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1918-1926 yillarda Frants-Yozef orollariga kim egalik qilgan?

1918-1926 yillarda Frants-Yozef orollariga kim egalik qilgan?

Frants-Yozef erlari 1873 yilda Avstriya-Vengriya imperiyasi tomonidan kashf etilgan va da'vo qilingan. Oldin Norvegiya uni kashf qilgan, lekin ular bu kashfiyot haqida hech qachon xabar berishmagan.

Avstriya-Vengriya imperiyasi 1918 yilda tarqatib yuborildi. 1926 yil SSSR tarkibiga qo'shilgunga qadar Frans Yozef erlari qaysi davlatga tegishli edi? O'ylaymanki, ahamiyatsiz javob Avstriya yoki mustaqillik bo'ladi, men aniq javob topa olmadim.

YANGILASH Google qidiruvi orqali men italyancha da'volar haqida qisqacha jumla topishga muvaffaq bo'ldim, lekin hech qanday ma'no bermaydi, chunki u "20 -yillarning oxiri" ni nazarda tutadi, shu bilan siz uni o'qishingiz mumkin.


Semafor gipotezasi to'g'ri edi.

Men bu orollar haqida ma'lumot beradigan qiziqarli manbani topdim ko'rib chiqilgan edi terra nullius 1926 yilgacha.

1926 yilgacha orollar "Terra Nullius" yoki boshqacha aytganda "Hech kimning erlari" deb hisoblanmagan. Biroq, Kanada amaliyotidan so'ng, Sovet Ittifoqi Sovet materigi va Shimoliy qutb o'rtasidagi sohadagi barcha erlar Sovet hududi ekanligini da'vo qildi. Bu orollarni Rossiyaning bir qismi sifatida tan olishdan bosh tortgan norvegiyaliklarning tanqidiga uchradi. lekin ular ancha katta Sovet hokimiyatiga qarshi shikoyatlari bilan hech narsa qila olmadilar. (1)

Biroq, bu qaror darhol amaliy ta'sir ko'rsatmadi, hatto 1926,1928 va hatto 1929 yilda chiqarilgan rasmiy Sovet xaritalarida ham (pastdagi rasm) Frans -Yozef Land Sovet Ittifoqi tashqarisida joylashgan deb belgilandi. (2)

Norvegiya hukumati Moskvaga qo'shilish haqidagi bir tomonlama qarorga norozilik bildirdi. Bundan tashqari, fashistik hukumat 1928 yilda Nobile ekspeditsiyasi halokatidan so'ng arxipelag ustidan suverenitetni da'vo qildi - Tegetthoff (Vilgelm fon Tegettof nomi bilan atalgan) hozirgi Italiyaning Trest shahri dvigateli bilan jihozlangan, deb da'vo qilgan, biroq bu norozilik namoyishlari bo'lmagan. har qanday muvaffaqiyat.

(1) Barr va boshqalar. 1995 yil

(2) Shpitsbergen Frank Jozef Land va Yan Mayen bilan (Bradt Svalbard, 201)


1873 yil 2 -noyabrda Avstriya Vengriya tomonidan qo'shib olindi. 1914 yil 16 (29) avgustda Imperator Rossiya Harbiy -dengiz floti Cape Floradagi "Herta Rok" dagi arxipelagni zabt etishi bilan o'sha kuni "Romanov erlari" deb nom oldi.


Fransisko Franko

Francisco Franco Bahamonde ( / ˈ f r æ ŋ k oʊ /, Ispan: [fɾanˈθisko ˈfɾaŋko ba.a.ˈmõn̪.de] 1892 yil 4 -dekabr - 1975 yil 20 -noyabr) - Ispaniya fuqarolar urushi paytida Ikkinchi Ispaniya Respublikasini ag'darib tashlagan millatchi kuchlarni boshqargan va keyinchalik 1939 yildan 1975 yilgacha Ispaniyani boshqargan ispan generali. diktator, unvonni oldi Kaudilo. Ispaniya tarixidagi bu davr, millatchilik g'alabasidan Frankoning o'limigacha, odatda frankoist Ispaniya yoki frankoist diktaturasi deb nomlanadi.


    (Milliy taraflama Milliy mudofaa xunta prezidenti)
    (Respublika tarafi Mudofaa kengashi raisi)

    (Milliyatchilik tarafidan Texnik Davlat Xunta prezidenti)
    (Respublika tarafi Mudofaa kengashi raisi)

Galoliya shtatining Ferrol shahrida tug'ilgan, yuqori darajali harbiy oilada tug'ilgan Franko 1907 yildan 1910 yilgacha Toledo piyoda akademiyasida kursant sifatida Ispaniya armiyasida xizmat qilgan. Marokashda xizmat qilib, 1926 yilda general-general lavozimiga ko'tarilgan. 33 yoshda, Ispaniyaning eng yosh generali bo'ldi. Ikki yil o'tgach, Franko Saragosadagi umumiy harbiy akademiya direktori bo'ldi. Konservativ va monarxist sifatida Franko 1931 yilda monarxiya bekor qilinganidan va Ikkinchi respublika tashkil etilganidan afsusda edi. U o'z akademiyasini yopganidan qattiq xafa bo'ldi, lekin shunga qaramay respublika armiyasida xizmatini davom ettirdi. [2] Uning karerasi o'ng qanotli CEDA va PRR 1933 yilgi saylovlarda g'alaba qozonganidan keyin ikki baravar ko'paydi, bu unga 1934 yildagi Asturiyadagi qo'zg'olonni bostirishga rahbarlik qildi. 1936 yilgi saylovlar oldidan Franko qisqa vaqt ichida armiya shtabi boshlig'i lavozimiga ko'tarildi. Dastlab istamaganidan so'ng, u 1936 yil iyuldagi harbiy to'ntarishga qo'shildi, u Ispaniyani qo'lga kirita olmagach, Ispaniya fuqarolar urushiga sabab bo'ldi.

Urush paytida u Ispaniyaning Afrikadagi mustamlakachi armiyasini boshqargan va ko'pchilik isyonchilar vafotidan keyin uning fraktsiyasining yagona rahbari bo'lib, 1936 yilda Generalissimo va Davlat rahbari etib tayinlangan. bir partiyali davlat). Uch yil o'tgach, millatchilar g'alabani e'lon qildilar, bu Franko Ispaniya ustidan diktaturasini siyosiy raqiblarini qatag'on qilish davrida kengaytirdi. Uning diktaturasi majburiy mehnatdan, kontslagerlardan va qatllardan foydalangani 30-50 minggacha o'limga olib keldi. [10] [11] Urush davridagi qotillik bilan birlashganda, Oq Terror qurbonlari soni 100 000 dan 200 000 gacha etadi. [12] [13] Fuqarolik urushidan keyingi Ispaniyada Franko ilgari yoki undan keyin har qanday ispan etakchisiga qaraganda kuchliroq hukmronlik qilgan va o'z hukmronligi atrofida shaxsiyatga sig'inishni rivojlantirgan. Movimiento Nacional. Ikkinchi jahon urushi paytida u ispan betarafligini saqlab qoldi, lekin Italiya va Germaniya a'zolari fuqarolar urushi paytida uni qo'llab -quvvatlagan "Eksa" ni turli yo'llar bilan qo'llab -quvvatladi va bu mamlakatning xalqaro obro'siga putur etkazdi.

Sovuq urush boshlanishida Franko "ispan mo''jizasi" deb nomlanuvchi o'sish davriga rahbarlik qilib, texnokratik va iqtisodiy liberal siyosat orqali Ispaniyani 20-asr o'rtalaridagi iqtisodiy tushkunlikdan olib chiqdi. Shu bilan birga, uning rejimi cheklangan plyuralizm bilan totalitar rejimdan avtoritar rejimga o'tdi va G'arb, xususan, AQSh tomonidan qo'llab-quvvatlangan anti-kommunistik harakatning etakchisiga aylandi. [14] [15] Diktatura yumshadi va Luis Karrero Blanko Franko bo'ldi éminence grise. 1960 -yillarda Franko Parkinson kasalligi bilan kurasha boshlagach, Karrero Blankoning roli kengaydi. 1973 yilda Franko yoshi va kasalligi tufayli 1967 yildan buyon davlat idorasi boshlig'idan ajralgan holda bosh vazir lavozimidan iste'foga chiqdi, lekin oxirgi va bosh qo'mondon sifatida hokimiyatda qoldi. Franko 1975 yilda, 82 yoshida vafot etdi va Valle de los Kaydosga yotqizildi. U oxirgi yillarda monarxiyani tikladi, uning o'rnini Xuan Karlos egalladi va u o'z navbatida Ispaniyaning demokratiyaga o'tishiga olib keldi.

