlarga maslahat berdi. Diceto, 1166 yilda, ingliz episkoplari Beket tomonidan chiqarilgan ekskommunikatsiyaga qarshi norozilik bildirganida, elchi etib saylandi. Ammo, u yozishni umuman unutgan bu epizoddan tashqari, u fonda qoldi. Aql -idrokning tabiiy xolisligi ma'lum bir uyatchanlik bilan ajralib turardi, bu uning yozganlarida hayotidan kam emas. Taxminan 1180 yilda u Sent -Pol dekani bo'ldi. Bu idorada u mulkni ehtiyotkorlik bilan boshqarish, bo'lim intizomini tiklash va o'z hisobidan dekanat uyi qurish bilan ajralib turardi. Olim va katta bilimdon kishi, u tarixshunoslikka katta qiziqish ko'rsatgan va dekanlikdan afzal bo'lgan vaqt haqida, o'z davri tarixi uchun materiallar to'plashni boshlagan. Uning London ko'rigidan Foliot o'rnini egallagan Richard Fits Nayjel, Richard I. kantsleri Uilyam Longchamp va Rouen arxiyepiskopi Valter bilan do'stligi unga ma'lumot to'plashning ajoyib imkoniyatlarini berdi. Uning ikkita asosiy asari - Chronicorum qisqartmalari va Ymagines Historiarum, Masih tug'ilishidan 1202 yilgacha bo'lgan dunyo tarixini qamrab oling. 1147 yilda tugaydigan birinchisi - bu o'rganish va ishlab chiqarish, lekin deyarli to'liq manbalarga asoslangan. Ikkinchisi, Robert de Monte va Foliotning maktublaridan boshlanib, taxminan 1172 yilgi asl hokimiyatga va 1181 yilgi zamonaviy rekordga aylanadi. Hayollar Benedikt va Xoveden deb nomlangan yilnomalardan pastroqdir. Ditseto yilnomachi bo'lsa -da, u o'z xronologiyasiga beparvo munosabatda bo'ladi va u o'z ichiga olgan hujjatlar ko'pincha muhim bo'lsa -da, hech qanday printsip bo'yicha tanlanmaydi. U uslubni his qila olmaydi, lekin siyosiy vaziyatni muhokama qilganda, u juda katta tasavvurga ega. For this reason, and on account of the details with which they supplement the more important chronicles of the period, the Ymagines are a valuable though a secondary source.

See W. Stubbs' edition of the Historical Works of Diceto (Rolls ed. 1876, 2 vols.), and especially the introduction. The second volume contains minor works which are the barest compendia of facts taken from well-known sources. Diceto's fragmentary Domesday of the capitular estates has been edited by Archdeacon Hale in The Domesday of St Paul's, pp. 109 ff. (Camden Society, 1858).

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Ralph of Diceto

1120/30 - ca 1200. France, England. Works include Abbreviationes Chronicorum [ Abbreviatio de Gestis Normannorum ] and Ymagines Historiarum . Ralph was either from Dissai (Dissé) in France or Diss in Norfolk. He studied at Paris in the 1140s and late 1150s. By 1152 he was archdeacon of Middlesex under the patronage of the Belmeis family, to whom he may have been related. He was elected dean of St. Paul&aposs in 1180. Thereafter he was involved with the Angevin court and attended Richard I&aposs coronation in September 1189. Associates at co&hellip

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Writings

His two chief works, the Kronografik qisqartmalar va Ymagines tarixi, cover the history of the world from the birth of Christ to the year 1202. The former, which ends in 1147, is a work of learning and industry, but is almost entirely based upon extant sources. The latter, beginning as a compilation from Robert de Monte and the letters of Foliot, becomes an original authority c. 1172 and a contemporary record c. 1181. In precision and fullness of detail the Ymagines are inferior to the chronicles of the so-called Benedict and of Hoveden. [1]

Though an annalist, Diceto is careless in his chronology. The documents which he incorporates, while often important, are selected on no principle. He has little sense of style but displays considerable insight when he ventures to discuss a political situation. For this reason, and on account of the details with which they supplement the more important chronicles of the period, the Ymagines are a valuable though a secondary source. [1]


Constitutions of Clarendon

Ralph de Diceto . Radulfi de Diceto Decani Lundoniensis Opera Historica: The Historical Works of Master Ralph de Diceto, Dean of London . Kembrij universiteti matbuoti. ISBN 978-1-108-04933-7 .


