Podkastlar tarixi

Nyu -Orlean, Luiziana shtatining sotib olinishi va Katrina bo'roni

Nyu -Orlean, Luiziana shtatining sotib olinishi va Katrina bo'roni

Nyu -Orlean Missisipi daryosining og'zida 100 mil uzoqlikda joylashgan bo'lib, 1700 -yillarning boshidan buyon Luiziana shtatining asosiy shahri va Meksika ko'rfazining eng gavjum shimoliy porti bo'lgan. Frantsuzlar tomonidan asos solingan, 40 yil ispanlar tomonidan boshqarilgan va AQSh tomonidan 1803 yil Luiziana shtatida sotib olingan Nyu -Orlean o'ziga xos kreol madaniyati va jonli tarixi bilan mashhur. Shahar uchun 1812 yilgi urush va fuqarolar urushining muhim janglari bo'lib o'tdi. So'nggi yuz yil ichida Nyu -Orleanning asosiy kurashlari ijtimoiy (qashshoqlik, irqiy nizolar) va tabiiy (bo'ronlar, toshqinlar va asta -sekin cho'kayotgan erlar) bo'ldi.

Frantsiya va Yangi Orleanning tashkil topishi

Yangi Orlean hududining birinchi taniqli aholisi Vudland va Missisipi madaniyatining tubjoy amerikaliklari edi. Bu hududdan De Soto (1542) va La Salle (1682) ekspeditsiyalari o'tdi, lekin 1718 yilgacha Frantsiyaning Luiziana gubernatori Jan-Baptist Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienvill shaharni asos solganidan keyin doimiy oq ko'chmanchilar kam bo'lgan. Nouvelle-Orleans Missisipi og'zidan baland balandlikdagi birinchi yarim oyda. 1722 yilda u Luiziana poytaxtini Biloxidan ko'chirdi. O'sha yili bo'ron yangi Frantsiya kvartalining sxemasiga ko'ra qayta qurilgan yangi shaharning ko'p qismini vayron qildi.

Nyu -Orlean Ispaniya hukmronligi ostida va Luizianani sotib oladi

1762 va 1763 yillarda Frantsiya Luizianani Ispaniyaga berish to'g'risida shartnoma imzoladi. Yangi Orlean 40 yil davomida Ispaniya shahri bo'lib, Kuba va Meksika bilan katta savdo -sotiq olib bordi va erkin rangli odamlar sinfiga ruxsat beruvchi ispan irqiy qoidalarini qabul qildi. Shahar 1788 va 1794 yillardagi yong'inlardan vayron bo'lgan va g'ishtdan qurilgan, binolari va sobori bugungacha saqlanib qolgan.

1803 yilda Luiziana frantsuzlarga qaytdi, ular uni 20 kundan keyin AQShga Luiziana Xaridida sotdilar. 1812 yilgi Urushning oxirgi jangi Yangi Orleanni himoya qilish uchun olib borildi; Polkovnik Endryu Jekson shahar tashqarisidagi ingliz kuchlarini mag'lub etish uchun qaroqchilar, ozod qora tanlilar va Tennessi ko'ngillilari koalitsiyasini boshqargan.

1800 -yillarda Nyu -Orlean

19-asrning birinchi yarmida Nyu-Orlean AQShning eng boy va uchinchi yirik shahariga aylandi. Uning porti mamlakat ichki qismining ko'p qismini Karib dengizi, Janubiy Amerika va Evropaga jo'natdi. Minglab qullar uning bozorlarida sotilgan, lekin uning ozod qora tanli jamoasi gullab -yashnagan. 1830 yilgacha uning aksariyat aholisi frantsuz tilida gaplashishgan.

Fuqarolar urushi boshlanganda, Nyu -Orlean Konfederatsiyaning eng yirik shahri edi, lekin Ittifoq qo'shinlari o'zining mudofaa mudofaasini qo'lga kiritib, shaharni qarovsiz olib ketishganiga atigi bir yil bo'ldi. Qayta qurish davrida poyga kuchli siyosiy kuchga aylandi, chunki ozod qilingan qullar va erkin rangdagi odamlar siyosiy jarayonga jalb qilindi va 1870 -yillarda Oq Liga va Ku -Kluks -Klanning ko'tarilishi bilan undan chiqib ketishdi. Temir yo'llarning yuksalishi Missisipiga yuk tashishni avvalgidan ko'ra muhimroq qilgan bo'lsa -da, Nyu -Orlean kuchli va ta'sirli port bo'lib qoldi.

20 -asrda Yangi Orlean

1900 yilga kelib, shahar tramvaylari elektrlashtirildi va Nyu -Orleandagi jazz uning klublari va raqs zallarida tug'ilgan. Shahar o'sdi. Yangi nasos texnologiyasi shaharning daryo bo'yidagi yarim oy va Pontchartren ko'li o'rtasida joylashgan pasttekis botqoqliklarning drenajlanishiga olib keldi. Yangi drenaj kanallari va drenaj kanallari ko'plab aholining dengiz sathidan pastda yashashini anglatardi. 1909, 1915, 1947 va 1965 yildagi bo'ronlar shaharni vayron qildi, lekin hech qachon katastrofik tarzda.

Ikkinchi Jahon Urushidan so'ng, shahar atrofi va maktab integratsiyasi bilan bog'liq mojarolar ko'plab oq tanli aholini shahar tashqarisiga chiqarib yubordi, yadro esa afro-amerikalik bo'lib, qashshoqlashdi. Bu ijtimoiy o'zgarishlarga qaramay, shahar sayyohlik markaziga aylandi, har yili yuz minglab mehmonlar Mardi Gras bayramiga va dramaturg Tennessi Uilyams, trubachi Lui Armstrong va oshpaz Jan Galatoirni ilhomlantirgan madaniyatga jalb qilindi.

Yangi Orlean va Katrina bo'roni















2005 yil 29 -avgustda "Katrina" bo'roni tasodifan evakuatsiya qilingan Yangi Orleanni urdi. 5 -toifali bo'ronli shamollar tomlarni yirtib yubordi va bo'ronni olib keldi, u to'rt tekislikdan o'tib, shaharning 80 foizini suv bosdi. Yuzlab odamlar suv toshqini qurbonlari bo'lishdi va minglab odamlar shtat va federal qutqaruvchilar ularga etib kelishidan oldin og'ir sharoitlarda bir necha kun qamoqda qolishdi.

Suv chekindi, lekin bir yil o'tgach, shahar aholisining faqat yarmi qaytib keldi. Besh yil ichida 80 foizi qaytib keldi, lekin Nyu -Orlean, har xil, o'ziga xos va tarixiy bo'lsa ham, 1930 -yillardagi "g'amxo'rlik unutgan shahar" laqabini qaytarib olmadi.


San'at orqali aytilgan Luiziana tarixi

Zamonaviy rassom Kerri Mey Vemsda yangi ko'rgazma bo'lib, u Luiziana shtati tarixi va madaniyatiga tanqidiy nazar bilan qaraydi. U San -Frantsiskodagi Afrika diasporasi muzeyida namoyish etilmoqda.