Ispaniya tarixidagi Franko merosi munozarali bo'lib qolmoqda, chunki uning diktaturasining tabiati vaqt o'tishi bilan o'zgargan. Uning hukmronligi shafqatsiz qatag'onlar, minglab odamlarning o'ldirilishi va iqtisodiy farovonlik bilan o'tdi, bu Ispaniyada hayot sifatini ancha yaxshiladi. Uning diktatorlik uslubi juda moslashuvchan bo'lib, u keng ko'lamli ijtimoiy va iqtisodiy islohotlarni amalga oshirishga imkon berdi, uning hukmronligi davrida izchil izlanishlar markazlashgan hukumat, avtoritarizm, millatchilik, milliy katoliklik, masonlikka qarshi va kommunizmga qarshi bo'lgan.


Seal Team 6 sizning eshagingizni tekkizmaslikning 4 usuli

2020 yil 12 -iyun, 18:12:07 da e'lon qilingan

Bu erda biz qudratli odammiz, odamlar SEAL Team 6 tomonidan eshakka tekkanidan tashvishlanayotganini tushunishimiz mumkin.

Shunday qilib, jamoat xizmati sifatida DevGru ’s yaramas ro'yxatidan qanday chiqish haqida ba'zi ko'rsatmalar:


Qanday qilib AQSh harbiy-dengiz kuchlari F-35 ning eng muammoli muammosini hal qilishni rejalashtirmoqda

2018 yil 02 -aprel, 09:45:28 da joylashtirilgan

Yanvar oyida "Inside Defense" hisoboti AQSh Harbiy-dengiz kuchlarining F-35 samolyotlari Joint Strike Fighter oilasida eng qimmat bo'lgani, burun tishli qurilmasi bilan bog'liq muammo borligi haqidagi xabarni tarqatib yubordi, bu esa samolyotni tashuvchilar uchun yaroqsiz holga keltirdi. ishga tushiradi.

Navy ’s F-35C o'zining rivojlanishida muammolar tarixiga ega, chunki u samolyot tashuvchilardan katapult uchirishning murakkab san'atini o'zlashtirishga harakat qilmoqda, ammo burun tishli qurilmasi F-35Cni 2020-yillarga qaytarishi mumkin. tez topilmaydi.

Business Insider bu muammoni ko'rsatadigan videolarni ochib berdi:

Aslida, F-35C samolyotining uchishi juda qo'pol bo'lib, uchuvchilarni qimirlatib yuboradi, shunda ular dubulg'ali 400 ming dollarlik displeylarida parvoz haqidagi muhim ma'lumotlarni o'qiy olmaydi.

Shuningdek o'qing: Bu erda F-35 maxfiy rejimni ishlatganda "hayvonlar rejimi" va "8217-lar"

“Bu Super Hornetda ko'rganingizdek bir xil kattalikdagi tebranishlarga qaramay, bu juda qattiq samolyot. Bu uchuvchini juda yaxshi uradi, ” AQSh Harbiy -havo kuchlari general -leytenanti Kris Bogdan shu oy boshida McAleese/Credit Suisse mudofaa konferentsiyasida jurnalistlarga aytdi, AQSh Harbiy -dengiz instituti yangiliklari.

F-35C uchuvchilari uchdan to'rttasini bajarganidan keyin xafa bo'lishmoqda va ba'zi hollarda hatto yarim million dollarlik dubulg'asini tokchaga urishgan,-dedi Bogdan. “Bu na soyabon, na dubulg'a uchun yaxshi. Shunday qilib, bizda muammo borligini bildik. ”

AQSh harbiy-dengiz kuchlarining quruqlikdagi katapult tizimida o'tkazilgan sinovlar shuni ko'rsatdiki, F-35C burun qismini qimmat va uzoq muddat qayta loyihalash o'rniga, kichikroq sozlashlar etarli bo'lishi mumkin.

Lockheed Martin ’s F-35 dasturining bosh menejeri Jeff Babione, kompaniyaning Vashingtondagi ofisida shunday fikrni takrorladi va jurnalistlarga kompaniya natijalar beradigan bir necha oddiy o'zgarishlar ustida ishlaganini aytdi. Babioning so'zlariga ko'ra, Lockheed Martin uchish belbog'ini, bosh va qo'l holatini o'zgartirgan, shuningdek, ishga tushirilishidan bir necha daqiqa oldin samolyotdagi "qaytarilish" yoki "stress" ni kamaytirgan.

"Birinchi ko'rsatma-bu takomillashtirilgan texnikaning bir qismi va F-35C ishga tushirilishi", dedi Babione. U haqiqiy sinovlarni dengiz floti tashuvchilar bortida o'tkazishini tan oldi va bu o'zgarishlar muvaffaqiyatli bo'lganmi yoki yo'qligini bilish uchun. ”

Uchish sinovlari shu yilning oxirida dengizda o'tkaziladi.

Kuchli trend

"Hozirgi apokalipsis" epik filmi haqida siz bilmagan 4 narsa

2019 yil 28 -yanvar, 18:41:04 da joylashtirilgan

1979 yilda kino ijodkorining afsonasi Frensis Ford Koppola barcha zamonlarning eng taniqli filmlaridan birini chiqardi. Endi apokalipsis. Hikoya, harbiy razvedka aqldan ozgan deb hisoblaydigan yaramas polkovnikni o'ldirish uchun Kambodja o'rmonlariga chuqur sayohat qilishning xavfli vazifasi yuklangan kapitan Uillard (Martin Shein rolini o'ynagan) bilan bog'liq.

Darhol film butun dunyo tomoshabinlarini o'ziga jalb qildi. Aslida, siz hali ham ushbu filmning namoyishini butun mamlakat bo'ylab kinoteatrlarda topishingiz mumkin. Bu ajoyib manzara va epik metafora bo'yicha master -klass.

Garchi bu film kino tarixida yaxshi hujjatlashtirilgan joyni egallasa-da, Vetnam davridagi klassik haqida siz bilmagan ba'zi narsalar bor.

Hech bir yirik kinostudiya filmni ishlab chiqarishni xohlamagan

O'sha paytda kinostudiyalar hali ham Vetnam urushi haqiqatlari haqida achchiq edilar. Shu sababli, Jorj Lukas (filmning boshlanish bosqichida ishlagan) va Jon Millius ssenariyni bir nechta studiyalarga olib ketishdi va bir necha bor rad etishdi.

Natijada film noma'lum muddatga qoldirildi. Vaqtinchalik Koppola siz eshitgan bir nechta kichik filmlarni boshqarishga kirishdi. Xoch otasi, I va II qismlar.

Bu ulkan muvaffaqiyatdan so'ng, Koppola o'z ehtirosli loyihasini studiyalarsiz ishlab chiqarishga qaror qilib, millionlab o'z mablag'larini yig'di.

Harvi Keytelning kamdan -kam uchraydigan filmi Robert Duvall bilan kuladi.

Koppola o'zining etakchi odamini ishdan bo'shatdi

Dastlab, kapitan Uillard rolini ijro etish uchun iste'dodli aktyor Xarvi Keytel jalb qilingan. Ammo, suratga olish ishlari boshlanganidan ko'p o'tmay, u ishdan bo'shatildi va uning o'rniga rolni o'z zimmasiga olgan Martin Shein bilan almashtirildi.

Brando Kurtz rolini o'ynashini xohlagan

Koppola Marlon Brandoni o'zining eng mashhur qahramonlaridan biriga aylanadigan ramziy rolni o'ynashga ko'ndirdi. Biroq, Brando aqldan ozgan polkovnik rolini o'ynash uchun haftasiga bir million dollar olishni xohlardi. Ishlab chiqarish uning talabiga rozi bo'lganidan so'ng, u uch haftalik ish uchun rejalashtirilgan edi. Koppola avans sifatida bir million smackeroos topshirdi.