Radulfi de Diceto Decani Lundoniensis
Opera Historica,
edited by William Stubbs. 2 jild.
Rolls Series, vol. 68. London, 1876.
Volume 1
Ymagines Historiarum


1. Receives the Pall and Resigns the Chancellorship.

2. Thomas meets with the king and has to resign the Archdeaconry.

Thomas Cantuariorum archiepiscopus obviam regi veniens, quum rediret in Angliam, receptus est in osculum, sed non in plenitudine gratiae, sicut vultus statim aversus omnibus, qui convenerant, patenter ostendit.

Thomas ex archidiacono Cantuariensi sumptus ad archiepiscopatum, ad instantissimam regis postulationem diutius distulit archidiaconatum transferre. Transtulit tandem ut rex petivit, sed gratiam regis ad tempus subtractam, ut videbatur sibi postmodum redintegratam non ad plenum agnovit.

3. Clarembald abbot of S. Augustine's prays to be consecrated without the profession of obedience.

5. Inquest into the tenure of William de Ros.

British Historical Documents: Life of Thomas Becket (Gervase of Canterbury)
Britannia.com (1853) British Historical Documents: Life of Thomas Becket (Gervase of Canterbury).
Available at: http://www.britannia.com/history/docs/becketgerv.html


Richard Hurrell Froude James Bowling Mozley (1839). Remains of the Late Reverend Richard Hurrell Froude: v. 2 J. G. & F. Rivington. pp. 459–.

6. Quarrel of Thomas with William of Eynesford

Archbishop Thomas conferred the vacant church of Eynesford upon [one called] Lawrence. William, lord of the manor, claiming the right of patronage in the same church expelled this Lawrence, for which act the archbishop excommunicated him. But this was done without consulting the king, and incurring his, the king's greatest fury, for he, the king, asserted that one of the crown's royal dignities, was that no military officer, no royal minister, and no one called, in the vernacular, the king's tenant-in-chief of a castle, town, or estate, whom the king may come physically into contact with [on this side of the king's conscience], is to be excommunicated lest the king, not having consulted him first, for if he might unwittingly to come into contact with someone who had been excommunicated, one of his captains who had come into his presence, either being invited to kiss or being received in council.

The King of the English in particular wanted, as he was saying, that crimes should be punished with all due severity. Regardless of dignity or rank he considered that for a more consistent and just outcome, clerics seized by his own justices in public disgrace should be rendered to the bishop of the district to be judged, and if the bishop determines they were guilty and having been degraded, they should then be presented before the King's justice and delivered to his court for punishment. The bishops felt quite the opposite they contended that those indeed who had been degraded, should be protected from the hand of lay justice, otherwise it would seem as if they had been judged twice for the same crime.

This controversy became apparent on the occasion of Philip de Broc, canon of Bedford, who, when he had been dragged into a case concerning murder, had proferred profanities in front of the king's justiciar. And when he was not be able to deny this, in the presence of the archbishop, he was deprived of the benefit of his prebend as punishment, and banished from the kingdom for two years.

The archbishop departed for Rome from Romney, without the king knowing. He boarded a ship, but the winds were contrary and the boat was blown back to England, where he incurred much wrath from the king.

12. Archbishop Thomas tried at Northampton, Oct. 13.

Council of Northampton.