Katrina bo'roni Nyu -Orleanning ko'p qismini vayron qilgan bo'lishi mumkin. Ammo vayronagarchilikdan oldin Kerri Mey Vems fotosuratlar, hikoyalar va multimediyalarda shahar tarixi va madaniyatini tasvirga olgan. Endi San -Frantsiskodagi Afrika diasporasi muzeyida uning asarlari ko'rgazmasi ochildi.

KARRI MA MA WEEMS xonim (rassom): (Videoklipda) men uni metaforaning ajoyib o'rnatilgan maskaradlarida ko'rdim ...

Kerri Mey Vemsning ishida oddiy narsa yo'q. San -Frantsiskodagi Afrika diasporasi muzeyidagi Luiziana loyihasida o'zining sayohat ko'rgazmasida Weems sizni oq -qora fotosuratlar, hikoyaviy matn va qiziqarli video bilan o'ziga jalb qiladi. Uems har birida irq, sinf va jinsning yashirin bo'lmagan ijtimoiy ziddiyatlarini yo'q qiladi.

Luiziananing murakkab jamiyatida ...

WEEMS xonim: (Videoklipda) men ko'k qonning ingichka ko'k tomirlarida tasodif o'yinini abadiy cheklab qo'yganini ko'rdim.

MULLANE: Dastlab Luiziana shtatining ikki yillik yubileyini nishonlash uchun Tulane universiteti tomonidan buyurtma qilingan ko'rgazma dunyoni, endi yo'q jamiyatni hujjatlashtirish xususiyatiga ega.

Muzeyning zinapoyalariga ko'tarilgan va ochilish kechasi uchinchi qavatdagi ko'rgazmaga birinchi bo'lib kirganlardan biri - Sandra Uilson. Ikki yil oldin, Katrina bo'roni yaqinlashganda, u oilasi bilan Nyu -Orleandan San -Frantsiskoga qochib ketdi. Uning so'zlariga ko'ra, bu ko'rgazma uning madaniyati va jamiyati haqida haqiqatni aytadi va uni olish qiyin bo'lishi mumkin.

SANDRA UILSON xonim (Nyu -Orleanning sobiq rezidenti): Bilasizmi, ular so'rg'ichni mushtladilar.

UILSON xonim: Xo'sh, u sizni olib keladi va bu juda nozik. Bu behayo, bu - juda jozibali.

MULLANE: Qorong'i yoritilgan galereya bo'ylab asta -sekin harakatlanayotgan Uilsonning aytishicha, ko'rgazmaning bir qismi ayniqsa provokatsion. Bu oq tanli va qora tanli ayol o'rtasidagi jinsiy aloqaning kuchli aloqasi tasvirlangan, soyali o'yin.

UILSON xonim: Men odamlar filmni tomosha qilayotganlarida, u filmning eng mazmunli qismiga etib kelganida, ular ketishganini payqadim. Xo'sh, bu hikoyaning bir qismi, bu tarixning bir qismi. Shuning uchun biz Luiziana shtatida yashaydigan, rang -barang odamlar, biznikiga o'xshab, bizning oilalarimiz qanday ko'rinishga ega. Va siz undan uzoqlasha olmaysiz.

MULLANE: Kerri Mey Vemsning aytishicha, ko'rgazma Nyu -Orleanning madaniy va ijtimoiy tuzilmalari - tarixiy va zamonaviy, boy va kambag'allar sonining ko'payishi, plantatsiya tizimi va ularda ishlaganlarni birlashtiradi. Weemsga ko'ra, Yangi Orlean jamiyatining eng hayratlanarli parallel haqiqatlaridan biri bu plyus (ph) edi.

Xonim WEEMS: Onalar qizlarini oq tanli erkaklar bilan tanishtirar, ularga g'amxo'rlik qila olardi. Ularga uylanmang, lekin ular biladiki, boshqalarga o'xshab ketadi.

MULLANE: Weems 19 -asrning boshlarida Yangi Orlean to'p madaniyatini hayratga soladi, u erda oq erkaklar ozod qilingan qora tanli ayollar bilan bog'langan. Galereyaning bir maydonida paydo bo'lgan qora va oq fotosuratlarda Weems kotilon kiygan odam sifatida kiyinadi - hayvonlarning niqoblarini kiyib, maskaradga tayyor.

Professor LUIS CHUDE-SOKEI (Adabiyot, Kaliforniya Santa-Kruz universiteti): Uning ishi juda ko'p darajalarda muvaffaqiyat qozonadi, lekin muvaffaqiyatga erishish yo'llaridan biri-bu sizni unga jalb qilishdir.

MULLAN: Louis Chude-Sokei, Santa-Kruzdagi Kaliforniya universitetining adabiyot professori. Uning so'zlariga ko'ra, Kerri Mey Vems bu ko'rgazmada qilayotgan ishi - so'ngan shon -sharafni nishonlash va hammamiz uchun ko'zgu tutish.

Prof. CHUDE -SOKEI: Uning qilayotgan ishi - bu qatlamlarning barcha qatlamlari - qora/oq, erkak/urg'ochi, tepa/past, kuchli/kuchsiz - hamma narsa kuch -qudratning teskari o'zgarishi bilan bog'liq. U irqiy savollarga qaraganda kengroq savollar beradi.

(Pianino chalishining ovozi)

MULLAN: Galereyaga qaytib, Katrinadan omon qolgan Sandra Uilsonning aytishicha, unga bitta fotosuratga qarash qiyin. Qora va oq ramkali katta bosmada, bir ayol derazaga qarab turibdi. Uilsonning aytishicha, bu uning oldingi uyiga o'xshaydi, lekin bu abadiy yo'q bo'lib ketgan.

UILSON xonim: Va u, bu ko'rgazmani yig'gani, bir vaqtning o'zida shahar va madaniyat vayron bo'lgani ajablanarli. Va shunchaki, u ketdi. Bu narsalar yozilgan, lekin bu kelajak emas. Bu nima edi.

MULLAN: Kerri Mey Vems ko'rgazmani "Katrina" bo'ronining ta'sirini qo'shish uchun o'zgartirmoqchi emasligini aytadi, lekin u tez orada Luizianaga tashrif buyuradi. Luiziana loyihasi Kerri Mey Vems oktyabr oyining boshiga qadar Afrika diasporasi muzeyida namoyish etiladi.

NPR News uchun men San -Frantsiskodagi Nensi Mullanaman.

GORDON: Bu bizning bugungi dasturimiz. Bizga qo'shilganingiz uchun tashakkur. Namoyishni tinglash uchun npr.org saytiga tashrif buyuring. YANGILIK VA QAYDLAR NPR News va Afrika-Amerika jamoat radiosi konsorsiumi tomonidan yaratilgan.

GORDON: Men Ed Gordonman. Bu YANGILIK VA QAYDLAR.

Mualliflik huquqi va nusxasi 2006 NPR. Barcha huquqlar himoyalangan. Qo'shimcha ma'lumot olish uchun www.npr.org veb -saytidan foydalanish shartlari va ruxsat sahifalariga tashrif buyuring.