Bir necha haftalik otishmalardan so'ng, ishlab chiqarish kech ishlay boshladi. Brando ’ s aholisi boshqa kunga rejalashtirilganligi sababli, o'qishni tashlab, million dollarlik avansni saqlab qolish bilan tahdid qilishdi.

Coppola baxtli emas edi, lekin oxir -oqibat hamma narsa amalga oshdi. Taniqli rejissyor o'zining yovuz odamini epik spektaklga taklif qildi.

Suratga olishda ishlatilgan vertolyotlar doimo isyonchilarga qarshi kurash uchun chaqirilardi

Otish paytida, Filippin qo'zg'olon paytida edi. Mashhur "Valkyries sayohati" sahnasida ishlatilgan uchuvchilar Koppola ishlab chiqarishidan atigi 10 mil narida bo'lgan isyonchi kuchlarga qarshi kurashishni buyurishdi.

Balki ular haqiqatan ham qildi Ertalab napalm hidi.

Bizga yoqadigan boshqa havolalar

KUCHLI TARIX

Kirish imkoniyatlari

1 Maskariq ibodat davri haqida gapiradigan olimlardan faqat Vit Vlnas va Robert Pinsent uni chuqur tahlil qildilar. Vlnasga qarang, "Myty a kyče první republiky" [Birinchi respublikaning afsonalari va to'plamlari], Nova Pitomnost [Yangi mavjudlik] 8 (1991): 28–29 Pinsent, Shaxsga oid savollar: Chexiya va Slovakiya millati va shaxsiyat g'oyalari (London, 1994), 193f.

Siyosiy mifologiya bo'yicha keng ko'lamli adabiyotning asosi Ernst Kassirer bo'lib, u davlatlar chuqur inqiroz davrida afsonalarga qaytadi va zamonaviy afsonalar qadimiy yoki muqaddaslardan farq qiladi, chunki ular zamonaviy Rejimlar ularni yaratadi: Cassirer, Der Mythus des Staates (Frankfurt, 1988). Men quyidagilarni foydali deb topdim: Yves Bizeul, tahr., Politsiya Mythen va Rituale Deutschland, Frankreich va und Polen (Berlin, 2000) Kristofer To'fon, Siyosiy afsona: nazariy kirish (Nyu-York, 2002) Heidi Hein-Kircherning ishi, shu jumladan Der Piłsudski-Kult und seine Bedeutung für den polnischen Staat 1926–1939 (Marburg, 2002) Jorj Shopflin va Jefri Xosking, tahr., Afsona va millat (Nyu -York, 1997) Vladimir Tismaneanu, Najot xayollari: Postkommunistik Evropada demokratiya, millatchilik va afsona (Princeton, 1998) Nina Tumarkin, Lenin yashaydi! Sovet Rossiyasida Lenin kulti, kengaytirilgan nashr (Kembrij, 1997).

3 Uilyam Baskom, "Folklor shakllari: nasriy hikoyalar", Alan Dundes, tahr., Muqaddas hikoya: afsona nazariyasidagi o'qishlar (Berkli, 1984), 9-10.

4 Jozef Kempbell, Bill Moyers bilan intervyu, Afsona kuchi (Nyu -York, 1988), 30.

5 Lenin kultiga qarang: Tumarkin va Benno Ennker. Sowjetunionda "Anfänge des Leninkults" kompaniyasi (Koln 1997). Stalin kultiga oid eng so'nggi ishlar uchun qarang: Apor, Behrends va boshqalar, tahr., Kommunistik diktaturadagi etakchi kult: Stalin va Sharq bloki (Houndmills, Buyuk Britaniya, 2004).

6 Heidi Hein-Kircher va Benno Ennker tomonidan belgilangan Der Fyurer va Evropa. 20. Jahrxunderts, 2007 yil oktyabr, Marburg, Germaniya.

7 E. A. Rees zamonaviy lider kultlari haqidagi nazariyaning qisqacha taqdimotini taqdim etadi. Apor, Behrends va boshqalar, Eds, "Lider kultlari: navlar, old shartlar va funktsiyalar" ga qarang. Kommunistik diktaturalardagi etakchi kulti, 3–26.

8 Robert Kvachek, "Demokratiyaning yuksalishi va qulashi", Mikulash Teich, Tarixdagi Bogemiya (Kembrij, 1998), 251.

Masalan, qal'a kantsleri binosida yosh xodimlar ko'pincha siyosiy boshlig'i Yozef Shieslning konservativ millatchiligiga qarshi chiqishgan. 1924 yilda Shieszl, Yaroslav Stranskiy boshchiligidagi Qal'aning homiyligidagi Milliy Mehnat Partiyasini ochiqchasiga qoralaganida, Masarykning o'zi Shieslni tanbeh berishi kerak edi. Schieszl, "Nové strany" [Yangi partiyalar], Yangi svoboda [Yangi erkinlik], 1925 yil 1 oktyabr, Tomas Dvořákda keltirilgan, "Národní strana práce (1925–1930), II. Xast "(Milliy Mehnat Partiyasi (1925-1930), II qism), Stední Evropa [Markaziy Evropa] 77 (1998): 123. Shuningdek, Chexoslovakiya Ichki ishlar vazirligi, Chexiya milliy arxivida (sobiq Davlat markaziy arxivi yoki SÚA) xolding tsenzura qilingan nashrlarning ro'yxatini o'z ichiga oladi. Bu ro'yxatda, bir necha marta, hatto 1938 yil Birinchi respublika halok bo'lgunga qadar, Ferdinand Peroutka edi Pitomnost [Mavjudligi], hozirda Qal'aning eng mashhur nashrlaridan biri hisoblanadi. Qarang: Národní Archiv (Praga), Prezidium vazirligi.

10 Qal'ada qarang, masalan, Karl Bosl, tahr. Die Burg: Eflußreiche politische Kräfte um Masaryk und Benes, 2 jild. (Myunxen, 1973–74) Antonin Klimek, Boj yoki Xrad [Qal'a uchun jang], 1 -jild, Xrad va Pitka, 1918–1926 [Qal'a va Pitka, 1918–1926] (Praga, 1996) va Boj yoki Xrad, jild 2, Maskokovi bormi? 1926-1935 yillar [Masarikdan keyin kim? 1926–1935] (Praga, 1998) Yaroslav Pechachek, Masaryk, Beneš, Xrad: Masarykovy dopisy Benešovi [Masaryk, Benesh, Qal'a: Masarykning Benesga maktublari] (Praga, 1996). Ingliz tilida F. Gregori Kempbell "Qal'a, Jaroslav Preiss va Shivnostenska banki" ga qarang. Bogemiya: Jahrbuch des Collegium Carolinum 15 (1974): 231-53 va Andrea Orzoff, Qal'a uchun jang: Chexoslovakiyadagi milliy afsona va targ'ibot, 1914–1948 (Oksford, yaqinda).

11 Zbynok Zeman, Masariklar: Chexoslovakiyaning tuzilishi (Nyu -York, 1976), 139.


Klivlend orkestrining barcha musiqachilarining ro'yxati

Bu veb -sayt, www.stokowski.org buyuk Klivlend orkestri musiqachilarining ikkita ro'yxatini o'z ichiga oladi:

- Qisqa tarjimai hol yozuvlari va fotosuratlari bilan Klivlend orkestrining asosiy musiqachilari ro'yxati. Bu ro'yxatni Klivlend orkestrining asosiy musiqachilari veb -sahifasini bosish orqali olish mumkin.

- 1918 yilgi Klivlend orkestrining barcha musiqachilarining ro'yxati. Bu ro'yxat quyida ko'rsatilganidek, ushbu veb -sahifada mavjud.

1918 yilgacha Klivlend orkestri musiqachilarining ro'yxati

Bu 1918 yilda tashkil etilganidan buyon Klivlend orkestri doimiy va shartnoma tuzgan a'zolari bo'lgan hozirgacha aniqlangan barcha musiqachilar ro'yxati. Ularning ismi, asboblari va xizmat qilish sanalari, shuningdek unvonlari berilgan. Agar musiqachi bir nechta asbob chalsa, musiqachining sanasi ko'rsatilgan alohida ro'yxat taqdim etiladi. Men tug'ilish va o'lim yillarini ham qo'sha boshladim.