Thomas Cantuariensis archiepiscopus, super actu quem egerat in cancellaria tractus in causam, praesentiam suam exhibuit apud Northamtunam iii idus Octobris. Convenerunt illuc episcopi, comites, barones totius regni, mandato regis urgente. Rogerus Eboracensis archiepiscopus vocatus advenit. Et quoniam episcopatuum, abbatiarum tempore suo vacantium bona de jure cancellariae suae fuerant deputata custodiae, quoniam regis ulterior familiaritas penes cancellarium excreverat, eo usque ut castellaniam de Eya, et castellaniam de Bercamstede pluribus annis libere possedisset et disposuisset pro velle, perceptorum summam in ratiocinium venire consentaneum juri pluribus videbatur, et a capite rationem reddendam ordinarium reputabant licet ante consecrationem suam archiepiscopus ab Henrico filio et haerede regis, et a justitiario regni liber et absolutus ab omni ratiocinio fuisset assignatus episcopus. Cum autem absolutionem factam hoc modo de voluntate regis et mandato probari non posset, adversus episcopos, ne eum injuste condemnarent, judicio appellavit, et ab eis itidem appellatus est. Sed proceres, licet adversus eos processerit appellatio, et sub anathemate prohibiti sunt in patrem et judicem suum ferre sententiam, nichilominus tamen in eum, nec confessum, nec convictum, sed privilegium ecclesiae protestantem et suum, sententiam intorserunt sic archiepiscopus in artissimo positus, multis affectus injuriis, et opprobriis lacessitus, et episcoporum destitutus consilio, crucem quam manu tenebat in altum erigens discessit a curia. Nocte sequente, villam latenter egrediens, ab aspectibus hominum diebus se subtrahens, et noctibus iter peragens, post dies aliqnot ad portum Sandicum pervenit, navicula fragili transvectus in Flandriam.

13. Mission of William of Pavia and John of Naples.


.
Willelmus Papiensis, Johannes Neapolitanus cardinales a latere summi pontificis destinati, regem et archiepiscopum convocaverunt apud Mumnirail et licet archiepiscopus eos in partem regis inelinatiores sensisset, rem tamen in judicium ea ratione deduci concessit, illis publice residentibus, ut secundum ordinem ecclesiasticum, tam sibi quam suis prius fieret ablatorum in integrum restitutio.

Nec enim spoliatus subire judicium voluit, nec cogi potuit aliqua ratione. Quod cum illi nec vellent nec possent,infecto negotio redierunt ad curiam.
.

William of Pavia and John of Naples, cardinals, appointed as plenipotentiary legates of the supreme pontiff, summoned to Montmirail the king and the archbishop and although the archbishop felt that they leaned towards the king's side, he conceded that the matter could be decided by them, with them seated in public, so that according to rules of the church, that which had been taken could be restored in full to him and his own [clerks]

Failure of the mission.
However, for the one who had been stripped [of his postion] neither was he willing to submit to the judgment, nor did he want to be forced in any way. And when they could neither do what they wanted, they returned to the [Pope's] Curia with the business unfinished.

English Historical Society (1841). Publications . sumptibus Societatis. pp. 314– .

Contributi dell'Istituto di storia medioevale. Società Editrice Vita e Pensiero. 1962. p. 66 .

14. Failure to Reconcile 1169


A.D.1169 Henry offers to satisfy the archbishop. Failure of the negotiations

Duobus articulis plenum non praebuit assensum rex Angliae. Nec enim nomine restitutionis, cum archiepiscopum non expulerit, juxta dignitatem regni quicquam debebat exolvere, nec bonorum .vacantium possessiones quas jam dederat certis personis in irritum devocare. Sed ut legibus alligatum se principem profiteretur in medium, coram rege Francorum paratus erat archiepiscopo per omnia satisfacere, vel si contendere decrevisset, judicium in palatio Parisiensi subire proceribus Galliae residentibus, aut Gallicana ecclesia partes suas interponente, Jeu scplaribus diveriarum provinciarum arqua lance negotium examinantibus. Et ita rex Angliae, qui prius odium in se plurimorum conflaverat, in hoc verbo plurium favorem adeptus est. Itaque rex Anglorum et archiepiscopus in qualiquali concordia convenissent, nisi quia rex archiepiscopo dare signum pacis in osculo penitus abnegasset, et abjurasset, omnem aliam securitatem arbitratu boni viri paratus offerre, paratus praestare.