NPR transkriptlari NPR pudratchisi Verb8tm, Inc tomonidan tezkor muddatda tuziladi va NPR bilan ishlab chiqilgan xususiy transkripsiya jarayoni yordamida ishlab chiqariladi. Bu matn oxirgi shaklda bo'lmasligi mumkin va kelajakda yangilanishi yoki qayta ko'rib chiqilishi mumkin. Aniqlik va mavjudlik farq qilishi mumkin. NPR & rsquos dasturlashining nufuzli rekordi - bu audio yozuv.


Ispaniyaning bosib olinishi - 1763 yil

1763 yilda Frantsiya, Ispaniya va Buyuk Britaniya 37 yillik qoidaga ega bo'lgan Parij shartnomasini imzoladilar. Bu Frantsiya va Hindiston urushiga nuqta qo'ydi va Nyu-Orleanni Ispaniya boshqaradigan forpost va Kuba, Gaiti va Meksika uchun savdo sherigiga aylantirdi. Bu davr shuningdek, Ispaniyaning irq haqidagi qarashlarini aks ettirdi, bu erkin rangli odamlar sinfini vujudga keltirdi. Biroq, oxir-oqibat, Frantsiya koloniya ustidan nazoratni AQShga sotishdan oldin qaytarib oldi, Luisiana Xaridini o'zgartirdi.


Yangi Orlean - Tarix, Luiziana shtatining sotib olinishi va Katrina bo'roni - TARIX

Dovullar haqida gap ketganda, hech bir shahar Nyu -Orlean shahridan boshqa ahvolda emas. Quyidagi xarita buni ko'rsatadi:

3-5-toifali bo'ronlar Nyu-Orleandan 100 mil uzoqlikda (1852-2005)

Shubhasiz, Nyu -Orleanga ta'sir ko'rsatgan oxirgi 3+ toifali bo'ron 2005 yilda AQSh tarixidagi eng qimmat tabiiy ofat bo'lgan Katrina bo'roni bo'lgan. Boshqa yaxshi suratga olingan bo'ronlar Betsi bo'roni (1965) va 1915 yildagi Nyu -Orlean dovuli bo'lgan. Bu haqda ko'pchilik bilmaydigan bo'ron 1812 yildagi Buyuk Luiziana bo'roni edi. Ammo, doktor Keri Mok, Janubiy Karolina universiteti geografi. , Dengiz rekordlarini bo'ronni qayta tiklash uchun ishlata oldi- uning intensivligini, shuningdek uning yo'lini aniqladi.

Aniq sabablarga ko'ra, bo'ronlarni kuzatish 1800 va#8217 -yillarda o'tgan 50 yilga qaraganda ancha qiyin bo'lgan. Hatto buni inobatga olgan holda, bo'ronni e'tibordan chetda qoldirgan ikkita qo'shimcha omil ham bor edi, ular ham voqea vaqtiga bog'liq edi. Birinchidan, bu Luiziana Xarididan bir necha yil olib tashlandi. Luiziana shtati hali ham, ayniqsa, matbuotdan ajratilgan edi. Bunga qo'shimcha ravishda, bo'ron 1812 yilgi urush paytida ham o'z ta'sirini ko'rsatdi. Qaysi kichik ma'lumotlar tezda unutildi.

Doktor Mok bo'ronni qanday qaytara oldi? U ikkita manbadan ma'lumot oldi: mahalliy gazetalar hisoblari va eng muhimi, dengiz yozuvlari. Dengiz yozuvlari doktor Mokga bo'ronning joylashuvi va kuchini 13 avgustgacha Puertoning janubida hali ham tropik to'lqin bo'lgan paytdan boshlab aniqlab berishga imkon bergan. Riko, 19 -avgust kuni tushadi. Ma'lumot kema jurnallaridan olingan, bu shamol tezligi, yo'nalishi va barometrik bosimi to'g'risida soatlab hisobotlarni, shuningdek, Meksika ko'rfazidagi yo'lni yaratish uchun kemalar, xususan, Rebekka shunosining noroziligini bildirgan.

1812 yilgi Buyuk Luiziana bo'roni

Xo'sh, bo'ron qanday ta'sir qildi? Doktor Mokning so'zlariga ko'ra, � yildagi bo'ron shaharga eng yaqin bo'lgan va g'arbdan o'tib ketgan. Bu Katrina kabi katta emas edi, lekin u erga etib kelganida kuchliroq edi, ehtimol shamollar bo'yicha uch yoki to'rtinchi toifadagi bo'ron. ” Bo'ronda, ayniqsa, muhim bo'lgan narsa uning bosib o'tgan yo'li edi. U sharqdan tushdi va WNW -ni ko'chirdi, ko'z Nyu -Orleandan 5 kilometr masofada joylashgan. Geografik sabablarga ko'ra, bu Nyu -Orleandagi bo'ronning eng yomon ssenariysi.

“Agar 1812 yil avgustda bo'lgani kabi bo'ron, agar u bugun sodir bo'lgan bo'lsa, Luiziana shtatining eng yomon dovullaridan biri bo'lardi, ” “Hurricane Betsey g'arbdan 100 mil uzoqlikda edi. Katrina sharqda edi. 1915 yildagi bo'ron janubdan keldi. 1812 yil avgustdagi bo'ronning tezligi va bo'ronini bilgan holda, biz bo'ronlar uchun eng yomon ssenariyga ega bo'lamiz. Agar shunday bo'ron bugun sodir bo'lgan bo'lsa va bu sodir bo'lishi mumkin bo'lsa, bu mutlaq vayronagarchilikni anglatadi. ”

Agar bu bo'ron hozirgi vaqtda sodir bo'lganida, zarar 1812 yildagidan ham dahshatli bo'lardi, chunki er juda sezgir. 1812 yilda dengiz sathi pastroq bo'lib, Yangi Orleanning balandligi balandroq bo'lishiga imkon berdi. Qolaversa, botqoq erlar ko'proq maydonni egallagan. Shu sabablarga ko'ra, 1812 yildagi bo'ron to'lqinlari bir necha futga kamaytirildi. ’ Hatto to'sqinlik qilayotgan bo'ronning ko'tarilishida ham, balandlik vayron bo'ldi, bu bo'ron shahar janubini suv bosishiga imkon berdi. Eng yuqori cho'qqisida, Yangi Orlean qismlari 15 fut suv ostida edi.


Presbiter: Luiziana Oliy sudining uyi, 1822-1853

Dastlab Casa Curial (Cherkov uyi) deb nomlangan Presbytère, qo'shni Sent -Luis soboriga xizmat qiladigan ruhoniylarning qarorgohi yoki qarorgohi sifatida yaratilgan. Chartres va Sankt -Enn ko'chalari burchagida, Chartres ko'chasining 751 -uyida joylashgan Presbiter, Sent -Luis soborining o'ng tomonida, Jekson maydonidan qaraydi. Per Antuan Alley Presbiterni Sent -Luis soboridan ajratib turadi. Kabildo, Sent -Luis sobori va Presbytere Jekson maydoniga qaragan nosimmetrik birlikni tashkil qiladi.