Ushbu ma'lumot manbalariga quyidagilar kiradi:Fanfare: Klivlend orkestri portretlari 17 va mening shaxsiy fayllarim va yangilanishlarim, shuningdek, Donald Rozenbergning yaxshi kitobi Klivlend orkestrining hikoyasi, "Hech kimdan kam" 1 .

Agar siz quyida keltirilgan ma'lumotlarga yangilanish yoki tuzatish kiritishingiz kerak bo'lsa, Iltimos, quyida ko'rsatilgan elektron pochta manziliga men bilan bog'laning. . (** E'tibor bering, yuqoridagi 1919 yilgi fotosuratda Klivlend orkestri Greys Armoryda o'ynaydi, lekin Klivlend orkestri 1919 yil noyabridan bir oy oldin Masonik auditoriyaga ko'p konsertlarni o'tkazgan edi.)

Shuningdek, 1918 yildan beri Klivlend orkestri bosh musiqachilarining qisqa tarjimai hollarini o'qish, Klivlend orkestri bosh musiqachilari sahifasiga qaytish uchun shu erni bosing

1918 yil Klivlend orkestrining barcha musiqachilari


Tarkibi

Franko 1892 yil 4 -dekabrda Galisiyaning Ferrol shahrida 108 Calle Frutos Saavedra shahrida tug'ilgan. U o'n uch kundan keyin San -Frantsisko harbiy cherkovida suvga cho'mdi, suvga cho'mdirish ismi Fransisko Paulino Xermenegildo Teodu Fransisko otasi uchun, Paulino otasi uchun, Germenegildo onasi buvisi va onasi uchun, Teodu esa avliyo tug'ilgan kuni uchun. .

Uning otasi Andalusiyadan bo'lgan. [quyi alfa 2] Galitsiyaga ko'chib kelganidan so'ng, oila Ispaniya dengiz flotida faol ishtirok etdi va ikki asr mobaynida olti avlod davomida Frankoning otasi Nikolas Franko va Salgado Araujo (22 noyabr 1855- 1942 yil 22 fevral).

Uning onasi Mariya del Pilar Bahamonde y Pardo de Andrade edi (1865 yil 15 oktyabr-1934 yil 28 fevral) [24] va u o'rta sinfning yuqori sinfidagi katolik edi. Uning ota -onasi 1890 yilda uylanishgan. Yosh Franko bolaligining ko'p qismini ikki akasi Nikolas (Ferrol, 1891–1977) va Ramon va uning ikki singlisi Mariya del Pilar (Ferrol, 1894 - Madrid, 1989) va Mariya bilan o'tkazgan. de la Pas (Ferrol, 1899 - Ferrol, 1903). Ikkinchisi bolaligida vafot etdi. Nikolas keyinchalik harbiy ofitser va diplomat bo'lib, Mariya Izabel Paskal del Pobil y Ravelloga uylangan. Ramon - kashshof aviator, 1938 yilda harbiy topshiriq paytida aviahalokatda halok bo'lgan, chap tarafdagi siyosiy qarashlarga ega bo'lgan mason. Mariya del Pilar Alonso Jarayz va Jerezga uylandi.


Mundarija

Bolalik va yoshlik: Augsburg 1898-1917

Ota -onalar va ijtimoiy muhit

Eugen Brext, yosh Bertolt Brext deb atalgan, xavfsiz iqtisodiy va ijtimoiy sharoitda o'sgan. Uning otasi Berxold Fridrix Brext, Badenning Achern shahridagi litografning o'g'li, oliy ma'lumotga ega emas edi: u boshlang'ich maktabda o'qigan, keyin tijorat amaliyotini tamomlagan. 1893 yilda u Augsburgdagi Haindl'schen Papierfabrik -da xizmat ko'rsatuvchi sifatida ishlay boshladi, o'sha paytda faqat Augsburgda 300 ga yaqin xodimlari bo'lgan. U erda Berthold Fridrix Brext tezda ko'tarildi, 1901 yilda imzo chekuvchi va 1917 yilda tijorat bo'limi direktori. Brextning onasi Vilgelmina Friderik Sophie, asli Brezing (1871–1920), Volfegg yaqinidagi Yuqori Svabiya shahridagi Rossberg shahridan kelgan va kichik bir davlat xizmatchisining uyidan kelgan (otasi Rossberg temir yo'l kesishmasida stansiya direktori bo'lgan).

1900 yil sentyabrdan boshlab, oila Berthold Fridrix va Sofi Brext, shuningdek Evgen va ukasi Uolter Augsburg Klauke-Vorstadtning oltita xonali ikkita kvartirasida yashab, "Bleich" kvartali deb ham ataladi. Kvartira to'rt uyli Xaindl jamg'armasiga tegishli edi, asosan, qog'oz fabrikasining munosib ishchilari va xizmatchilari uchun Berthold Fridrix Brechtning vazifalari ushbu fondni boshqarishni o'z ichiga oladi. Brechts xizmatkorni yollashdi. Sofi Brext yillar davomida depressiya va ko'krak saratoni bilan og'rigan va 1920 yilda saraton kasalligining qaytalanishidan vafot etgan. Yilda onamning qo'shig'i , Brext yozadi: "Men uning yuzi og'riqli bo'lmagan paytdagi kabi eslay olmayman". 1910 yildan buyon brechtlarda qo'shimcha uy bekasi bor edi. Buning uchun Evgen o'z xonasini bo'shatishi kerak edi, lekin unga o'z kirish joyi bo'lgan chodirli kvartira berildi.

Otasi katolik, onasi protestant edi. Ular bolalarni protestant dinida tarbiyalashga rozi bo'lishdi, shuning uchun yosh Eugen Brext asosan katolik Augsburgda ozchilikka tegishli edi. 1904 yildan boshlab Augsburgdagi boshlang'ich maktabda, 1908 yildan Augsburg realgimnaziyasida (hozirgi Peutinger-gimnaziyasi) o'qigan va uyiga yaxshi, bo'lmasa juda yaxshi sertifikatlar olib kelgan. U pianino, skripka va gitara darslarini oldi, lekin faqat ikkinchisi urdi. Erta yoshida u yurak xastaligidan aziyat chekardi, natijada ko'plab kurortlarga yotqizilgan. Shikoyatlarning organik yoki nevrotik bo'lganligi noma'lum.

Birinchi nashrlar

O'n besh yoshida Brext va uning do'sti Frits Gehveyer maktab gazetasini nashr etishdi. Hosil , u ko'pchilik maqolalarni o'zi yozgan, ba'zilari xorijiy nomlar bilan yozilgan va nusxa ko'chirilgan. U she'rlar, nasr matnlari va hatto bitta aktli drama yozgan. Injil . Keyingi yillarda Brext dramalarga she'rlar va chizmalar tayyorlashda davom etdi. 1914 yilda Birinchi jahon urushi boshlanganidan so'ng, u ichki frontdan bir qator (asosan vatanparvarlik) reportajlar, she'rlar, nasr matnlari va sharhlarni mahalliy va mintaqaviy ommaviy axborot vositalarida joylashtirishga muvaffaq bo'ldi: "Augsburger Kriegsbriefe" (Augsburg) Harbiy maktublar) Myunxen-Augsburg Abendzeitung , boshqa matnlar Augsburger Noyesten Naxrixten va, ayniqsa, uning adabiy qo'shimchasi, Hikoyachi . Ular asosan Berthold Eugen bilan chizilgan, bu uning ismlarining kombinatsiyasi.

O'z matnlarida, Brext tez orada urushni vatanparvarlik bilan ulug'lashdan voz kechdi va mahalliy gazetalar uchun ishlab chiqarish pasayib ketdi. Horace oyati haqidagi insho tufayli Dulce et decorum est patria mori ("Vatan uchun o'lish sharafli va sharafli"), Brext 1915 yilda yozgan va o'limning kutilgan pafosiga to'g'ri kelmaydi, u deyarli o'rta maktabdan haydalgani aytiladi. 1916 yildan boshlab u she'rlar yozdi, unga qo'shildi Bertolt Brextning uy pochtasi 1927 yilda, Brext ham keyinchalik uni qo'llab -quvvatladi. Ulardan birinchisi Fort Donald temir yo'l qo'shinlarining qo'shig'i , birinchi marta 1916 yil iyulda nashr etilgan hikoya qiluvchi va "Bert Brext" chizilgan. Aynan shu erda Brext birinchi marta nomini oldi.