Dean of St Paul's

About 1180 be became dean of St Paul's. In this office he distinguished himself by careful management of the estates, by restoring the discipline of the chapter, and by building at his own expense a deanery house. A scholar and a man of considerable erudition, he showed a strong preference for historical studies and about the time when he was preferred to the deanery he began to collect materials for the history of his own times.

His friendships with Richard Fitz Nigel, who succeeded Foliot in the see of London, with William Longchamp, the chancellor of Richard I, and with Walter de Coutances, the archbishop of Rouen, gave him excellent opportunities of collecting information.


Ralph De Diceto

DICETO, RALPH DE (d. c. 5202), dean of St. Paul's, Lon don, and chronicler, is first mentioned in 5552, when he received the archdeaconry of Middlesex. He was probably born between 1120 and 113o of his parentage and nationality nothing is known. Diceto was selected, in 1166, as the envoy of the English bishops when they protested against the excommunications launched by Becket. About 118o he became dean of St. Paul's. In this office he distinguished himself by careful management of the estates, by restoring the discipline of the chapter, and by building at his own expense a deanery-house. Diceto's most important histori cal works, the Abbreviationes Chronicorum and the Ymagines Historiarum, cover the history of the world from the birth of Christ to the year 1202. The former, which ends in 1147, is a work of learning and industry, but almost entirely based upon extant sources. The latter, beginning as a compilation from Robert de Monte and the letters of Foliot, becomes an original authority about 1172, and a contemporary record about 118r. The Yrnagines is a valuable authority for the last years of the reign of Henry II. and for the reign of Richard I.

See the introduction to W. Stubbs's edition of the Historical Works of Diceto (Rolls ed. 2876, 2 vols.). Diceto's fragmentary Domesday of the capitular estates has been edited by Archdeacon Hale in The Domesday of St. Paul's, pp. 1o9 ff. (Camden Society, 1858).


Ralph de Diceto

Dean of St. Paul's, London, and chronicler. The name "Dicetum" cannot be correctly connected with any place in England it is possible therefore that Ralph was born in France. The date of his birth must be placed between 1120 and 1130 he died 22 Nov., 1202. He was twice a student at Paris. His first preferment was the archdeaconry of Middlesex to which he was nominated in 1152. In 1180 he became dean of St. Paul's. He was the friend, during fifty years, of the successive bishops of London, including Gilbert Foliot, the leader of the royalist party among the bishops and the adversary of the Archbishop, St. Thomas. This friendship and his admiration for Henry II drew him towards the royalist side in the Becket controversy, but not altogether he had something of the wide, cosmopolitan, twelfth century outlook, and he showed his sympathy with his archbishop at the Council of Northampton in 1164. He was an active dean and took part in the survey of the lands belonging to the chapter which is known as the Domesday of St. Paul's. His writings include two substantial historical works: "Abbreviations Chronicorum", a compilation from many sources going back to 1147, and "Ymagines Historiarum", a much more important work. It covers the years 1149 to 1202, and in its earlier portion is based on the historical writings of Robert de Monte (or "de Torigny"). It was begunprobably in the closing years of Henry II's reign. Ralph's important position in ecclesiastical circles, his friendship with many prominent men, such as William Longchamp and Walter of Coutances, the help he received from them, the documents he incorporates, and his own moderate temper render his work of capital importance in spite of some chronological vagueness. The best edition of Ralph's historical works is that edited for the "Rolls Series" by Bishop Stubbs in 1876. The prefaces to the two volumes contain an admirable account of the historian, of the society in which he moved, and of the writings themselves.

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