1788 yil 21 -mart, Yaxshi Juma, oldingi Presbytère tuzilmasi, shuningdek Sent -Luis sobori va Kabildo katta yong'inda yonib ketdi, bu shahardagi ko'p binolarni vayron qildi.

Ispaniyalik xayriyachi Don Andres Almonester y Roxas o'z mablag'lari hisobidan Presbiterni, shuningdek Sent -Luis sobori va Kabildoni qayta qurishni moliyalashtirdi. 1791 yilda Gilberto Gilemard Presbiterni Sent -Luis soborining narigi tomonidagi boshqa binosi - Kabildo yoki Belediyasiga mos keladigan qilib yaratdi. 1798 yil 20 -aprelda, Almonester to'satdan vafot etganida, faqat birinchi qavat qurib bitkazilgan edi. Qo'shma Shtatlar 1803 yilda Luizianani Frantsiyadan sotib olganida, Presbiter qurilishi tugallanmagan edi.

1805 yilda Sent -Luis soborining soqchilari Presbiterni egallab olishdi. Aytilishicha, ular 1813 yilda ikkinchi hikoyani qo'shib, Almonesterning dastlabki rejalariga muvofiq Presbiterni to'ldirishgan. 1847 yilda sarv daraxtidan qurilgan va shifer bilan qoplangan mansard tomi tuzilishi qo'shildi.

Nazoratchilar dastlab Presbiterni xususiy fuqarolar foydalanishi uchun ijaraga olgan. Keyinchalik Presbytère 1822 yildan 1853 yilgacha Luiziana Oliy sudi va boshqa sud idoralari joylashgan sud binosiga aylandi. 1853 yil 17 mayda Nyu -Orlean shahri nazoratchilaridan Presbiterni 55000 dollarga sotib oldi. Sotish chog'ida Presbiterni Oliy sud va tuman sudlari, shuningdek, bu sudlarning ofitserlari va kotiblari egallab olishgan. Sent -Luis sobori ruhoniylari mulkning orqa qismini egallab olishdi.

Luiziana Oliy sudi 1853 yilda Cabildoga ko'chib o'tdi, ammo Presbiter Nyu -Orlean shahri tomonidan 1911 yilgacha sud binosi sifatida foydalanishda davom etdi, shu paytgacha Presbiter Luiziana shtati muzeyiga kirdi. Bugungi kunda Presbytère -da Mardi Gras va Katrina bo'roni haqidagi ko'rgazmalar va boshqa maxsus eksponatlar mavjud.


Yangi Orlean - Tarix, Luiziana shtatining sotib olinishi va Katrina bo'roni - TARIX

Katrina bo'roni haqidagi afsonalar

    Yangi Orlean 2005 yil 29 -avgustda "Katrina" dovulidan omon qoldi - shundan keyingisi shaharni suv bosgani uchun ertasi kuni buzilib ketdi.

Yolg'on: 2005 yil 29 avgust kuni ertalab soat 10:00 dan oldin barcha chegaralar buzilgan!

Yolg'on: Nyu -Orleandagi Missisipi daryosining birorta balandligi buzilmagan, Leykfrontning ba'zi tekisliklari oshib ketgan, lekin hech kim buzilmagan.

Yolg'on: Yangi Orleanda muvaffaqiyatsizlikka uchragan barcha chiziqlar AQSh armiyasi muhandislar korpusi nazorati ostida qurilgan.

Yangi Orlean mintaqasining geologik tarixi

Yangi Orlean qurilgan er taxminan 5000 yil oldin boshlangan. Dengiz sathi oxirgi muzlik maksimalidan keyin ko'tarilgach, Missisipi qirg'og'idan tashqariga, hozirgi Pontchartren ko'lining janubi -sharqiy chekkasi bo'ylab bir qator to'siqli orollar qurildi (2 -rasm). Qarag'ay orollari deb nomlangan bu orollar asosan qumdan tashkil topgan bo'lib, ularning manbasi Missisipi va Luiziana chegarasi bo'ylab marvarid daryosi bo'lgan. O'sha paytda Missisipi daryosi o'z deltasini Nyu -Orlean janubi -sharqida, delta majmuasining Maringouin va Teche loblarini qurayotgan edi (3 -rasm). Taxminan 4300 yil oldin, Missisipi daryosi sharqqa qarab Sent -Bernard deltasini yaratishni boshladi. Bu lob oxir -oqibat Pine Island Barrier Island majmuasini kesib o'tdi, oxir -oqibat qumlarni ko'mdi, shimoldan drenajni kesib, Pontchartren ko'li hosil qildi va keyinchalik Yangi Orlean quriladigan erni qurdi.

Yangi Orlean insoniyat tarixi

Yangi Orlean 1718 yilda Jan Baptist La Moyne, Sieur de Bienvil tomonidan tashkil etilgan, bu erda birinchi aholi punkti Frantsiya kvartali joylashgan (dengiz sathidan 17 fut balandlikda). Shahar Missisipi daryosining tabiiy balandligi va Metairie va Gentilly tizmalarini (dengiz sathidan 3-4 fut balandlikda) o'z ichiga olgan baland er bo'ylab o'sdi. Daryo bo'yidagi burilish bo'yidagi yarim oy shakli tufayli u "Hilol shahar" laqabini oldi. Mintaqaning topografiyasi tufayli drenaj doimiy muammo bo'lib kelgan va Bayou Sent -Jon yarim oyning markaziy qismidan Pontchartren ko'ligacha tabiiy drenajni taklif qilgan bo'lsa -da, tez -tez uchraydigan kuchli yog'ingarchilikni to'kish etarli emas edi. Shunday qilib, janubdan shimolga ko'lga oqib o'tadigan uchta kanalga to'kilgan kanallardan iborat drenaj tizimi loyihalashtirildi va qurildi. Metairie/Gentilly tizmalarining baland balandligi bir -biriga aralashganligi sababli, chiqadigan kanallarga kirish uchun tizmalardagi suvni ko'tarish kerak edi.

Yangi Orlean va rsquo bo'ronlari tarixidagi muhim voqealar

1759 yildan beri Luiziana sohilida 176 ta bo'ron sodir bo'ldi

Chastotasi - har uch yilda ikki bo'ron

38 ta bo'ron Nyu -Orleanda katta suv toshqiniga olib keldi

Dovulni suv bosishi bilan bog‘liq muhim voqealar

1722 yilda birinchi bo'ron Nyu -Orleanni deyarli yo'q qildi

1778, 1779, 1790 va 1794 yillardagi boshqa bo'ronlar Missisipi daryosidagi binolarni va cho'kib ketgan kemalarni vayron qildi.

1812 yil 9 -avgust & Buyuk Luiziana bo'roni va rdquo shaharning shimolidagi Pontchartren ko'li bo'yidagi hududlarni suv bosdi. Yangi Orleanning aholi yashaydigan qismi Metairie/Gentilly Ridges tomonidan himoyalangan

1831 yil 16 avgust & ldquo Buyuk Barbados bo'roni - Missisipi daryosining balandligi frantsuz kvartalini sindirib tashladi.