Do'stlik va sevgi ishlari

Urush yillarida u o'zi bilan qo'shiqlar yozgan va kuylagan, nashrlarda ishlagan do'stlar davrasini yig'di. Kaspar Nexer ( Cas Brecht maktabdan bilgan), grafik dizayner va, birinchi navbatda, Brexht vafotigacha sahna dizayneri sifatida yaqin sherigi bo'lib qoldi. Orge uyda postil) va Xanns Otto Myunsterer ham uzluksizligini ko'rsatdi (uzilishlar bilan). Do'stlari bilan birgalikda (ayniqsa Lyudvig Prestel va Lud ), Brext nafaqat so'zlarni, balki qo'shiqlar va she'rlarga ham ohanglar yozdi, keyin ularni gitara chaldi. Bu bosqichda Brextning ish uslubining ikkita xususiyati yaqqol ko'rinib qoldi: ammo, aniqrog'i, Brextning markaziy figurasiga yo'naltirilgan jamoadagi ish va boshqa san'at bilan, ayniqsa, grafikani amalga oshirish uchun juda yaqin aloqa. / to'plam dizayni va musiqa.

Aynan shu vaqtda yosh Brextning birinchi muhabbat ishlari bo'lgan. U talaba Roza Mariya Amann bilan muomala qildi, uning ismi keyinchalik uning eng mashhur she'rlaridan biriga aylandi ( Mari A. xotirasi. ). Ko'p o'tmay, Paula Banxolzerga bo'lgan muhabbat birinchi o'ringa chiqdi, uni "Bi" deb atadi (uchun achchiq yoki "achchiq shirin", drama modeliga asoslangan Birja Pol Klodel tomonidan ayblangan almashish sheriklar). Shunday bo'lsa -da, u Amannni va u ko'rgan boshqa yosh ayollarni qidirishni davom ettirdi - bu xususiyat uning hayoti davomida davom etdi.

1917 yil mart oyida Brext yordamchi harbiy xizmatga kirishini e'lon qildi va 18 yoshli o'rta maktabni muvaffaqiyatli tamomlagan Notabiturning soddalashtirilgan roziligini oldi. U o'z ishini qog'oz bilan va bog'dorchilik do'konida bajargan. U harbiy xizmatdan kechiktirildi. Yozda u Tegernsee -da badavlat oiladagi sinfdoshining shaxsiy o'qituvchisi bo'lib ishlagan, keyin Myunxenda tibbiyotda o'qishni boshlagan.

Professional yozuvchi va teatr amaliyotchisi bo'lish yo'lida

O'qish va harbiy xizmat

Rasmiy ravishda Brext tibbiyot va falsafani o'rgangan. Biroq, u kamdan -kam hollarda tibbiy ma'ruzalarga qatnashdi, lekin Artur Kutscherning zamonaviy adabiyot bo'yicha seminariga e'tibor qaratdi. U erda u shoir va dramaturg Frank Vedekind bilan uchrashdi, u o'zi hayratga tushdi, shuningdek Otto Zarek va Ganns Yoxst bilan uchrashdi va tibbiyot talabasi Hedda Kuhn bilan tasodifiy munosabatlar o'rnatdi. sanolar "U" sifatida. Boshqa narsalar qatorida, hozirgi roman Ambros Mariya Baal tomonidan seminarda ekspressionist Andreas Tom bilan shug'ullanishdi. Bu roman va Yoxstning Grabbe dramasi Der Eynsame , u 1918 yil mart oyida ko'rgan, Brextga o'z dramasi nomini yozishga ilhom bergan Baal , birinchi versiyasi iyun oyida tayyor bo'lgan. Brextning otasi kompaniya kotiblariga adolatli nusxasini yozgan edi, ularni Brext dastlab muvaffaqiyatsiz ravishda Kutscher, Lion Feuchtwanger, Jeykob Geyz va Alfred Kerrga yuborgan. Bu vaqtda Brextning eng mashhur she'rlari yozilgan, ayniqsa o'lgan askar afsonasi va Luciferning kechki qo'shig'i , keyinchalik qayta nomlandi Gegen Verführung .

Dastlabki ikki semestrda otasi ko'magida Brext 1918 yil oktyabr oyida harbiy xizmatdan kechiktirishga muvaffaq bo'ldi, biroq u Augsburg zaxira kasalxonasiga harbiy hamshira sifatida chaqirildi. O'sha paytda u o'z xatini yozgan qo'shiq D stansiyasi kavalerlariga - Maktub dermatologiyani anglatadi, bu jinsiy yo'l bilan yuqadigan kasalliklar uchun stantsiya edi - va uning do'stlari bilan kitob yozilgan. gitara qo'shiqlari Bert Brext va uning do'stlari . Noyabr inqilobidan keyin Brext harbiy kengash va shu tariqa Augsburg ishchilar va askarlar kengashining a'zosi edi, lekin hech qanday natijaga erisha olmadi. 1919 yil 9 yanvarda u yana xizmatini tugatishga muvaffaq bo'ldi.

Aniq tarmoq

Brext shu vaqt ichida Paula Banxolzer bilan bo'lgan ishqiy munosabatini saqlab qolgan va 1919 yilning yanvarida 17 yoshli qizdan homilador bo'lganligi ma'lum bo'lgan. Banxolzerning otasi shu paytgacha muvaffaqiyatsiz bo'lgan shoir bilan uylanishiga ishonmagan va uni Kimratshofenning Allgau qishlog'iga yuborgan, u erda 1919 yil 30 -iyulda o'g'li Frankni dunyoga keltirgan. Brext yanvar oyidan buyon yangi drama yozgan edi. Spartak (keyinchalik qayta nomlangan Tunda barabanlar ). Fevral oyida u Lion Feuchtwangerga borib, unga spektaklning birinchi versiyasini ko'rsatdi. Nufuzli Feuchtwanger o'zini juda ijobiy ifoda etdi va yosh Brextning eng muhim va uzoq muddatli tarafdorlaridan biriga aylandi.

Garchi Brext Feuchtwangerni qo'llab -quvvatlagan bo'lsa -da, dastlab u na qayta ishlangan, na asarlaridan na bosma, na spektakl mavjud emas edi. 1919 yilda u, shuningdek, bir aktli spektakllar turkumini yozdi Hochzeit o'lishi (keyinchalik nomi: Die Kleinbürgerhochzeit ), bu ham bajarilmay qoldi. 1919 yil 13 oktyabrdan boshlab u hech bo'lmaganda USPD gazetasi uchun teatr sharhlarini yozgan Der Volksvill Augsburgda, lekin Augsburg teatri o'zining polemikasi tufayli bir nechta muammolarga duch keldi, bu esa haqoratli jarayonga olib keldi. 1920 yil fevral oyida Berlinga birinchi safari paytida Brext Myunxendagi tanishlaridan Xedda Kun va yozuvchi va jurnalist Frank Varsxauer bilan (Eislebener Strasse kvartirasida hozir ham, 1921/1922 yillardagi ikkinchi uyida ham) bo'lgan. taqish O'sha paytda Kiepenheuer o'qituvchisi Hermann Kasakka tavsiyanoma. Baal hech qanday natijasiz, ayniqsa qimmatli edi.

Kapp Putschdan keyin Brext Myunxenga qaytdi. Taxminan dekabrda u qo'shiqchi Marianne Zoff bilan Augsburg singari uchrashdi Volksvill teatr tanqidchisi va Paula Banxolzer bilan munosabatlarini to'xtatmasdan, u bilan qattiq ishqiy munosabatni boshladi. U Zoffning boshqa sevgilisi Oskar Recht bilan zo'ravon tortishuvlarga aralashdi. Zoff ham, Banxolzer ham 1921 yilda Brext tomonidan yana homilador bo'lishdi, lekin Zoffning homiladorligi tushib ketdi, ehtimol Banxolzer abort qildi. Bu orada Brext boshqa asar ustida ishlay boshladi, keyinchalik unga nom berildi Shaharlar qalinligida, shuningdek, bir qancha kino loyihalarida, hammasini sotish mumkin emas edi. Hech bo'lmaganda u qaroqchini olishga muvaffaq bo'ldi hikoya Bargan uni tark etadi 1921 yil sentyabr oyida milliy jurnalda Der Neue Merkur .

Ayniqsa, 1921 yil noyabrdan 1922 yil apreligacha Berlindagi ikkinchi safarida, Brext Berlin madaniy hayotidagi nufuzli odamlar bilan qat'iy tanishib chiqdi. U parallel muzokaralarni Kiepenheuer-Verlag (Hermann Kasack orqali, umumiy shartnoma va oylik pensiya natijasida), Verlag Erich Reiss (Klabund vositachiligida) va Verlag Pol Kassirer, Aleksandr Granach, Geynrix Jorj kabi taniqli aktyorlar bilan o'tkazdi. Eugen Klopfer va Verner Krauss madaniyatli bozorda qo'shma korxonalarda intilayotgan dramaturg Arnolt Bronnenni bilishadi va ular bilan bog'lanishadi. Bu vaqt ichida u ismining imlosini ham o'zgartirdi Bertolt "Arnolt Bronnen / Bertolt Brext" kompaniyasi uchun ajralib turadigan belgini yaratish uchun. A particularly important contact was to be the theater critic of the Berliner Börsen-Courier , Herbert Ihering , who entered since repeatedly publicly for Brecht. A first attempt at directing Bronnen's play Patermord had to be broken off due to violent arguments between Brecht and the actors. On Trude Hesterberg's Wilder stage he appeared as a singer to the guitar with his legend of the dead soldier , causing a scandal He made similar appearances as a 'songwriter', especially at semi-public meetings of the cultural scene. At the end of 1922, Brecht, who had overwhelmed himself, had to go to the Charité for three weeks with a kidney infection .

First successes

In the meantime it had actually succeeded in arranging the first premiere of a Brecht piece in Munich : Drumming in the Night with Otto Falckenberg at the Munich Kammerspiele. Brecht revised the text again in the summer, rehearsals began on August 29, 1922, the premiere took place on September 29, 1922 and was enthusiastically reviewed by Ihering. The following day, the Kammerspiele showed the revue Die Rote Zibebe by Brecht and Valentin in their midnight ishlash , including Brecht himself as "Klampfenbenke", Klabund, Joachim Ringelnatz (with Kuttel Daddeldu ), Valeska Gert , Karl Valentin and Liesl Karlstadt . Feuchtwanger published an article about Brecht in Das Tage-Buch , Baal was published by Kiepenheuer, the German Theater in Berlin arranged the performance of all Brecht dramas, and Ihering awarded him the Kleist Prize, endowed with 10,000 Reichsmarks . A real “breakout house” had broken out.

During the rehearsals of the drums it had already been found that Marianne Zoff was pregnant again. Brecht, who held a position as a dramaturge and director at the Münchner Kammerspiele from mid-October 1922 , and Marianne Zoff married on November 3, 1922 in Munich. In mid-November, however, he traveled back to Berlin to take part in the rehearsals for the Berlin premiere of drums that night , which took place on December 20th. Before the turn of the year, the first print of the piece was published by Drei Masken Verlag , with the legend of the dead soldier in the appendix. In addition, in March 1923, Brecht finished the grotesque film Mysteries of a Hairdressing Salon together with Erich Engel and Karl Valentin . On March 12, 1923, their daughter Hanne was born in Munich .

In the Thicket of Cities , a version revised at short notice by Brecht, entitled In the Thicket, premiered on May 9, 1923 at the Munich Residenztheater . Caspar Neher was responsible for the set for the first time. While Ihering was again composing hymns of praise, the Nazis were already disturbing the second performance of the piece with stink bombs. The piece was canceled after six performances "because of the opposition in the audience".

Director Brecht

In the following months Brecht made another attempt as a director in Berlin, again together with Bronnen, namely for the bustling theater maker Jo Lherman . He radically shortened the mystery play Pastor Ephraim Magnus by Kleist Prize winner Hans Henny Jahnn under chaotic circumstances and constant quarrels with the actors from seven to two hours, but the premiere on August 23, 1923 was not a success, especially since Lherman's checks turned out to be uncovered. During this time, Brecht met the actress Helene Weigel and began a relationship with her.

From the end of 1923, Brecht concentrated on directing the Münchner Kammerspiele. Together with Lion Feuchtwanger as well as Bernhard Reich and Asja Lacis he arranged an Elizabethan piece by Christopher Marlowe , Edward II , under the title Life of Edward II Angliyadan . It was the first directorial work that Brecht was able to successfully complete after John Fuegi, this is where he developed his personal directorial style for the first time, especially since he was able to work with Neher as a set designer. After numerous delays, the edited piece premiered on March 19, 1924 In June the first print of the arrangement with etchings by Neher was published by Kiepenheuer, under Brecht's name, but with the note on page 2: "I wrote this piece with Lion Feuchtwanger." Baal had already been premiered on December 8, 1923 in Leipzig. Brecht had taken part in the rehearsals and made few friends in the process. The play was immediately canceled at the instigation of the Leipzig city council.

In the spring of 1924 Helene Weigel von Brecht was pregnant. Without telling his wife Marianne anything about it, or at all about this affair, Brecht went on vacation with Marianne and Hanne to Capri in April . He also used the opportunity to meet Neher, Reich and Lacis - and to make a flying visit to Florence , where he met Helene Weigel. In June, Brecht first returned to Berlin to advance his business with the Kiepenheuer Verlag. The collection of poems Hauspostille , which he owed Kiepenheuer for almost two years, he edited together with Hermann Kasack, but afterwards again did not send a finished text, but kept the publisher off. At that time there was still talk of Marianne Brecht moving to Berlin (Kiepenheuer had already started looking for an apartment for her) - but Brecht had already reached an agreement with Helene Weigel that he could take over her attic apartment in Berlin . In September 1924 he finally moved to Berlin.

Creative period before exile

He divorced Marianne three years later and married Helene Weigel on April 10, 1929, who gave birth to their second child Barbara on October 28, 1930.

Brecht developed into a staunch communist in the second half of the 1920s and from then on pursued political goals with his works such as the play Mann ist Mann (premiere 1926). But he never joined the KPD . Brecht's reception of Marxism was influenced by both undogmatic and non-party Marxists such as Karl Korsch , Fritz Sternberg and Ernst Bloch, as well as by the official KPD line. From 1926, the formation of his epic theater took place parallel to the development of his political thought. Numerous theater reviews that he wrote in recent years began his criticism of bourgeois German theater and the art of acting. The notes on the opera Rise and Fall of the City of Mahagonny , which Brecht wrote together with Peter Suhrkamp in 1930, are an important theatrical theoretical essay . The collaboration with Kurt Weill in several music-dramatic works was also essential for the development of the epic theater.

Brecht was not only active in the theater, but also in other fields, across all genres and genres. He wrote poems, songs, short stories, novels, short stories and radio plays for the radio. With his works, Brecht wanted to make social structures transparent, especially with regard to their changeability. For him, literary texts had to have a “use value”. He described this in detail in his 1927 Short Report on 400 (Four Hundred) Young Poets .

In collaboration with Kurt Weill, a number of so-called teaching pieces with avant-garde music were created, for example the piece Lindberghflug 1929, the school opera Der Jasager (1930), which he revised after discussions with students from the Karl Marx School (Berlin-Neukölln) and the alternative Der Neinsager added, as well as The measure (also 1930). Bertolt Brecht's collection of poems, published in 1927, consisted of texts that were largely written earlier. In 1928 Brecht celebrated one of the greatest theatrical successes of the Weimar Republic with his Threepenny Opera , set to musiqa by Kurt Weill and premiered on August 31st. In the same year Brecht met Hanns Eisler , who now became the most important composer of his pieces and songs. The acquaintance grew into a close friendship and one of the most important poet-musician partnerships of the 20th century.