Dovul bilan bog'liq bo'lmasa -da, 1849 yilda Missisipi daryosida, Suave plantatsiyasida, Livi buzilishi Meterie tizmasining janubidagi Nyu -Orleanga suv oqishiga olib keldi va jiddiy toshqinni keltirib chiqardi.

1860 yil - Yangi Orlean hududida uchta bo'ron sodir bo'ldi. 2 -oktabr kuni ko'lda bo'ron kuchayib, ko'l bo'yidagi qishloqlarni vayron qildi va Frantsiya kvartalining shimolida suv toshqini yuz berdi. Shunga qaramay, mintaqaning aholi yashaydigan qismi Metairie/Gentilly Ridges tomonidan Pontchartren ko'li bo'ronidan biroz himoyalangan.

1871 yil - 3 ta bo'ron Leykda bo'ronni keltirib chiqardi, bu esa Nyu -Orleandagi mahalliy suv toshqinlarini keltirib chiqardi. Shahar tadqiqotchisi V. X. Bell bo'ronlar haqida drenaj kanallari ko'tarilishi haqida ogohlantiradi - nasoslarni ko'l bo'yiga ko'chirishni taklif qiladi.

1915 yil bo'ron drenaj kanallari orqali shaharni suv bosdi. 275 kishi vafot etdi

1947 yil 19 -sentabr Dovul Sanoat kanali va drenaj kanallari bo'ylab shaharning bir qismini suv bosdi. 51 o'lim

1965 yil 9 sentyabr, "Betsi" bo'roni sanoat kanalining har ikki tomonini suv bosdi. Bo'rn ko'li yaqinida Missisipi daryosi-Gulf Outlet (MR-GO) orqali kirib keldi. Ko'p o'tmay Kongress tomonidan tasdiqlangan bo'ronlardan himoya qilish tizimi.

1969 yil 17 -avgust, Nyu -Orlean shtatining Missisipi sohiliga "Kamil" (5 -kat.) Bo'roni suv toshqinidan qutulib qoldi.

1998 yil 26-28 sentyabrda "Jorj" bo'roni Nyu -Orleanga yaqinlashdi - shaharni birinchi marta evakuatsiya qilish talab qilindi.

2004 yil 14-15 sentyabr, Ivan bo'roni Nyu -Orleanga yaqinlashdi, ikkinchi evakuatsiya - birinchi marta Kontraflou uchun.

2005 yil 29 -avgust - "Katrina" bo'roni Yangi Orlean sharqiga o'tadi (8 -rasmga qarang).

Missisipi ko'rfazi sohilida 28 metr balandlikdagi bo'ronni yaratdi

Borgne ko'lida balandligi 18 metr bo'lgan bo'ron St -Bernard cherkovining deyarli barcha aholisini suv bosdi.

MR-GO, Intracoastal suv yo'li va Pontchartren ko'li orqali sanoat kanaliga 15 metrlik bo'ron suv toshqini ustidan chiqib ketadi va sanoat kanalining ikkala tomonidagi suv toshqini balandligini buzadi.

Pontchartren ko'lida 11 metrli bo'ronli to'lqin 17 -chi Sankt va London prospektidagi drenaj kanallariga kiradi. Kanal suv toshqini oshmaydi, lekin suv toshqini/balandligi London prospektidagi ikkita joyda va 17 -chi Sankt -Kanalda bitta joyda muvaffaqiyatsizlikka uchraydi.

Barcha buzilishlar odamlar tomonidan ishlab chiqarilgan navigatsiya yoki drenaj kanallarida sodir bo'lgan va ularning hammasi AQSh armiyasi muhandislar korpusi tomonidan qurilgan, ba'zilari 1990-yillarning o'rtalarida qurilgan.

2008 yil 1 sentyabr, Gustav bo'roni - Nyu -Orlean evakuatsiya qilindi. Yangi Orleanni suv bosmadi, lekin suv toshqini tepasiga yaqin xavfli bo'lgan sanoat kanalini to'ldirdi.

2012 yil 29 -avgust "Isaak" dovuli - 1 -toifadagi sekin harakatlanayotgan bo'ron Nyu -Orleanda elektr uzilishlari va shamolning shikastlanishiga olib keldi. Bo'ronlardan himoya qilishning yangi tizimi buni amalga oshirdi, lekin sharoit jiddiy sinovdan o'tish uchun etarli emas edi. Dovuldan himoya qilish tizimidan tashqaridagi hududlarni kuchli suv toshqini kuzatdi. Ayniqsa, Plaquemin parishining sharqiy qirg'og'ida joylashgan Braytveyt jamoasida bo'ron to'lqinlari federal bo'lmagan balandlikdan oshib ketdi va Missisipi daryosi bo'g'ozi o'rtasida qoldi. Pontchartren ko'lining janubi -g'arbiy chekkasidagi LaPlas va Pontchartren ko'lining shimoliy qirg'og'idagi Madisonvil, Mandevil va Slidell ko'ldan bo'ron tufayli suv bosdi.

Dovulni himoya qilish tizimi
(Katrinadan oldingi)

  • 1965 yilda "Betsi" bo'roni Yangi Orlean sharqida, Yuqori to'qqizinchi bo'limda, To'qqizinchi bo'limda va Gentilliyda suv ostida qoldi.

Armiya muhandislar korpusi tomonidan ikkita reja taklif qilingan:

To'siq rejasi

    1970 -yillarda Korpus Born ko'li va Meksika ko'rfazidan bo'ron bo'ronining ko'lga kirishini oldini olish uchun Pontchartren ko'liga 2 kirish joyi bo'ylab to'siqlar va yopiladigan navigatsiya eshiklarini qurishni taklif qildi.

Yuqori darajali reja

    1980 -yillarda korpus Pontchartren ko'li va Borgne ko'li bo'ronining shaharga kirishiga yo'l qo'ymaslik uchun balandliklar va suv toshqini devorlarini qurishni taklif qildi.

    Kanalizatsiya va suv ta'minoti boshqarmasi va Orlean Livi kengashi kanallarning oxiriga eshik qo'yishga e'tiroz bildirishdi, chunki korpus eshiklar yopilganda shahar tashqarisidan yomg'ir suvini ko'lga quyadigan nasos stantsiyalarini qo'shishni o'ylamadi. bo'ron

    I-devorlar Nyu-Orlean suv toshqinlaridan himoya qilish tizimida eng ko'p ishlatiladigan suv toshqini turi edi.

    I-devor tipidagi suv toshqini muvaffaqiyatsizligi Katrina bo'roni paytida eng ko'p uchraydigan muammo edi va bu muvaffaqiyatsizliklar shaharning asosiy havzasida kuchli suv toshqini bilan yakunlandi.

    E-99 tadqiqotining natijalari noto'g'ri talqin qilingan va korpus qoziqning qisqarish chuqurligidan foydalanish mumkinligini aniqlagan, natijada kanallar suv toshqini qurilishi taxminan 100 million dollarga tushadi.