Life in exile

In 1930 the National Socialists began to vehemently disrupt Brecht's performances. At the beginning of 1933 a performance of The Measure was interrupted by the police. The organizers were charged with high treason. On February 28 - one day after the Reichstag fire - Brecht left Berlin with his family and friends and fled abroad. His first exile stations were in Prague, Vienna, Zurich, in the early summer of 1933 Carona with Kurt Kläber and Lisa Tetzner and Paris. At the invitation of the writer Karin Michaëlis , Helene Weigel traveled with the children to Denmark on the small island of Thurø near Svendborg . In April 1933, Brecht was on the “black list” drawn up by Wolfgang Herrmann that is why his books were burned by the National Socialists on May 10, 1933 , and all of his works were banned the next day. Brecht was stripped of his German citizenship in 1935 .

In 1933, Brecht set up the DAD agency, the “German Author Service”, in Paris. This was intended to give emigrated writers, in particular his co-author and lover Margarete Steffin , opportunities for publication. Together with Kurt Weill , Brecht developed his first exile piece, the ballet The Seven Deadly Sins , which premiered in July 1933 at the Théâtre des Champs-Elysées. Shortly afterwards, Brecht bought a house in Svendborg (Denmark) and spent the next five years there with his family. In 1938 the life of Galileo originated . In addition to dramas, Brecht also wrote articles for several émigré magazines in Prague, Paris and Amsterdam. In 1939 he left Denmark, lived in a farmhouse in Lidingö near Stockholm for a year and in April 1940 in Helsinki. During the summer stay in Marlebäck in 1940 , where the family had been invited by the Finnish writer Hella Wuolijoki , Brecht wrote the play Mr. Puntila and his servant Matti , based on a text by Wuolijoki , which was only premiered on June 5, 1948 in Zurich. In the summer of 1940 he began working with Wuolijoki on the unfinished piece Die Judith by Shimoda based on a template by Yuzo Yamamoto.

It was not until May 1941 that Brecht received his entry visa to the USA and was able to travel with his family by ship to Santa Monica in California via Moscow and Vladivostok . He lived there for five years, from 1942 to 1947, at 1063 26th Street, just outside Hollywood . He envisioned working as a successful screenwriter in the film business but this did not happen at first because of his aversion to the USA and its isolation. He had hardly any opportunities for literary or political work and described himself in view of the disinterest of the Americans as a "teacher without students". With Charles Laughton , who later played the lead role in Brecht's only theater work in American exile, he translated his play The Life of Galileo , which premiered in July 1947 at the Coronet Theater in Beverly Hills . The original version was premiered on September 9, 1943 in the Schauspielhaus Zurich .

After the USA entered the war, Brecht had to register as an " enemy alien " in 1942 and was monitored by the FBI. Suspected of being a member of a communist party, he was questioned by the Amerikalik bo'lmagan harakatlar qo'mitasi on October 30, 1947 . When asked whether he had ever been a member of the Communist Party or was still present, Brecht answered “no” and added that he was also not a member of a Communist Party in Germany. A day later he traveled to Paris and shortly afterwards on November 5th to Zurich. He stayed there for a year, since Switzerland was the only country for which he was granted a residence permit He was forbidden from entering West Germany - the American zone of occupation. In February 1948, Brecht's version of Antigone des Sophocles was premiered in the Chur City Theater.

Return to Berlin

Sounding out the situation

Shortly after the war, Brecht was urged by friends to come back to Germany and stage his plays himself. However, he waited in Zurich and sounded out the situation. When several theaters were reopened in the Soviet occupation zone in 1948 and the “German Theater” and the Volksbühne resumed work in Berlin , he traveled from Zurich via Prague to Berlin in October 1948 at the invitation of the Kulturbund for the democratic renewal of Germany . He was still prohibited from entering the western occupied areas of Germany. When he arrived in East Berlin, he quickly made contact with important artists and functionaries. The fact that Alexander Dymschitz, an admirer of Brecht's works, sat in the Soviet military administration should also prove to be beneficial for him. The reunion with Jacob Walcher , whose political judgment Brecht always trusted to a particular degree, was a great pleasure for Brecht, as he had now found the expert with whom he could discuss the political constellations. Brecht initially abstained from making political statements in public. As early as January, Brecht in Switzerland expressed his skepticism about developments in Germany.

“It is clear from everything that Germany has not yet grasped its crisis. The daily grief, the lack of everything, the circular movement of all processes, keep the criticism in the symptomatic. Carry on is the watchword. It is postponed and it is suppressed. Everything fears tearing, without which building is impossible. "

Although Brecht was not granted any far-reaching privileges during his stay in Berlin, negotiations did take place with publishers. After some hesitation, he arranged his publishing affairs: The experiments va collected works were to be published by Peter Suhrkamp , the GDR-Aufbau Verlag was also to receive a license for them, and the rights for the stage works remained with Reiss-Verlag in Basel. The Aufbau-Verlag became interested in Brecht's poetry at an early stage.

Brecht found it important to regain a foothold in the theater business. He immediately accepted an offer by Wolfgang Langhoff to stage his own plays at the Deutsches Theater. This also achieved an important goal of his Berlin friends, to tie the artist to a Berlin theater. Together with Erich Engel , Brecht staged the play Mother Courage and Her Children . The premiere on January 11, 1949 was an extraordinary success for Brecht, Engel and the leading actress Weigel, especially because of Brecht's theory of epic theater. On the one hand, the production was praised in the press, on the other hand, later conflicts with the cultural officials became apparent. Terms such as “decadence alien to the people”, still tagged with question marks, appeared in public, apparently in the expectation that the formalism debate of Zhdanov in the USSR in 1948 would inevitably reach the arts and culture of the GDR .

In February 1949, Brecht returned briefly to Zurich to apply for a permanent residence permit, as Berlin was not immediately his first choice. However, the approval was denied. Brecht also tried to win actors and directors for his upcoming work in Berlin. At the same time he conducted extensive studies on the history of the Paris Commune . The text of the play Die Tage der Commune (a revision of Nordahl Grieg's Die Niederlage ) was ready in April 1949, but Brecht was dissatisfied with what had been achieved and initially postponed the production. When he finally left Zurich on May 4, 1949, he had signed contracts with Therese Giehse , Benno Besson and Teo Otto , among others . Previously, Brecht, who had become a stateless person through expatriation in 1935 , with the intention of creating a version of Jedermann , had approached the director of the Salzburg Festival Gottfried von Eine in April 1949 and at the same time pointed out the original nationality of his wife Helene Weigel the Austrian citizenship requests. In August 1949 he moved to one in Salzburg and began working on Jedermann. At the intercession of one and numerous Austrian cultural workers who expected an enrichment of the local cultural life, the Salzburg provincial government granted Brecht and Weigel the desired citizenship on April 12, 1950. In the GDR, the authorities from then on listed Brecht and Weigel as German and Austrian citizens. In Austria, Brecht met with criticism the following year. He left the country in 1950 without ending Jedermann . As the originator of naturalization, one lost his post at the Salzburg Festival.

A separate ensemble

While Brecht was in Switzerland, Helene Weigel had arranged everything necessary to be able to found Brecht's own ensemble. Wilhelm Pieck , Otto Grotewohl and, on the part of SMAD, Alexander Dymschitz had supported the project to the best of their ability. On April 29, 1949, the responsible government agency was informed of the decision by the SED Politburo to found a “Helene Weigel Ensemble” with the stipulation that the game would start on September 1, 1949. The appointment of Helene Weigel as ensemble leader only had advantages for Brecht. On the one hand, he did not have to deal with the bureaucracy of the theater business, but on the other hand he could also be sure that Weigel would not force him to compromise through his own ambition. In the first few years, the concept of working together between talented actors and directors from the exile scene and young talents from Germany seemed to work, but the Cold War and the debate about Brecht's epic theater soon had an impact in this area too. Agreements could not be kept, artists such as Peter Lorre expected by Brecht did not come to Berlin. Other artists, such as Teo Otto, who were confronted with allegations of formalism, ended the collaboration.

Theater work in the GDR

When a new academy of the arts was to be brought into being with the founding of the GDR in 1949 , Brecht tried to bring his ideas into play: “In any case, our academy should be productive and not just representative.” He also brought up the subject of “master students " into the conversation. In the now renamed Berliner Ensemble , Brecht often and happily surrounded himself with students such as Benno Besson , Peter Palitzsch , Carl Weber and Egon Monk . At the beginning of 1950 Brecht turned to the play Der Hofmeister by the “Sturm und Drang” poet Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz , for which he felt great sympathy throughout his life. The premiere of his adaptation took place on April 15, 1950, it was the greatest success of the ensemble during Brecht's lifetime, and it was here that the public saw him for the first time as a director.