Katrina - Idoralararo ishlashni baholash bo'yicha ishchi guruhi (IPET) paytida nima xato bo'lganini tekshirish uchun tayinlangan komissiya o'z yakuniy hisobotida shunday xulosaga keldi:

& ldquoTizim tizim sifatida ishlamadi: Yangi Orlean va Luiziana janubi -sharqidagi bo'ronlardan himoyalanish faqat nomdagi tizim edi. Tizimning to'liq bo'lmasligi, himoya darajasining nomuvofiqligi va ortiqcha ishning yo'qligi tizimning ishlashiga putur etkazdi. Tizimning to'liq bo'lmagan bo'limlari, himoya nuqtalari past bo'lgan yoki himoya turlari va darajalari o'rtasida o'tish joylari bo'lgan zaif nuqtalarga olib keldi. & Rdquo

Nega Nyu -Orlean bo'ronlardan himoyasiz

Tabiiy sabablar

Manzil Meksika ko'rfazi yaqinida

Past balandlik (dengiz sathiga yaqin)

Cho'kish - daryo cho'kindi qatlamlarining siqilishidan kelib chiqadi

Faol bo'lmagan delta lobining eroziyasi

Global isish tufayli dengiz sathining ko'tarilishi

Inson bilan bog'liq sabablar

Daryo bo'yidagi toshqinlar suv toshqinining oldini oladi, lekin odatda tabiiy siqilish o'rnini bosadigan cho'kindi qatlamidan mahrum qiladi.

Sohil eroziyasi odamlarning tizimga o'zgarishi bilan tezlashdi. Luiziananing qirg'oq chizig'i yiliga 25 kvadrat kilometrni tashkil etadigan ajoyib tezlikda yemirilmoqda. (Har 45 daqiqada 1 ta maydon). Sohil eroziyasi sabablari yuqorida sanab o'tilgan tabiiy jarayonlarni, shuningdek quyidagilarni o'z ichiga oladi.

    Navigatsiya va qidiruv kanallari. Katrina paytida suv toshqini va suv o'tkazgichlarining barcha buzilishlari odamlarning qo'lidan kelgan va drenaj kanallarida sodir bo'lgan, ular shaharning markaziga suv olib keladi (8 -rasmga qarang).

Kelgusi bir necha hafta mobaynida biz Katrina paytida yuzaga kelgan muammolarni va xavf va zaiflikni kamaytirish uchun nima qilinayotganini o'rganamiz.

"Katrina" bo'roniga yaqinlashadigan muhim voqealar vaqti*

Sent -Bernard Delta Lobning cho'kishi va Metairie/Gentilly/Esplanade tarqatish kanallarining shakllanishi.

*ILIT (2006), Braun & amp Varabedian (2005) va Shleifshteyn (2005 yil 1 -noyabr) asosida.


Yangi Orlean - Tarix, Luiziana shtatining sotib olinishi va Katrina bo'roni - TARIX

O'simlik dafn marosimi 1860 yil Jon Antrobusning tuvaldagi yog'i Tarixiy Yangi Orlean to'plami, 1960.46

Bu ko'rgazma maydoni vaqtincha yopiq.

Tomonidan tasvirlangan Luiziana tarix galereyalari Frommerning Yangi Orlean "Shaharga tashrif buyuruvchilar tashrif buyuradigan eng yaxshi tanishuv" sifatida, 1792 yilgi Merieult uyining ikkinchi qavatida, 533 Royal ko'chasida joylashgan va o'n uchta galereyani o'z ichiga oladi. Ushbu doimiy ko'rgazma Katrina bo'roni orqali kolonial mustamlaka tarixidan kelib chiqqan san'at va artefaktlardan foydalangan holda shtat tarixi haqida hikoya qiladi. Galereyalar xronologik tartibda tuzilgan va AQSh agenti tomonidan Tomas Jeffersonga yuborilgan, Frantsiyadan Luizianani sotib olish bo'yicha muzokaralar haqidagi kodli xat kabi noyob va noyob buyumlarni namoyish etadi. Rasmlar, bosma nashrlar va fotosuratlar mashhur odamlar, voqealar va Nyu -Orleanning rang -barang o'tmishidagi sahnalarni aks ettiradi.

Bundan tashqari, galereyalarda tegishli audiovizual kontentni ta'minlaydigan iPad kiosklari mavjud. Masalan, 1700 -yillarning oxirlarini o'z ichiga olgan galereyadagi kiosk, tashrif buyuruvchilarga Ursulin rohibalari tomonidan ishlatilgan, 1736 yilgi qo'lyozma qo'shiqlari musiqasining audiokliplarini taklif qiladi, bu kolonial Luiziana shtatidan saqlanib qolgan yagona musiqiy qo'lyozma. Mardi Gras yodgorliklari ko'rgazmasida joylashgan kiosk, to'pga takliflar, tojlar va "qirollik" tayoqchalari haqida batafsil ma'lumot beradi. Boshqa kiosk 1920-yillarda Nyu-Orlean markaziy biznes tumanining 360 graduslik havodan ko'rinishini taqdim etadi.


Luizianani sotib olish - 1803 yil

AQSh bayrog'i 1803 yilda.

"Kun kelib, Luiziana shtatining AQShga o'tishi amerikaliklarni Evropa qit'asi uchun juda qudratli qiladi. Luiziyaliklarga shuni bildiringki, biz o'zimiz ulardan afsus bilan ajralib turamiz, chunki biz xohlagan hamma narsani ularning foydasiga belgilaymiz va bundan keyin mustaqillikdan xursand bo'lib, ular frantsuz bo'lganlarini va Frantsiya ularni berib yuborganini eslasin. ular uchun Evropa kuchidan olishlari mumkin bo'lmagan afzalliklarni ta'minladi, lekin bu otalik huquqi edi. Ular biz uchun mehr -muhabbat tuyg'ularini saqlab qolsin va ularning kelib chiqishi, kelib chiqishi, tili va urf -odatlari do'stlikni abadiy qilsin. " - Napoleon I, 1803 yil

Luiziana sotib olish xaritasi. (Luiziana shtati Bicentennial risolasi madaniyat, dam olish va turizm bo'limining ruxsati bilan ishlatilgan.) Imperator Napoleon, Tuileriesda o'qish paytida, Jak-Lui Devid, 1812 yil

Missisipi daryosining og'zini Fransiya Napoleon nazoratidan qo'rqib, Qo'shma Shtatlarning qishloq xo'jalik xususiyatlarini saqlab qolish va kengaytirish istagida, prezident Tomas Jefferson 1803 yil boshida Nyu -Orleanni sotib olish uchun muzokara olib borish uchun Jeyms Monro va Robert Livinqstonni Frantsiyaga yubordi. va Missisipi daryosidan sharqqa iloji boricha ko'proq er. 1803 yil 29 aprelda Napoleon kutilmaganda butun Luiziana hududini atigi 15 million dollarga sotishga rozi bo'ldi, bu esa AQShdan ikki baravar ko'p. AQSh Senati 1803 yil 20 -oktabrda sotib olishni ma'qulladi. Prezident Jefferson bu hududni egallab olish uchun Uilyam C. Klibor va general Jeyms Uilkersonga ko'rsatma berdi.

O'tish 1803 yil 20 -dekabrda amalga oshirildi. Luiziana shtati o'zining tabiiy boyliklari, yog'och, keng qishloq xo'jaligi va chorvachilik erlari va unumdor tuproqlari tufayli dunyoning eng boy mintaqalaridan biri bo'ldi.