In the early 1950s have been taken by the SED important policy decisions, as was the construction of socialism as the fundamental duty [. ] bo'lish . At the same time, the debate about formalism in art became more acute. Brecht acted cautiously here and did not get involved in a theoretical discussion. He rather took the path of small steps and prepared his audience for the “didactic theater” he wanted with the new production of Die Mutter in 1950/1951. In the rather admonishing and benevolent criticism that began with this staging, Brecht's special role that he enjoyed in the GDR art world became clear once again. Other artists like Paul Dessau felt the formalism allegations of the functionaries much more clearly. However, Brecht's libretto for the opera The Condemnation of Lucullus , whose “test performance” took place on March 17, 1951 under the title The Interrogation of Lucullus , also got into the dispute. A failure should apparently be organized through the targeted allocation of cards by the Ministry of National Education. The plan failed completely. In the following discussions about the play, in which the highest state officials took part, Brecht acted skillfully, always looking for a compromise. On October 7, 1951, Brecht received the national prize of the GDR first class. With his works, Brecht had helped “to lead the struggle for peace and progress and for a happy future for mankind”. In 1952 he had a production of Urfaust with young actors in Potsdam - outside of Berlin - a practice that he practiced even more often. On July 2, 1952, Brecht and Helene Weigel moved into a house in Buckow . Not without pride he declared: "I now belong to a new class - the tenants." ()

Brecht's reactions to June 17, 1953

When there were mass protests by GDR workers in Berlin on June 17, 1953 , on the same day Brecht expressed his “solidarity with the Socialist Unity Party of Germany” in a concise letter to Walter Ulbricht , but at the same time formulated the expectation of a “debate with the masses on the pace of socialist construction ”. On the same day, Brecht sent further short solidarity addresses to Wladimir Semjonow ("unbreakable friendship with the Soviet Union") and to Otto Grotewohl and Gustav Just with the offer of contributing to the current radio program.

Brecht analyzed the situation at the same time in an unpublished typescript as follows: “The demonstrations of June 17th showed the dissatisfaction of a considerable part of the Berlin working class with a number of unsuccessful economic measures. Organized fascist elements tried to abuse this discontent for their bloody ends. For several hours Berlin was on the brink of a Third World War . It is only thanks to the rapid and safe intervention of Soviet troops that these attempts were foiled. It was evident that the intervention of the Soviet troops was by no means directed against the workers' demonstrations. It was apparently directed exclusively against attempts to ignite a new world fire. It is now up to each individual to help the government eradicate the mistakes that have created discontent and threaten our undoubtedly great social achievements. "

Brecht saw the cause of the strikes in the government's attempt to "increase production" by raising labor standards without adequate consideration. The artists were functionalized as propagandists for this project: “The artists were given a high standard of living and the workers were promised it.” Brecht saw a real change in the sphere of production as an alternative.

Brecht had closed his letter to Ulbricht with an address of solidarity for the party, which for some biographers was a mere polite phrase. The government published in Neues Deutschland on June 21, 1953, however, only its affiliation with the party, which permanently discredited Brecht. Brecht tried to correct the impression made by the published part of the letter. Under the heading For Fascists There Can Be No Mercy , Brecht, along with other authors, took a position in the New Germany of June 23, 1953. In addition to a legitimizing introduction, which cited the abuse of the demonstrations "for warlike purposes", he again called for a "big debate" with the workers "who demonstrated with justified dissatisfaction". In October 1953, Brecht tried to distribute the complete letter to Ulbricht through journalists.

“At that time a world collapsed for Brecht. He was shocked and horrified. Eyewitnesses report that they saw him downright helpless at the time For a long time he carried a copy of the fateful letter with him and showed it to friends and acquaintances to justify himself. Lekin juda kech edi. Suddenly the West German theaters, the most loyal ones he had next to his own, removed his plays from the repertoire, and it took a long time for this boycott to loosen up again. "

Ronald Gray found in Brecht's behavior the figure of Galileo Galilei , whom Brecht himself had designed in literary terms: the chameleon-like verbal adaptation to the regime enabled him to pursue his real interests. Walter Muschg reflected on Brecht's unclear behavior with reference to the double life of the Brecht character Shen-Te from The Good Man of Sezuan :

“The one who remained free from the cowardice and stupidity of the time led the double life represented by 'The Good Man of Sezuan' and tainted himself with concessions in order to be able to keep himself up. It did not help him that the verses he provided for official occasions, intentionally or not, were astonishingly bad Schweyk's cunning in dealing with the dictatorship could not calm him down. He had to feel like a ghost of himself because, too proud to flee, he persevered under the flag that had long since become questionable to him. Only a better end to the war could have saved him from this predicament. He wasn't a traitor, but a prisoner. He became an outsider again, his face took on a corpse-like appearance. The worst abuse of his person was the embezzlement of his critical position on the suppression of the Berlin June uprising of 1953, of which the public only got to see the binding final formula. After his early death, which is probably related to the grief over it, poems came to light that show what he suffered. "

In his Brecht biography Brecht & Co. , John Fuegi analyzes Brecht's reactions differently . Brecht himself was under pressure during this time and fought to take over the theater on Schiffbauerdamm . His reference to CIA provocateurs shows his fundamental misinterpretation of the situation. "The GDR government had lost contact with the workers, and that also applied to Brecht." In addition to the letter cited above, Brecht had also sent further solidarity addresses to Vladimir Semjonow and Otto Grotewohl. Brecht also did not react to protests by a worker in the Berliner Ensemble against the low wages of around 350 marks net, although he had received a salary of 3000 marks at the theater alone.

In the poetic reflection of the events in July / August 1953, Brecht took a clearly distant attitude towards the GDR government, which he articulated in the Buckower Elegies in the poem The Solution, among other things .

After the June 17th uprising
Let the secretary of the Writers' Union
Hand out leaflets in Stalinallee
On which it was read that the people
I forfeited the government's trust
And only by doing double the work
Could recapture. If it were there
Not easier, the government
Dissolved the people and
Chose another?

The kind of discussion Brecht had wished for did not materialize he withdrew from the fruitless debates that followed. From July to September 1953, Brecht worked mainly in Buckow on the poems of the Buckower Elegies and on the play Turandot or the Congress of the White Washer . During this time, Brecht also experienced several personal crises in connection with his constantly changing love affairs. Helene Weigel temporarily moved alone to Reinhardstrasse 1, Brecht in a backyard building at Chausseestrasse 125. His long-time loyal companion Ruth Berlau was now increasingly a burden for Brecht, especially since she only carried out her work in the ensemble sporadically.

The last few years

In January 1954 the Ministry of Culture of the GDR was founded, Johannes R. Becher was appointed minister and Brecht was appointed to the artistic advisory board. The old administrative structures were dissolved. This was supposed to finally eliminate the ubiquitous tension between the artists and the state officials. Tushunchasi formalism disappeared from the debates. Brecht welcomed the changes and called on his fellow artists to take advantage of the new opportunities. On March 19, 1954, Brecht and his staff opened the Theater am Schiffbauerdamm with an adaptation of Molière's Don Juan . Against the background of the ever worsening East-West confrontation, Brecht took part in discussion evenings in West Berlin in 1955 and published his war primer . On December 21, 1954, Brecht was awarded the International Stalin Peace Prize, which was presented to him on May 25, 1955 in the Moscow Kremlin. Brecht continued to have ideas and plans for new pieces, which he increasingly delegated to his staff. In June 1954, Brecht was appointed Vice President of the German Academy of the Arts. Brecht also did a huge amount of work in the last years of his life: two productions per year as a director, participation in almost all productions by other directors of the Berliner Ensemble as well as all kinds of literary work. With two guest performances, in 1954 with Mother Courage and in 1955 with The Caucasian Chalk Circle in Paris , Brecht's ensemble has now made its international breakthrough. The triumphant success signaled to every theater official: Brecht can be staged without taking a risk.


Archive for the History of Quantum Physics, 1898-1950 (bulk) 1898-1950

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