General Xoratio Geyts 1803 yil 18 -iyulda prezident Jeffersonga shunday dedi: "Er quvonsin, chunki siz Luizianani qo'shiqqa sotib oldingiz".

Ko'pgina tarixchilarning fikricha, Mustaqillik deklaratsiyasidan boshqa hech bir hujjat Amerika jamiyatiga Luiziana Xarididan katta ta'sir ko'rsatmagan.

Biroq, ba'zilar zudlik bilan davlat bo'lishni xohlashganda, prezident Jefferson Kongressga Luiziana aholisi "bolalar kabi o'zini o'zi boshqarish qobiliyatiga ega emasligini" ma'lum qildi. Jeffersonning bayonoti, ehtimol, Orlean o'lkasining yangi gubernatori Uilyam Klerborndan kelgan maktubga asoslangan bo'lishi mumkin - "Agar men ta'lim butunlay aholining homiyligiga topshirilsa, ular e'tibordan chetda qolaveradi deb qo'rqaman". not sufficiently informed to appreciate its value.” A majority of Congress declared that a people who had long been accustomed to the rule of Spain must serve an apprenticeship before they could be regarded as ready to adopt the government of the United States. The Territory of Orleans and the German Coast remained a territory for nine years after the purchase. Residents of the German Coast would play a major role in Louisiana’s quest for statehood.

For as far back as these early residents could remember, they and their ancestors had been ruled by kings, princes and warlords… From the beginnings of their history, the residents…were subjects, not citizens. And subjects, as we know, do not make the laws under which they live subjects follow them. Subjects do not choose their rulers subjects obey them. Before 1807, the King’s word was law and those men that the King appointed, enforced his law. The people were told that the King ruled over them because it was the Will of God … The King and the Catholic Church appointed all local officials in Louisiana … But in March 1807, a radically different system of government was about to take shape and dramatically change the lives of everyone living here.
Extracted from “Letter from Norman Marmillion”, News Examiner, April 5, 2007

President Thomas Jefferson signed what is now referred to as the Jefferson Document appointing four men to the legislative council. One of the four was Jean-Nöel Destrehan of the German Coast. These men were carefully selected and charged with the task of planning the new provisional government. The original Jefferson Document can be viewed at Destrehan Plantation on River Road.

President Thomas Jefferson signed what is now referred to as the Jefferson Document appointing four men to the legislative council. One of the four was Jean-Nöel Destrehan of the German Coast. These men were carefully selected and charged with the task of planning the new provisional government. The original Jefferson Document can be viewed at Destrehan Plantation on River Road.

This text is copyright © material by Marilyn Richoux, Joan Becnel and Suzanne Friloux, from St. Charles Parish , Louisiana: A Pictorial History, 2010.


Yangi Orlean

From its founding in 1718 through its development over the centuries and the disaster of Hurricane Katrina, New Orleans is an American city with a rich history.

1682
The French lay claim to the land at the mouth of the Mississippi River and the upriver Louisiana territory.

Mardi Gras Day, 1699
French Canadian Pierre D’Iberville establishes a camp called Point du Mardi Gras (Mardi Gras Point) 60 miles below the present-day New Orleans.

1718
The city of New Orleans is founded by the French as La Nouvelle-Orléans. It is named for Philip II, Duke of Orléans, the king of France at the time.

1722
New Orleans becomes the capital of French Louisiana, replacing Biloxi.

1724
Jews are officially forbidden to enter New Orleans. Despite this, many Jews are able to enter by not admitting to being Jewish.

1762
France cedes New Orleans to Spain under the Treaty of Fontainebleau.

1788
The Great Fire destroys many of the French-built structures in the original French Quarter of the city.

1795
A second fire destroys much of the remaining French architecture. The Spanish rebuild using Spanish colonial architecture.

1795
The United States is granted “Right of Deposit” in New Orleans, allowing them to use the city’s port facilities.

1801
Louisiana reverts back to French control after Napoleon regains the territory under a treaty agreement with Spain.

1803
Napoleon sells the Louisiana territory to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase.

1812
The War of 1812 brings British forces who try to conquer New Orleans.

Jan. 8, 1815
The British are defeated by Andrew Jackson and his army in the Battle of New Orleans.

1830s
The population of New Orleans doubles.

1840
The population is approximately 102,000, making it the fourth largest city in the United States at the time.

1849
Loses its status as the capital of Louisiana to

1853
During the Great Scourge of 1853, almost 10,000 New Orleans citizens die from yellow fever.

1865
Once again becomes the capital of Louisiana.

1872
The official Mardi Gras colors – purple, green, and gold – are chosen by the King of Carnival, Rex. Purple stands for justice, green for faith, and gold for power.

1880
Loses its status as the capital of Louisiana to

1884
New Orleans hosts the 1884 World’s Fair, The World Cotton Centennial.

1910 -yillar
A. Baldwin Wood, an engineer and investory, oversees his plan to drain the city and install large pumps to drain rainwater from the canals into Lake Pontchartrain. The drainage allows the city to expand.

1920 -yillar
The old cast-iron balconies are removed from Canal Street in an attempt to modernize the city.

1960 -yillar
The Canal Streetcar Line is replaced with buses.

1984
New Orleans hosts its second World’s Fair, the Louisiana World Exposition.

1987
Pope John Paul II addresses 80,000 children at the Superdome.

1990 -yillar
Streetcars are restored to a section of Canal Street.

Dec. 14, 1996
The Bright Field freightliner/bulk cargo vessel crashes into the Riverwalk mall and hotel complex on Poydras Street Wharf, injuring 116 people, and destroying 15 shops and 456 hotel rooms.

Jan. 6, 1997
The freightliner is finally removed from the crash site.

Sept. 1998
The threat of Hurricane Georges causes the evacuation of about 500,000 Louisiana residents and the mayor of New Orleans declares a state of emergency. 160,000 residents lose power and many homes outside of the levee system were flooded.

April 2004
Construction to restore the entire Canal Street streetcar line is completed.

Aug. 24, 2005
A tropical storm that will soon become Hurricane Katrina is first spotted in the Carribean.

Aug. 26, 2005
The National Weather Service announces that Hurricane Katrina has changed course and could hit New Orleans.

Aug. 27, 2005
Mayor Ray Nagin calls for a voluntary evacuation of New Orleans. All outbound arteries of the city are clogged for 48 hours.

Aug. 28, 2005
Hurricane Katrina reaches a Category 5 intensity with 175 mph winds. 26,000 people evacuate to the New Orleans Superdome. The director of the National Hurricane Center alerts the Times-Picayune of a “worse-case scenario.”

Aug. 29, 2005 – 6:00 a.m.
Hurricane Katrina makes landfall on the Gulf Coast, with the eye hitting just east of New Orleans. At 7am, water is reported coming

Aug. 29, 2005 – 7:00 a.m.
Water begins flooding over the levee in the 9th Ward.

Aug. 29, 2005 – 8:45 a.m.
Up to eight foot high flood waters are reported in the 9th Ward.

Aug. 29, 2005 – 9:00 a.m.
A hole is ripped in the roof of the Superdome. The eye of the storm moves to the east of New Orleans, blowing out windows in high rises.

Aug. 29, 2005 – 11:00 a.m.
There is a breach in the Industrial Canal levee, causing Lake Pontchartrain to flood into Eastern New Orleans, the Lower 9th Ward, and St. Bernard Parish.

Aug. 29, 2005 – 2:00 p.m.
A breach in the 17th Street Canal causes flooding of Gentilly, Broodmoor, Mid-City, and Lakeview. Meanwhile, waters have risen as high as 12 feet in some areas of the 9th Ward.

Aug. 30, 2005
Waters continue to rise as Martial Law is declared in Jefferson, Orleans, and Plaquemines Parishes. Looting and chaos occurs as the whole world watches the disaster unfold on tv.

Aug. 31, 2005
Some areas of the city are under 20 feet of water as the “bowl” of New Orleans is now even with Lake Ponchartrain. Thousands of people are stranded in the Superdome and reports of chaos and violence are reported in the media. People throughout the city are stranded on their roofs or trapped in their homes with no food, water, or power.

Sept. 1, 2005
With many people, including Mayor Ray Nagin, asking why more help has not come from the federal government, President George W. Bush appears on Good Morning America and says: “I fully understand people wanting things to have happened yesterday. I understand the anxiety of people on the ground … So there is frustration. But I want people to know there’s a lot of help coming.” He asks for a $10.5 billion storm relief package.

Sept. 3, 2005
FEMA says they are overwhelmed by the emergency. Chaos and violence still run rampant in the city. The last of the people stuck in the Superdome and Convention Center are evacuated.

Sept. 5, 2005
16,000 National Guard troops work on search and rescue. It is feared that as many as 10,000 may have lost their lives, though nobody knows the actual number yet.

Sept. 8, 2005
A city-wide order by New Orleans Police Superintendent Eddie Compass to confiscate all civilian firearms is issued to local police, National Guard soldiers, and Deputy U.S. Marshals. Compass states: “No one will be able to be armed. Guns will be taken. Only law enforcement will be allowed to have guns.” Gun confiscations are subsequently carried out without warrant and with excessive force in many cases. Given that there is widespread crime and looting occurring in the city, many people are outraged that law enforcement is taking away the peoples’ ability to defend themselves and their homes.

Sept. 23, 2005
The U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana issues a restraining order barring further firearms confiscations.

Sept. 24, 2005
Hurricane Rita makes landfall in Texas. The eastern bands of the storm cause flooding in already-devastated New Orleans.

Oct. 5, 2005
Mayor Ray Nagin holds a press conference to announce that, due to the financial crisis caused by Katrina, 3,000 city employees will lose their jobs.

Late 2005
Ellen Degeneres, a New Orleans native, makes it one of her missions to raise money for Hurricane Katrina relief. The Ellen Degeneres Show raises almost 10 million dollars for The Ellen Degeneres Show Hurricane Katrina Relief Fund in the months following the disaster.

January 2006
Only about 200,000 people are living in New Orleans, not even half of the pre-Katrina population.

Jan. 16, 2006
Mayor Ray Nagin gives a speech on Martin Luther King, Jr Day about the aftermath of Katrina and says, “Surely God is mad at America. He sent us hurricane after hurricane after hurricane, and it’s destroyed and put stress on this country. Surely he doesn’t approve of us being in Iraq under false pretenses. But surely he is upset at black America also. We’re not taking care of ourselves.”

July 1, 2006
The population is about 219,563. It is harder or more expensive in post-Katrina New Orleans to get homeowners’ insurance because of the high risk of hurricanes in the area.

Dec. 2006
Brad Pitt and William McDonough found The Make it Right Foundation in order to rebuild 150 of the Lower 9th Ward in an environmentally friendly, safe, and affordable manner. The homes at first will only be available to residents from the Lower 9th ward who have been displaced by the flood.

Jan. 7, 2008
New Orleans hosts the 2008 BCS National Championship Game at the Superdome.

Feb. 17, 2008
New Orleans hosts the 2008 NBA All-Star Game at the New Orleans Arena.

Oct. 23, 2011
The Superdome is renamed the Mercedes-Benz Superdome

March 10, 2012
“A Night to Make It Right” is hosted at the Hyatt Regency New Orleans, hosted by Brad Pitt and Ellen Degeneres with performances by Kanye West, Sheryl Crow, Rihanna, Snoop Dogg, Seal, Dr. John, and others. $5 million was raised for the Make It Right Foundation at the event.

Nov. 9, 2012
The Make It Right Foundation announces that their homes will be for sale to first responders and teachers from outside of the Lower 9th Ward.

Feb. 3, 2013
New Orleans hosts Super Bowl XLVII between the Baltimore Ravens and the San Francisco 49ers at the Mercedes-Benz Superdome. During the game, a power failure occurs halting the game for 34 minutes.

A partial power failure halted game play for about 34 minutes in the third quarter between the Baltimore Ravens and the San Francisco 49ers. It caused CBS, who was broadcasting the game, to lose some of its cameras as well as voiceovers by the commentators. At no point did the game go off the air, though the game had no audio for about two minutes. While the lights were coming back on, CBS reporters deployed around the stadium reported on the outage as a breaking news situation until power was restored enough for play to continue.

April 2013
The Make It Right Foundation has 90 homes completed and is working on the 60 remaining homes.

Feb. 5, 2014
The New Orleans Arena is renamed the Smoothie King Center.

2014
The number of murders in the city fell to 150 for 2014, the lowest in four decades.


2 thoughts on &ldquoHurricane Katrina, New Orleans, and Haitian History&rdquo

Without specifying the dollar cost and sources, it is easy to say there are cultural and historic motivations to rebuild New Orleans at its original location. It was a charming city. The results of this storm make plain to more-objecive non-Louisiana taxpayers, many of whom have lived or visited there, that same-site rebuilding would be foolish in the extreme. The economic base of the city has eroded over the past 40 years or so. Those who left didn’t go to low-lying places. Who is to fund affordable housing for even half of the 500,000 people who lived there before Katrina? Where will the jobs come from for returned refugees, and when? How would rebuilding in this flood bowl be equitable to myriad other communities which have learned that you don’t rebuild in a flood plain? I can’t imagine being convinced that the city should be rebuilt where it was without a thorough feasibility study from the Dutch, who alone have calculated the risks and costs and been willing to spend the time and enormous sums and created the cutting-edge engineering to make living below sea level work. Fickle Congress and the Corps of Engineers need a reality check.

I’m surprised there hasn’t been more of an effort from the city of new Orleans and State of Louisiana to pressure teh State Department to increase Haitian migration to Louisiana in the wake of the two disasters. Thousands of Haitians still lack adequate housing and large areas of New Orleans are still depopulated. It would be great to hear colonial French spoken again in the Ninth Ward (and an easy way for Louisiania’s CODOFIL to fulfill its mission of promoting the French language in Louisiana!).

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Videoni tomosha qiling: Ураган Ида приближается к США и прошёлся по Кубе. (Dekabr 2021).